(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A theoretical and practical grammar of the Spanish language. 1st Lond. ed"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



xs=^==L-- -T-rrrrr^ 







0004201 51 



33. 






■ t" 






THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL 



GRAMMAR 



OF 



THE SPANISH LANGUAGE, 



ADAPTED TO ALL CLAB8E8 OF LBABNBB8 : 



IN THIRTY LECTURES, 



WITH EXERCISES AND KEY. 



FIRST LONDON EDITION. 



BY EMANUEL DEL MAR, 

AUTHOR OF A TBEATXSB ON ENGLISH PBONUNCIATION FOB THE USE OF 

SPANIABDS. 



UTINAM DBSIOBBIUM MULTTTUDZNIS IMPLBAM. 



LONDON: 

a. WACEY, SUCCESSOR TO T. AND T. BOOSEY, 
4, OLD BROAD STREET, ROYAL EXCHANGE, 

AND ACKERBIANN AND Ca 96, STRAND. 

1833. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE RECOMMENDATIONS 

TO THE NEW YORK EDITION OF 

DEL MAR'S SPANISH GRAMMAR, 



From the Ninth Number of the United States* Review and Literary Gazette, 

June 1827. 

** The Spauish Language b daily becoming a snl^ect of greater interest and importance 
in tliis country. The aathor of the worlc before as, has mth great labour, and we tbiuk 
with neat saccess* prepared one, designed to render the stady of Spanish more easy, es- 
pecially to those who are bat imperfectly acquainted with the general principles of Gram- 
mar. The arrangement of the worlc, though in some respects new, we think every 
teacher*8 experience will convince him is the best. The principles of the language arc 
stated in a series of rules, each accompanied with a simple praxis, calculated to fix the 
construction on the mind. Wherever there is danger of misapprehension or doubt, expla- 
nations are added, whose value those only can duly appreciate who have felt the difficulties 
which they are intended to obviate. We would recommend this Grammar as being con- 
structed on the true phm of teaching language— by induction, and fitted to convey a 
thorough knowledge of Spanish.** 

From the New York Mirror and Ladies' Literary Gazette, Vol, IV, No, 29, 

February 1827. 

"At a time when the importance of an acquaintance with the Spanish Language is so 
generally felt and acknowledged, the appearance of a volume rendering its acquisition 
easy and speedy to the learner, cannot be viewed without interest. Mr. Del Mar, has 
succeeded in preparing a Grammar of the Spanish Language for the instruction of pupils. 
In a manner equal to any of his numerous predecessors, and in some respects perhaps 
even superior. He has omitted much that was superfluous, and added many points of 
moment and importance to the student. In a notice so limited as this article must ne- 
cessarily be, it is impossible to enter into a minute examiuHtion of au elementary work ; 
nor would it be at all useful or necessary. We may however mention the particular 
satis&ction we derived from observing the uniform simplicity and clearness from all am- 
biguity with which Mr. Del Mar expresses himself, and the tiappy method he has on 
most occasions adopted, for illustraUrig his rnles His directions for pronouncing the 
Spanish are especially entitled to prai]w.7-By conndering the svntax of each part of 
speech, in connection with its etymology, he has much simplified this part of the subject, 
and rendered its acquisition much less laborious and embarrassing to the learner. His 
chiq>ters on the Pronouns and Verbs ^deserve especial attention — they are complete, and 
furnished with numerous and apposite examples. • In wishing Mr. Del Mar success iii 
bis undertaking, and a favourable reception to his useful book, we only anticipate the 
feelings of all those who may put themselves in the way of being benefited by his 
labours.** 

From the New Ymk Inquirer, ofFebruai'y 1827. 

*<The last Mirror contains a favourable notice of Mr. Del Mar's Spauish Grammar, 
recently published in this city. We are daily reminded of the increasing importance of 
the Spanish language, not only as au accomplishment in itself, and taking rank of all 
odier languages, but for its value and real utility in a commercial point of view } and we 
are happy to perceive that the study of this beautiful language is becoming a matter of 
general attention. — ^We r^ret that our limits will liot enable us to point out at length 
some of the leading features and advantages of this elementary work. In that part of 
speech, the Verb, which requires the utmost skill of an author to explain, particularly as 
its construction in the two languages differs so widely, he has paid more than ordinary 
attention. — The difference tiiat exists between the Verbs Set and Egtar, a point so diffi- 
cult to be explained, and so highly important to be familiar with, Mr. D. appears to 
. have been happy in his manner of treating, thereby bringing the student asfomiliar with 
their peculiar nature as possible. The nature and use of the terminations ra, se, and ria, 
of the conditional mode of Spanish Verlw, are here comprehensively explained. — He ap- 
pears to have bestowed the same attentioB to the government of the different parts of 
ipeeeta respeetivdy, and his elucidations thereon are satis&ctorY. W« tt.v^toN«\i»Q«\i«\ 
tne feeami ammgement of the work throughout. We Iraat \X ^VWYncf^ ^ ^^.'^vn^ ^"t* 
eolation.'* 



CONTENTS. 



Lcc. Par. Page 

I. 1. Grammar in general 1 

II. 1. Orthography 2 

m. , I. Prosody 3 

■Sound and Power of Spanish Letters 3 

A Table exhibiting the most difficult combinations of 

Vowels and Consonants in Spanish 7 

2. Double Letters 7 

.3. Diphthongs and Triphthongs 8 

4. OfSyllabUs 8 

5,TheAccent 9 

13. Punctiuition 10 

IV. 1. . "Etymology and Syntax generally considered II 

4. Definition of the Parts of Speech , II 

V. 1. Etymology and Syntax of Articles • 16 

3. Agreement of the Definite Article 17 

4. Employment of ditto 18 

5. When used in Spanish and not in English. 18 

. 10. When used in English and not in Spanish 20 

VI. 1. The Indefinite ArticU 23 

6. When used in English and not in Spanish 24 

VII. I. The Neuter Article 26 

VIII. I, Etymology and Syntax of Nouns 27 

3. Augmentative and Diminutive Nouns 28 

8. Number 29 

12. Gender 30 

Lists of Exceptions in the Gender of Nouns 31 

IX. 1. Case 36 

16. Observations on the Employment of the Preposition A' in 

the Accusative Case 42 

Declension of Nouns with the Article 44 



CONTBlfTS. 

L«c. FUr. Page 

X. 1. Comtruetion of Nount • • ••• •• 45 

XI. I • Etymology and Syntax of Adjectives ,,0 •• i6 

2. Agreement of the Adjective •.••••••••..••• •••• 46 

XII. \, Situation of the A^ective •••... ••• £2 

XIII. l.TheDegreetofCompariMonm,,0»»0 •••••••••••• 66 

XIV. I, Numerical A^jeetivee, .^^ 61 

14. Observations on Prepotitums employed viih Adjectives^ • 64 

XV. I, Etymology and Syntax of Pronouns ••• • 66 

2. Personal ProtumfU««*»««.. ••••• ••••• 65 

3. D6cZ«7uumo/ ditto. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 66 

12. Employment of ditto in the Nominative Case, ..••••••• 68 

18. Ditto Ditto Dative and AcctuOHve dim. 70 

23. Ditto Ditto Genithe and Ablative dMtt90m 72 

XVr. 1. Possessive Pronouns •••••••••••*«««^«*, ••• 74 

XVII. 1. Demonstrative ditto •% • •••••• 79 

9.- The Article used instead of the Demonttrative Pronoun* 81 

XVIII. 1. Relative Prommns ...*. 82 

XIX. L Interrogative ditto ••••••• ••• 85 

XX. I, Indeterminate ditto, •,,»,•», ..i. •• 86 

XXI. I, Etynwlogy and Syntax of Verbs Si 

li. Modes 94 

19i Tenses • 96 

21. Number and Person,*,.,^, •.•••••• 97 

XXII. 1. Use and Employment of the Tenses ••• 97 

9. Employmetit tf the Terminations R A, RIA, and SE of 

thelmperf^ 5u6/ttno(fve. ..•••**«•«•• 104 

11. Of the Participles ..«, » 107 

XXIII. 1* Conjugation of Verbs «.... Ill 

Cor^gationofHABERtTohave 112 

Ditto TENER,Tohave 113 

Ditto SER,Tobe .•• 115 

IHtto . ESTAR',Tobe, 116 

4. Observations on SER and ESTAR •••« 118 

XXIV. 1. Conjugation of Regular Verbs 120 

First Conjugation, HABLAR, To speak 120 

Second ditto TEMER,Tofear 122 

Third ditto SVFRIR, To suffer.. 123 

A Comparative View of the Terminations in Regular 
Verbs ** 125 

5. Corrugation of RiffUctive Verbs 127 

6. DHto Passive ditto...* • 129 

7. Observations on the PassiveVoi§e..*.4m4»* •••.. 131 



C0HTBVT8. Til 

Lee. Par, P*8* 

XXIY. 9. ObiervatioHsoniheAeeentuatumofVerbt 132 

XXV. 1. Irregular Verbs €f th$ Firtt Conjugation 133 

Ditto Seeonddxtto 135 

Ditto Third ditto 1^ 

4. Corrugation of ImpermmalVeHfe, 149 

7. Defective Verbe 161 

8. Of Verbs uted Negatively 152 

9. Ditto Interrogatively 152 

XXVI. I. Agroement of the Verb wHh its Nominative 153 

5. Government of Verbs .,•,. • 154 

9, Of Prepoeitions employed with Verbs 155 

10. Government of Verbs as relates to Modes and Tenses, . • • 156 
XXVn. 1. Etymology and Syntax of Adverbs •....« • 159 

4. Of Adverbs ending in MENTE 161 

10. Situation of the Adverb 163 

11. Observations on certain Adverbs ••• 163 

XXVIII. 1. Etymology and Syntax of Prepositions 165 

2* Employment of ditto • • 166 

18. Government of ditto ...•.•• 169 

27. Placeof ditto 171 

XXIX. 1. Etymology and Syntax of Coiyunetions 172 

14. Government of ditto •••••• 175 

XXX. 1. Interjections 176 

APPENDIX. 

An Alphabetical Litt of Verbs and other words that govern with Prepo- 
sitions •• • 181 

Idioms in Certain Verbs *••.. 206 

Titles used in Spanish 210 

lAtt of Abbreviationsm* » • 211 

A Key to the Exercises .•••••«•••• • •••..•••••• ••• 217 



PREFACE. 



Some apology may perhaps be deemed necessary for 
the introduction of a new Anglo-Spanish-Grammar, 
when there alrekdy exist so many guides to the study 
of the Spanish Tongue : but although some of them 
possess considerable merit* it seems to be a general 
complaint, that there is in all, a want of method, by 
which the general principles of Grammar^ and the 
peculiar genius of the Spanish Language, may be 
easily developed to the student. It was principally 
this consideration, that induced the author of the 
present work, to the compilation of his Anglo- 
Spanish-Grammar, published in New York in 1826-7. 
The favourable reception given to that work, both in 
Europe and America, demands his warmest ac- 
knowledgments ; and it has therefore been his study, 
in preparing to present to the Public, this new 
Edition, to render it still more worthy of approbation. 
The author flatters himself, that the method pursued 
in it» is so simple, as to enable the teacher to impart, 
and^the learner to acquire, a comprehensive knowledge 



X PREFACE. 

of Grammar in general, and of Spanish Grammar in 
particular, with more than ordinary facility. 

t 
I 

The principles of the Spanish Language, are here 
laid down, in a series of Lectures, each accompanied 
with examples, explanatory remarks, and exercises ; to 
which latter, a Key is added in the Appendix, for 
the convenience of those, who may not have access to 
a master. The whole arrangement of the work, has 
been entirely dictated to the author, by long experi- 
ence in teaching ; and it is intended both for beginners, 
and for those who, being partly acquainted with the 
Language, may be desirous of obtaining an intimate 
knowledge of its peculiar genius and mechanism. 

Having observed, that in all Anglo-Spanish-Gram- 
tnars hitherto published, the common principles of 
•Language, have not been minutely explained; and 
being convinced of the want of a treatise that should 
embody them, with as much regard to conciseness as 
the nature of the work would admit, the author has 
attempted to remedy this deficiency ; and it has been 
liis aim throughout, to exhibit simplicity, clearness, 
and fulness of expression.— The measure of success 
with which he has acquitted himself of the task, is left 
tp the judgment of Professors. 



PREFACE. Xr 

In treating of pronunciation, the author has en- 
deavoured, as far as perhaps can be accomplished by< 
written precept, to supersede the necessity of oral in- 
struction: he has therefore been very particular in 
describing minutely, the sounds and power of all the 
letters, both as they stand singly, and as they appear 
in their various combinations, in the formation of 
syllables. 

In the declension of Nouns and Pronouns, the 
agreement of the Adjective, the conjugations of the 
various kinds of Verbs, and the employment of the 
modes and tenses, it is hoped the student will find less' 
embarrassment, than in the generality of Spanish 
Grammars. 

To the elucidation of that important part of 
6rammar-~GASE — a subject universally neglected in: 
elementary treatises on the Spanish Language, the 
author has devoted, and he trusts, successfully, par- 
ticular attention. 

In this» as in the former edition of the author's^ 
Anglo-Spanish-Grammar, Etymology and Syntax are 
so blended, as that instead of being discussed as 
abstract branches, they will be found to render to each 
Other, important assistancct ' 



Xi: PBEFACE« 

For the sake of unifoimity, the system of the 
Spanish Royal Academy, has in many instances been 
adhered to ; and with the same view, several terms 
have been adopted, the analc^cal propriety of which 
might be questioned. In several instances, however, 
the author has deviated from the Grammar of the 
Spanish Academy, whenever he has considered that 
the pursuing a different course, would facilitate the 
apprehension of the subject discussed. 

> 

In conclusion, the author claims the attention of the 
public in general, ta the fact, that the acquisition of 
the Spanish language is becoming daily of greater 
importance : putting aside the consideratioa of its 
being an accompUshment, and its interest in a literary- 
point of view ; the course of events seems to prognOsti*. 
cate, that it will be, at no very distant period, dn 
absolutely essential branch of mercantile educatioii.*^ 
And, should this attempt be found more conducive to 
the speedy acquirement of the Spanish Language, than, 
works of this nature have generally been, the autiMNr 
will consider the time and labour which he has be* 
atowed on it, sufficiently rewarded^ 

LondoD, Oetober, 1833. 



THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL 



GRAMMAR 



OF 



THE SPANISH LANGUAGE, 



LECTURE I. 

OF GRAMMAR IN GENERAL. 

Paragraph 1. Gramqiar is that science which teaches the 
just manner of expressing our thoughts, either in speaking 
or in writing. — In speaking, by conTeying our ideas by arti- 
culate sounds : in writing, by rendering those ideas visible, 
through the means of signs or characters, called letters. 

Grammar is the only effectual means, by which we can 
acquire a perfect knowledge of language : nor can we attain 
a just idea of the proper use of words, without possessing a 
sound knowledge of grammar. By it, we guard against error 
and impropriety of expression, and are enabled to solve what- 
ever doubts may occur in speaking or writing. 

This definition explains the nature of grammar, as ap- 
plied to all languages. Particular grammar, teaches the 
principles peculiar to any particular language, as the Spanish 
language; to obtain a correct knowledge of which, it is 
necessary to conform to the rules and customs adopted by 
the best writers of Spain, and approved of by the Spanish 
Academy. 

2. Grammar is divided into four branches, namely, Ortho" 
graphy^ Prosody , Etymology (^or Analogy), and Syntax, 

Orthography treats on the nature of letters, and on their 
combination, in order to form syllables and words i^^Prosody, 



2 



ORTBOGBAFHT. 



[lecture II. 



teaches the true sound and just pronunciation of letters, 
syllables, and words, and points out where the emphasis or 
stress of voice should be laid : -^Etymology treats on the dis- 
tribution of the words of a langoag^e into their respective 
classes, pointing out their various modification and derivation : — 
And Syntax treats on the proper arrangement of words, in 
order to form correct sentences. 



LECTURE II. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

1 . Little can be said on this subject, as a branch of Spanish 
grammar. Orthography teaches what letters are to be em- 
ployed in forming words ; and when the learner becomes 
acquainted with the power of every letter in the Spanish 
Alphabet, which knowledge he may acquire in a few hours, 
he will not find much difficulty in spelling words with their 
proper letters. 

THE ALPHABET. 

In the comparative sounds exhibited in English, in the following Alpha- 
bet, the a, is to be sounded like a in ark ; the e, like e in ell, and the i, 
like i, in ill. The accent points out where the stress of the voic* is t# be 
laid. 





Prondanced as 




ProDonnced as 


A 


a. 




M 


eme. 


B 


. he. 




N 


ene. 


C 


the, in thrft. 




N 


enye. 

0, in oblige, 

pe. 


CH 
£ 


che, in chess, 
the, in then. 





P 


e. 




Q 


coOf in cool. 


F 


* ife. 




R 


erre. 


G* 


he, its sound is 


guttural. 


S 


esse. 


H 


dche. 




T 


te. 


I 


• 

t. 




U 


oOf in look. 


J* 


^(^to} its sound i 


IS guttural. 


V 


ve. 


K 


ka. 




X 


ikis. 


L 
LL 


He. 
Hye. 




Y 
Z 


i griega, 
thita. 



* The sound of the letters marked with an asterisk, can only be strictly 
conveyed by the voice. ^ »«H.uy 



LECTURB til.] PROSODY. 3 

2. The letters of ihe Alphabet are difided into vowels and 
consonant*: a, e, i, o, «, are to web, and the others are con- 
sonants. The letter^, is in general a vowel when it follows, 
and a consonant when it precedes a vowel. 

Every Spanish vowel has a pecnliar and fixed sound, which 
does not varj, as in the English and other languages, on 
account of its situation in a syllable. Every Spanish vowel 
should be pronounced full, and distinctly. 

Note, Authors of Spanish Grammars, in attempting to convey the sounds 
of Spamsh vowels by means of English characters, have not been generally 
happy in selecting proper examples for the purpose. For instance, some 
compare the sound of the Spanish e with that of the English a ; which 
latter, if closely investigated, will be found to have a double sound, very 
similar to that of the Spanish diphthong ei, which sounds like the English 
diphthong ei in vein. None of the Spanish vowels have a double sound, but 
all the English ones, except e, have, which circumstance renders them 
difficult in most instances, to be employed as comparative sounds of Spanish 
vowels. 

Others have ^vexLow, as an example for pronouncing the Spanish a ; — ee, 
for the Spanish i, and o for the o : all which are incorrect ; first, because 
th« sound of aio is not at all ec^uivalent to that of the Spanish a, which 
should be sounded, as before noticed, like a in ark, and not like aw in law : 
— secondly, that the sound of the En^^lish diphthouj^ ee, is prolonged con- 
siderably more than that of the Spanish i ;— and thirdly, that the English 
o, has a double sound, nearly resembling that of the Spanish diphthong ou. 
The object in quoting these examples, is not that of criticism, but to put the 
learner on his guard against imoibing a vicious pronunciation. Several 
other instances equally erroneous might be cited, and it is hoped that the 
liberal reader will view these remaru as emanating only from a desire of 
pointing out correctness, as such inaccuracies as those alreadjr mentioned, 
might lead a beginner into error, while he is aiming at instruction. 



LECTURE III. 
PROSODY. 



1 . Prosody is that part of grammar, that teaches the proper 
pronunciation of letters, syllables, and words, and points out 
the syllable on which the emphasis, or stress of voice, should 
be laid. 

ON THE SOUND AND POWER OF SPANISH LETTERS, AS 
ADOPTED BY THE BEST MODERN SPANISH WRITERS. 

A. This letter has already been said to sound like the 
English a in the word ark. It must be noticed that each 
of the Spanish vowels is pronounced sometimes long, 
and at others short. The vowel is long when the 
emphasis falls (m it ; and short, when otherwise. 



CB 

I 



B, In evcrv instance, sounds like the English B, 
that it ii softer : example, bdia, bebe, bivdr, bobo, buscA 
abslrner, obscrvdr, bianco. 

There ii a, liibit that prevails, even with ^ood Spanisli bptt. ^.. 

Qouncing the H and V alike j nhich arist^i trom liie very slight diSeienq 
thai is perceplibie between Iheir Bounds; and for the annie leason Ui 
are frequently conrounded in wcltiog. la ptouoaaciog Iboe letters, t, 
SpaniardieRipby the lips in the tame manner as the English, odI; ti 
ptessuie with the foimei ia somewhat lighter. 

C. Before e and i, is pronounced libe ih in t/ie/t, Minq 
Ex. cena, cifra ; and like k, when it precedes c 
a uonsonant ; Ex. cdma, cola, cubo, cldro, crittco, Ig 
has likewise the sound of k, when it comes after a ti 
in the snrae syllalile : Ex. ncceder, lecnico, nocturao. 

.This double consonant sounds libe ch in the Englh 
word cliess, as noticed in the alphabet : Ex. chaldi, licki, 
cliico, keclio, chufdr. It is only used at the heginnii^ 
of ajillables. Formerly, in certain words of Hebrew ai 
Greek origin, it had the sound of k, when the 
following it was naarked with tbe circumflex accean 
Ex. arcli&ngcl, clicrubin, c/iimica, chronica ; but this pi 
ttce is obsolete, and those words are now written arcd/\ 
qucrubin, qaimica, cronica. 

This letter is very differently pronounced in SjiaQlsh % 
what it is in English, and for want of a proper deitnitlfij 
of its sound, learners of the Spanish language seMia 
acquire a correct knowledge of it. The difference c 
sists in the distinct manner in which the t« 
employ the org'sn? of speech in pronouncing this letter: 
— for instance, it is uttered in English by striking the 
tongue against the upper gums; whereas the Spaniards 
in pronouncing the d, slightly touch the teeth with tbe 
tongue, as the Euftlish do in pronouncing the ih in the 
word ihey, although the lisp in Spanish is not quite so 
strong; E%. tddo, amddo i and this different manner ui 
which the two nations pronounce the d, is the more 
striking, when it is found between two vowels, as in the 
foregoing examples. At the end of a word, ueverthelessr 
it is almost mute, but preserves a little of the lisp : Ex. 
bonddd, amisidd. In the Imperative Mode however, it is 
sounded more distinctly : Ex. anddd, veniil. 
Tliis vowel, as before remarked, sounds like the English 
«, in the word ell : Ex. ripeler, reverende, leve. 
Preserves invariably tbe same sound which ic has in 
English: E\. Africa,fdma,fdTO,fTio. 




Before a, a, u, ur a coiisonuiit, satinds aa tlie ICriglish g 
befure the same lettern : }i,n, gala, gamu, gnsto, grant, 
glandula. U has also tbe same sound when it follows it 
vowel ; El. agiiddo, ignoblt, fragma. Before Me and id, 
the u not having the diaresii, it likewise preeerres the 
same sound, and the u is silent: EjL.guerra, guisdr, 
Butahcuid ttieti be marked with ^e diaresis, the u musb 
be sounded, and the g is still pronouDced the aame: 
Ex. agiiero, arguir. It has a fruttural sound before e 
' ' ', nearly resembling that of the English aspirated In 
*a. giro, genie. 
_ ■ It is silent when seen before n, in words derived from 
lithe Greek: Ex. gnomon , gnomoiiieo ; but such words 



1 
I 



U. la now r.onsidered a silent letter in Spanish*. 

I, Is invariably pronounced like the English i in (/{ : Ex. 
irrmbie, citindro, invadir. 

J, Has always a guttural sound, like that of the guttural g, 
before described: Es.Jav6n,Jeremias,p<!JUa,j6ren,Jiinta. 

K. This letter is only retained in a very few foreign uames, 
and Rounds as it does In English. 

L, Invariably sounds as in Eiiglit^bi Ex. lavdr, mal, alto, 
bianco. 

LL. Tins double consonant (which is only used at the be- 
ginning of syllables] has a liquid sound, like the gl in 
leraglio : Ex. Il6ra,lldve, cabdilo, 

M, Invariably preserves the same sound which it has in 
English; Ex. miido, amdr, importe, compromcier. 

X, Likewise preserves invariably the saine sound which it 
has in English: Es. nana, ponlon, nudo, envenendr. 

N. This tetter, with a waving line over it, called the tilde, 
has a liquid sound, like the English n followed by^. Its 
sound is precisely heard in the gn of the French word 
teigncur; or in the g-n^f the Italians in the word signore : 
Ek, senor, nino, compimiii. It never ends a syllable. 

O, As already remarked, sounds like the English o in oblige, 
Ex. oponer, obstdculo, loco. 

P, Invariably sounds as it does in English : Ex. pdpa, pina, 
. dpio, apriibdbU. 

employment before A, which combination had in 



however, befoie ttie dipblhong ut, some give 
Muglke EngHshbard ;, and also a sliglit aipira 
jwels : Es. huero, Hiieio, albahaai, aherrnT. 



Spanish, ns it still has in Cngiixh, the sound of/, 
obsolete, the/ being now used instead: Ex. phaJdnge, 
jtkitosopho, now written faldnge, filoso/n. 

It WRti likewise used silently before n, i, and (, 
the words pneumat'ico, pievdo, ptisdaa, which are iioir 
written neumnlico, neudo, tisdna. 
Vhich is invariably followed by «, has the same sound 
as in English ; exeept when it preeedea ue, or ui, the h 
having' no disresia, then it is pronounced liliei: Ex. 
qiierer, quitdr. But should the u be marked with the 
diaresis, the^aoundeas in English : Ex. qaesti6n,quiiidT. 
The y, however, before ua and ua and also before iie and 
uV, is now changed int*} c; therefore words which wen. 
formerly written qadnto, quota, guciiion, qiiiddr, 
now written cudnfo, cuaia, cuesiion, cuiddr. This &1 
' tion in the orthography, causes no difference in the _ 

This letter is never found to terminate &' 



X. 

I 



word in Spanish. 

This letter is prononnred in Spanish alwayt 

culiar roughness, and more particularly so when doubte4^ 

in which case both are distinctly sounded: Ex, rdAiOr' 

enrida, malr6to, auhrogdr, barril, cdn-o. 
Has always a Round like the j in the English wi 
sing, ui t Ex. sal, etpdldas, sitio, 'iJL 

Sounds aa in English, but rather softer: E\.aieaU 

This letter is pronounced (as observed in the Alphabet 
like 00 in look ! Ex. vsura, vmfnicto, tribu. / 

Sounds as in English, but somewhat softer (vide Ba 
Ex, vivlr, vdca, lent, pdvo. 'f 

Before and after a vowel, has a guttural sound, lilie tU 
of the Spanish J i Ex. xaboa, reloi, cdra. But whqg 
Ihe vowel that fulluws it is marked with the circumBrag 
or when it is Immediately followed by a consonant, it tut 
the sound of the Englisli x : Ex. eiiio, examen, fxtiiut, 
eiptmir. This letter however is falling into disuse, U| 
few modern writers now employ it; instead of whicbj 
^' is now used before a, o, w, and g before e, it EXt 
j'llApa, b^o, jiifidr, g^e, glmio. Nevertheless it doei 
not appear as yet to be sufficiently established, whetherthe ~ 
g, or the j, shiiuld have the preference before e and t. 
Where the x formerly preceded a vowel with the cir- 
cumflex, its place is now generally supplied by 
iaito eciAvun ; which were written exito, tii 
(with regard to the latter word however, there are soi 



LICTVEB in.J PJIO0ODT. 7 

that tpell it ejdmtm,') And where it formerly preceded a 
eonsonant, it is now generally changed into s : Ex. csclu^ 
sivoj espimas, 

Y, Is sometimes a eonsonant, and other times a vowel. It 
is a consonant when it precedes a vowel, and a ^owe) 
when it follows a consonant, or when it stands by itself, 
as is the ease only in the conjunction jf, (and). As a 
Yowei, it ioonds like the Spanish t ; as a consonant, its 
sound resembles that of the English ^ in the word yellow j 
but somewhat harder : Ex.^e^, ydccy yo. 

Z, Sounds tike lA in the English words tkankf bath : 
Ex. zdgag sdi*ra, vaz, felh. Where this letter was for- 
merly used before e and i, a c is now generally preferred : 
Ex. cenzdio, duwa ; formerly written zenzalo^ zUara. 



A TABLE, EXHIBITING THB MOST DIFFICULT COMBIMATIONS 
OF VOWELS AND CONSONANTS IN SPANISH. 

ca, CO, cu Here the c sounds like k, 

ce. ci ;.... And here like th. 

g&9 ST^e, gui, go, gu... In these the g sounds like the English 

hard g, and the u is mute before c and t. 

gua, gu^, gui Here also the ^ is hard^ but the u is 

sounded. 

g^, gi In these, the g has the gu//»ra/ sound. 

j*9 j<s» jiy jo, ju The j has always the ^u/^tiro^ sound. 

11a, lie. 111, llo, llu These sound as lid^ lie^ ifc, 

na, ue, ni, no, iiu And these as nid, ni^, 4rc. 

qua, que, qui, quo .... Here the u is sounded, 

que, qui And in these the u is mute. 

xa, xe, xi, xo, xu Here the x has the gtiz/ura/ sound. 

x4, x6, xi, xd, x(i In these it sounds like the English x. 

28, ze, ^, zo, %\x The z has always the sound of th. 



OF DOUBLE LETTERS. 

2. No letter is doubled in Spanish, except the vowels 
a, Cy I, 9, and the consonants c^n^rx and when these are so 
^mployed^ they are to be distinctly heard : Ex. Saavedra^ leer, 
frikimo^ lo^y Qcc€90y cnnohUcer-i bdrra. 



a 



FEOMIDT^ 



Llbctukb III. 



OF DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS. 

3. A dipkthot^ is the union of heo voweisy and a triphthong 
is the union of three vowels in a syllable. 

Grammarians hare subdirided diphthongs into proper and 
improper ; calling that a prcper diphthongs in which both vowels 
are distinctly sounded ; and an improper diphthong, that in 
which one of the Towels is mute. 

Strictly speaking, the Spanish admits of no improper ^ph* 
thongs ; for where the union of two Towels occurs in a syllap 
ble, each Towel is sufficiently heard to distinguish the sound 
of both ; contrary to what the case is in the English and 
other languages, in which, in a combination of two, and some- 
times of three Towels, it frequently happens that the sound of 
one only is heard. 

TABLE OP DIPHTHOKGS AND TRIPHTHONGS. 

In pronounciQg the following diphthongs and trij^hthonj^, the student 
will take care to give each vowel the sound which it has in the alphabet, 
and to lay the greatest stress on the vowel marked with the accent. 

Ex. Dtos. 
dmdid. 
hiroe. 

80IS. 



ai, 

d,. 

ea, 

« • 

eh 
e6f 

eti, 
id. 



. tomdts. 




io. 


jdala. 

hay. 

linea. 


« 


id, 
oe, 

01, 


tenets. 




cy. 


TirgiDtfo. 
detcda. 




lid, 
ue, 


]ey. 

hAcia, 

hien. 




wy, 

tio, 


idi. 


Ex. cambtdis. 




act. 


rennnciets. 


»ds, 


aTerigtcdif 


s. 


uet. 


evBcueis. 




vejfy 


huey. 





scy. 

suave. 

htresped. 

fut. 

mtiy. 

mdttfo. 



Note. Some modem writers never end a diphthong or a triphthong in y, 
and therefore instead of writing hay, ley, soy, buey, they write i^, lei, em, 
buei ; but this practice is by no means general. 



OF SYLLABLES. 



4. A syllable is a complete sound, forming either a word 
of itselff or a part, of one. It is sometimes represented by a 
single Towel. No syllable can be formed, without there be 



one or more vowels in it. A word of one syllable is called 
a monosyllable; of two, a dissyUaUe; of three, a trisyllable; 
of more than three, a polysyllable. 



OF THE ACCENT. 

5. The acuie accent, thus ('), is chiefly employed with 
words, in which the stress of voice (as regards the syllable 
on which it should fall) deviates from the genera^ rule. 

EvefV Spanish word has one syllable in it long, and the 
remainaer short ; and, as a general rule, let it be observed, 
that words ending in a consonant, have the stress of voice on 
the last syllable, and thoKe ending in a vowel, on the last btu 
one; but as there are exceptions to this rule, every word 
deviating from it, is marked with the acute accent over the 
syllable requiring the stress. 

Examples. — Leccion, maciSt sagaz, psdastal, deliberar, felicidad, coloca" 
cion, aclamaeion, moralidad, recomfnd^icion, imparcialidad, indemniificacion* 

Mente, bueno, casa, trUm, mudanzaj orguUo, mfrible, torrente, dependencia, 
indUativo, iegitimado, eoruervatorio, 

Ddcil, cdlis, caf^i mtuica, 6'pico, lirico, quimico, incdmodo, esc^tieo, etpi- 
ritu, alegifico, kipopotamo^ 

OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE ACUTE ACCENT. 

6. Monosyllables, except the preposition d, (to or at), and 
the conjunctions e, (and) ; 6, u, (or), are never written with the 
accent but when they have more than one signification, in 
which case the accent is employed to distinguish them ; thus, 

£1, he. el, the. 

mif me* inif my. 

St, oneself, yes. si, if. 

.s^, be thoa. ^ se, oneself. 

d^, let him give, or he may give. ^ de, of, or from. 
As verbs have a peculiar acoeDtuation of their own, they are not in- 
cluded in these observatitiinft ; but their accentuation will be treated on 
separately. See observations on the accentuation of verbs. Lee. xxiv. 
Par. 9. 

7. Words of two syllables ending in two vowels, and 
having the stress of voice on the first syllable, . are written 
without the accent, whether the said vowels form diphthongs 

or not : Ex. 

Diphthongs. Not Diphthongs. 
agua, water. nao, ship. 

twia, lukewarm. eria, breed. 

serie, series. frio, cold. 

Bat should the stress fall on the last of the two vowels, that 
vowel must receive the accent ; Ex. benjui, benzoin. 

8. In words of three or more syllables, ending with any 



19 F M I UB T. [I.KCT17KB IH. 



two fti tiM fvwck as, «r, •»» atf , s^ , ao, shosU these 
tioas feroi diplitiMMifv, the woHs MIov the geaeral rule for 
the ftrew, ud are written without die aecent ; het should 
these rowels not fiirm diphthongs, thej recore die necent on 
the last but one ; Ex. 

Diphthongs. Not Jhrvrmacs, 

prmmiia , prasody. tdtgrtrng joj. 



9. In words of three or more sjUables, ending in ae^ ao, 
Mr, ea, eo, oe, or oo^ should these terwnadons form diph- 
thongs, the words are written with the accent on the syllable 
reqairing the stress, hot no accent is employed when they 
are not dbphdiongs ; Ex. 

Dl»lW>9IG8. Nor DXPBTBOXGS. 

linem, Kne. reeno, recreatioii. 

10. Words ending in jr, preceded immediately by a Towel, 
hare always the stress on the last syllable, and receive ne 
accent ; Ex. convoy j rirrjr, convoy, viceroy. 

11. Surnames ending in z have the stress of vmce on the 
lienultima, but receive no accent ; Ex. Lopez^ FemoHdez, 

12. Observe that the accent or stress of voice is preserved 
on the same syllable of words that deviate from the general 
rule, when the adverbial termination mcnte^ is joined to them : 
as, bdrbaramaUe^ from bdrbaro; intrepidamente^ from inui" 
pido ; but with words that follow the general rule, the stress 
falls on the first syllable of the termination mente; as, grandc" 
meniCy from grande; singularmente, from singular. All super- 
latives ending in isimo receive the accent on the first syllable 
of this termination ; Ex. bellisimo^ fertiUsimo^ amabiUsimo. 

Note. — Words in the plural number, retain the accent or 
stress of voice on the same syllable as those in the singular, 
except cardcter, the plural of which is caracieres. 



PUNCTUATION. 

13. A note of Interrogation, thus (?) is employed in 
Spanish both at the beginning and at the end of an interro- 
gative word or sentence. The one at the beginning, how- 
ever, is inverted, thus ( £ ), and its use is to warn the reader 
that what follows is an interrogative. Some writers never^ 
theless, omit the first one, when the word or sentence shows 
itself at first sight to be interrogative. The same observip 



LBCTCHH IV.] B'n-SIOLOQT iHD SVMTAX, n 

tioDS are applicalile likewise to the note of Admiration, tliua 

( ! ) which is also used inverted, thns ( ; ) to warn the reader. 

The olhersignaufiedin piinctUHtiun, are of the same import 

in Spanish as they are in Kngli&h. 



^^ LECTURE IV. 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX GENEOALLV CONSl- 
DERED. 

1 . ETTSKit.OGv (frirni tLe Greek words sTUftoj, inte, and Xoyo; , 
ijiord) means a true or real account of words. It is that part 
of gramiuar which teaches the urigin of words, shows how 
tliey are derived from one another, and explains their various 
modifications. Thua the word? speaketh, spcukmg, spokfi, 
are all derived from speak ; virtuously is derived from mrntout, 
wbieb latter is derived from virtue, 

2. Words are either primiiivt or derivative. Primitive 
words are tlioec which are not derived from any other word 
in the same languap:e : thus, naiuret man, are primitive words; 
hot derivatire words are tho^e which do take their origin from 
other wordfl in the aanie language ; thus, natural, manly, are 
derivatives ofnatwe, man. 

3. 'I'he words of a language are genfrally com pre lien ded 
und arranged under vine classes, or branches, called parts tff 
speech ; namely. Articles, Nouns, Adjectines, I'ronouns, Verbs, 
Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Inteijections. There- 
fore every word in a language must belong to one or the other 
<£ these classes. 



R^£»i 



DEFINITION OF TIIJ': PARTS OF SPKECH. 



Artielts are little words, which of themnelves have no 
are placed before nouns to point them out. 
The Articles in the l^nglish language are □ or an, and the. 

The word Article is derived from the Latin word artiatlua, 
which means a small pari or fiiember ; Articles being consi- 
dered as a part or tnimber of the Nouns to whicli the; are 
prefixed ; Ex. a man, an apple, the lady, the gardens: — a or on 
is called the Indefinite, and tie, the Definite Article ; because ■ 
Notitt preceded by the Indefinite Article expresses un^ one thing 
of the kind denoted by the Noun in an indefinite manner ; hut 
preceded by the Definite Article, it describes ^particular thing 



U) STTHOLOGT ANI> flTHTlX [lBCTUBB IV. 

o: till kinc. denotec'. by h : for iiMtancse, in wyinp a man 
mrovcfi. m: .^ tiooK. V i^ not specified what putienlar wian or 
i^noj \r reterrttfi tc : bur in myin^r the mum brtmgkt me the 
/'<v >A x: i^ immediateh iierreived thmt the speiker alludes to 
sonu T^.T-i'.ruiii' nun ani! f^ooA. of which the hearer bad some 
prinT knowirfliTt 

.'i l^nv.h exnr<•s^ tht- naint> of any thin^: in being:, whether 
animart o: inanimart.. narcrial or ideal : any thing that can 
IM rctz. xm.. urtr-t.. n" cmirdred in the mind, is a Noon ; as 
.'iJ///. . ftnj/K.. ri.'i, fiorjtL. music, vmd. wigdom, love^ hatred. 
Any n-nrh. ii mhofn. i« c Nnnn. that makes sense of itself. 

Tur vnrr J^nt/r i^ deriv<»d from tlie Latin wordRomai, whieh 
1nean^ & iwni:. rnns«t*nuenTiy a Noun is the name of any thing 
thai exisTK. wiirthflT rca: or imarinarr. 

Sonif crranimarianF linvr callrd thi{> sort of words Su&tfaa* 
tiffcs. as thry are applied to rverr thing that has nbtfoacf. 
Bur the word SnhxtanTir*f does nor appear adequatelv appfied 
ti> n1! Burtf: of ¥'ordi^ rnmpriRed under the head of Nenms; sinee 
there ore many thar have nr real ftniistanee ; for instanee, 
vletisurt. 7:»i. r-?r*'. w/ffwp-j . T?mr. virfur, none of which have 
anr substuiice in rheir nature, and vet are called SabstantiTes. 

'i'here are rarions $:|tecies of Nouns, which will be noticed 
in the Etymologr and Sj-ntiix of this part of speech. 

6. Adjift-tireg are word* that express some quali^^ cha- 
racter, p'Ot»rrTj\ or appearunce of a Nonn : as, a good mail, a 
)>*troug hort'tf i}te hard iron^ ///r dark clovdf. Here the Adjec- 
tire ;*Qod expresses the character of the Noun man ; strong, 
the '(tiutity vf the home; hard, the prrperty of the iron; and 
dark, the ai/jjcarance of the cUmds, 

TUh word Adjective is most probably derived from the Latin 
word adjuio, which means to add to, in allusion to the ad* 
j«;ct}ve hf'jtig joined to Nouns, to express something belonging 
to them, that characterises or quali6es them. 

7. Pronouns are words used in the place of Noons, to aroid 
thdr too frequent repetition. Without the use of this part of 
i»|ie«if:h, diKcouriie would be rendered tiresome. For instance, 
ill tlii; htiuttAWM, Henry $ayfi he says Amelia, and presented to 
hf.r a letter, which, however, she would not read, but she re- 
turnr.d ii to him ; wen^ it not for the Pronouns he, her, which, 
the, khf, it, him, we hliould be compelled, in order to render 
thn hf:iit«iii!e inte.HigUfle, to repeat all the Nouns, the place of 
wliirli lliitbii I'niiioutiN supply, and say, Henry says Henry saw 
Awrliu, mill prrittuted tu Amelin a letter, the letter however 
Aiiinlia would nut read, hut Amelia returned the letter to 
llniiry. 



LECTUKK ir.] GBNBIULLV COXSIDBRED. iS 

The word Protioun, ii a compound of the Latin words pra 
rtamen, wliidi mean, for a noun ; and we. Bi-e in the foregoing 
example, thu all tbe Pronouns there, stand for, or in the 
place of, ss many Nouns. There are several clashes of Pro* 
nouns, tbe nature and use of which, will be eKjilvned in the 
etyinolo^ and syntax connected with tliis part of Hpeech. 

S. Fcrbi are words tliat deiinte aciinn or being: tliey ex- 
press all tbe different movements of the body or mind, and 
the various states of being:, of living and innnimate objects ; 
for instance, to virile, lo vmlk, to brenk, to strike, are Verbs, 
and denote actions of tbe body : lo think, to love, to grieve, to 
hate, are Verbs that denote some maFement of the mind : lo 
be, lo sit, lo sleep, lo stand, are likewise Verbs ; to be denotei, 
existence in its most general sense, and to sit, to sleep, lo 
Ufoui, describe tbe different states or manners of being or 
exiatence, in which objects may be found. 

The word FcrA, is derived from tbe Latin wordm-^urn, which 
means a word. A Verb may very properly ho styled the 
priooipal word in a sentence ; for witliont a Verb expressed 
or Dnderstood, no sentence can be formed. There is no term 
that can comprise within iLself, the full meaning of this most 
essential part of speech : action and beia/{ aie the wurds 
wbich appear to exprexs more i>recisely, the peculiar nature of 
Verbs. There are several species of Verbs, wbich will be se- 
parately trenCed on, in the etymulo|[y and syntax of Verbs. 

9. Adverbs are words that are employed with f'eiii, Adjec- 
tives, and sometimes with Adverbk themselves. Tbelr office 
when employed witb reference to Ferbs, is to express the 
manner of tbeir aition or existence; as, Heviritet well, in wbich. 
th^ Adverb well, expresses the manner of writing ; and in. She 
iniU, the Adverb ill denotes the vianner or ilaie of existence. 
expressed by the Verb is. When used witb reference to Ati-^ 
jecHves, they express the degree of their yuaiUy ; as, An ex- 
tttmalj good man; in which example, tbe Adverb extremely, 
describes the degree of qualiti/ denoted in the Adjective ^ooii. 
Vben joined to other Adverbs, they ex)ilain tbe extent uf tbeir 
signification ; as. He speaks very lorrectli/: Here the Adverb 
veri/, explains to what extent the menning of the Adverb cot- 
reolljf may he taken. 

Tbe word Adverbis derived from tbe Latin words ad terbum, 
which signify Joined to a Verb. But as we see in tbe fore- 
going examples, that Adverbs are joined to oUier parts of 
speech, the significatian of tbe term Adverb, does not convey 
an adequate description uf its use. Adverbs are words that 



^^Bpl RTTMOLOGY AND BVNTjkX [r.SCTDRE ^f^M 

^^^ispresa Bome accidental cirntmilanee connected with jlitjcelivet^^ 



I 



Verbs, and Adverbs. If wc Bay, / wi'oie a teller 
speak very iniletermltiatelj as regards the liaie and manner of 
lariling : but in saying, / mrole a letter to him yesterday, in 
tiaste, the Adverb yesterday explains the time, and the adver- 
bial expression in liaste, describes the manner of writing. 
Again, in the sentence, A truly good man, the Ad?erb trulg, 
adds a certain degree or meaning to the Adjective good, which 
the latter could not coiiTey byitNelf ; and in the sentence, Voil 
go too n/Ven, the Adverb too, adds greater energy to the me 
ing of the Adverb ofien. There are various classes of Advei 
which will be noticed in the etymology and syntax of 
part of speech. 

10. frepasitiom express the relation or bearings which 
Nouns and Pronouns have with regard to one another ; or 
they point oat the situation or pontion in which Nouns or 
Pronouns exist with respect to each other ; Ex. The beauty of 
the poem. John purchased the book for William. She trusts 
in him. In these examples the prepositions of, for, and I'n, 
serve first, to conduct the words poertt, William, and him 
(which they govern), to the case in which they are to be 
placed : (see the definition on case in Lecture 9). And se- 
condly, they point out the relation which these words have 
with the Noun or Pronoun, which is the nominative case: 
thus, of, in the first esample, denotes the possession which the 
poem has of beauti/ ; for, in the aetrond, describes the benefit 
which results to William, from the service of John ; and in 
thethird, in, points out the person in whom She trusts. The 
manner of employing Prepositions, differs materially in the 
two languages : their employment will be treated on at large, 
in the etymology and syntax connected with this part of 
■peech. 
_ii" The word Prepositioj^ is derived from the Latin words pra 
l^ywiftlJt, which signify placed before : But this appellation, 
■- flke many others, does not well apply to the nature of Pre- 
positions, because other ports of speech besides Prepositions 
are placed before Nouns and Other words. 

11. Conjuaetiont. This class of words, derives its name 

from the Latin word cnnjtinclio, which means to Join together 

*^BCBUBe conjunctions serve to connect words, or parts of a 

tnlence together : n». He and she will go, though / may stay, 

■ere we see that the conjunction and, connects the pronouna 

I' ic ind (Ac together ; while the conjunction fAou^A, unites the 

Lr two members of the sentence. There are different kinds of 



lVctukb rr.] benerallt GONaiDERBD. 15 

Conjunctions, &b will be noticed in tlieir etymology and 

12. Interjections are so called from the Iislin word inter- 
jicio, which means to throw in or bau'een. They are a kind 

of ejaculations, used to denote some emotioi) of the mind, ami 
pro|>erly speaking, should not be called wordri, nor considered 
as forming any part of speech, since tliey form no part of 
what is properly called langa&ge, and they have merely been 
noticed here, as a matter of form. 

13. The foregoing definitions of tba several parts of speech, 
are here given preparatory to the treatment of theni in their 
etymology and syntax, where tlieir proper employment will be 
fully explained. Meanwhile, the pupil should exercise him- 
self in analysing sentences, to endeavour to ascertain to what 
part of speech every word belongs. It is necessary to warn 
the student, that it sometimes occurs, that the some word 
may appear to belong to more iJian one part of speech, as for 
instance in this example, ¥ou demand tiy/ book, but 1 cannot 
coMph/ with your demand: Where the first demand is a Verb, 
and the second a Noun, and yet they are both spelled and pro- 
nouDced alike. -Agaiu, that, is sometimes a Pronoun, end nt 
others a Conjunction. In the sentence Give me that book, that 
K^DemonttTative Pronoun, and in ThebookthsXyouaTeTeiidtng, 
it 19 a Relative I'lonoua ; bnt it is a Conjunctioa in, / said that 
Ae might go. It happens thus also, with many words in 
Spanish ; but though written alike, they are not in reality the 
tame word, wheu they belong to different parts of speech. 
Therefore to ascertuiu tlie part of speech to which a word 
belongs, we must have recourse to the meaning of that word. 

14. SvNTiK (from the Greeli 'Zuyra.^is, which Bignifiea uilli 
method), teaches the method of constructing sentences ac- 
cording to the rules of grammar. Eij/mulogy, as we have 
already seen, teaches the origin and derivation of words ; but 
by Syntai, we are taught the placing of words in Ihcir proper 
situation, that the sentences mny be correct, clear, and in- 
capable of being misconstrued: for instance, in the sentence 
It a a part of the rule which I do vol comprehend, it is doubtful 
whether It be the lule, or the part of the rule, which iii not 
comprehended ; But if the sentence were written thus, /( is 
a part which I do not comprehend of the rule, no such doubt 
could arise, for it would then be immediately perceived that 
the part was referred to. 

■ 7- In the formation of sentences, two things are to be 
considered, namely, ConcoH, and Govei-nment. Concord, 
points out the manner in which words are to agree with one 



16 BTTMOLOGT AND SYNTAX. [lBCTURE IV. 

another : for instance, Estis son huenos lihros^ These are 
good books : Here we see that in Spanish, the Demonstrative 
Pronoun estos^ agrees with the Noun libros, both being in the 
masculine gender and phiral number : son is a Verb, and 
agrees in person and number with the same Noun hbros ; and 
huenos is an Adjective that agrees wHh the Noun in gender and 
number. 

In Spanish the Article^ the Noun^th^ Adjective j the Pronoun, 
and the Verb are declinable parts of speech ; that is, they 
admit of variation in their spelling, to agree with one another 
when they meet in a sentence. The manner in which they 
vary, will be pointed out in the etymology and syntax of 
each part of speech. The other parts of speech in Spanish, 
namely the Adverb, the Preposition, the Cof0unction, and the 
Interjection, are indeclinable. 

In English the only declinable parts of speech, are the 
Noun, the Pronoun, and the Verb, 

Government is the power which one part of speech has over 
another, in directing what case, mood, or tense the regimen or 
word governed, is to be placed. This is a very important 
part of Grammar, since any violation of it, would render 
speech very defective and confused. The student, it is pre- 
sumed, will be able to comprehend its importance, when he 
arrives at the government of the different parts of speech. 
The parts of speech that have the power of governing, are, 
the Noun, the Verb, the Preposition, and the Conjunction. 
Nouns govern Aoun^ and Verbs: Verbs govern Verbs, Nouns void 
Adverbs : Prepodtions govern Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs and 
Adverbs : and Conjunctions govern Verbs, 



LECTURE V. 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OP ARTICLES. 

1. The learner is referred to Lee. 4. Par. 4. for the defini- 
tion of Articles. This and the two succeeding lectures, will 
be devoted to the use and employment of this part of speech. 

2. There are in English (as before stated) the Definite Article 
the, and the Indefinite Article a or an ; In Spanish however 
we have to consider^ the Definite, the Indefinite, and the Neuter 
Articles. 



I^BCTURB v.] BTYMOTiOOT ANB STMTAlT OP ARTtCLBS. 1? 



AGaEEMENT OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

3. The Definite Article agfrees in Spanish with the Noun to 
which it iB -prefixed, in gender and number, for which purpose 
it changes its form in four different manners ; Ex. 

Masculine* Singalat. El hombre, The man. 

Plural. Lot hombres, The men. ' 

Feminine. Singular. La muger. The woman. 

Plural. Las mugeres. The women. 



EXERCISE ON THE AGREEMENT OF THE DEFINITE 

ARTICLE*. 

TIm boy, the girl, the hatter, and the seamstress, 

muchacho, m. mucbacha,/. sombrerero, m. y costurera,/. 

The sun, the tnoon, the stars, and the planets. The knife, 
sol, m. luna,/. estrellas, /. p. planetas, m. p. cuchillo,m. 

the fork, the beef, the salt, the plates, and the wine-glasses. 

tenedor, fit. came,/. sal,/. platos, m.^. copilla8,/.p. 

Note 1. The Article ei, -drops the e, when preceded by the Prq[K>sition </e, 
(efotfrom) or d, (to or at) : thus instead of de el and d el, we most say del 
andaf: Ex. 

Del hombre. Of the man. 

Del libro. Of the book. 

Al hombre, To the man. 

Al libro, To the book. 

Kote 2. A Noun singular of the feminine gender, beginning with a or ha, 
and having the stress on the first syllable, requires the masculine, instead 
of the feminine Article : thus instead of la ama, la haba, we must say el ama 
(the mistress), «/ /to^a (the bean) ; which Nouns ama and haba, are of the 
feminine gender. This infringement on the laws of grammar, is intended 
to avoid the unpleasant broad sound, which the concurrence of the two 
same vowels would produce, when the accent is on the first syllable of the 
Noun ; for which reason this rule does not apply to feminine Nouns be- 
ginning with a or ha, having the accent on any other syllable but the first ; 
therefore we say la alcova, (the alcove), la alcaparra, (the caper), la ha~ 
cienda (the estate), la habilidad, (the ability) : nor does it apply to 



* It U intended that the pupil ^umld write out the Svanish part only of 
this, and aU the succeeding exercises, supplying the woras that are left out, 
Premously to which however, he will observe, that the words inch^ in 
braekets, correspond with the translation above or beneath them, and conse- 
quently, require no alteration. He will observe also that ni. stands for mas- 
caUne, f./or feminine, and P'for plural. Words having a caret (f^) under 
them, are to be ondtted in the translation, A honzontal line ( — ) denotes a 
similarity of spelling to the word above it, observing however that the letter s, 
is never doubled in Spanish, and that t before i in English words ending in tion, 
is changed into c in Spanish, The numerical figures, indicate the order in 
which the Spanish words are to be arranged, 

c 3 



18 BTTMOUKIT AKD STNTjIX OP ARTIGLlf i [lKOTURB V. 

feminine Nouns when they are in the plural number, since then, the 
intervening g, prevents the clashing of the two vowels : as lot ama$, the 
mistresses ; las habas, the beans. 



EXERCISE ON NOTES 1 AND 2. 

The atrocity of the crime. The violence of the wind. From the 
atrocidad,/. crimen, m. violencia,/. viento,m. 

house to the garden. From the garden to the house, 
casa,/. jardin, m. 

[They arrived] at the inn. The bird sang. Those are 

llegaron meson, m. ave, /. canUS. aquellas son 

the birds. The water is cold. The waters of the rivers, 

aves, /. p. agua, /. est4 fria. aguas, /• p. rios, m. p. 

The ea^le is a bird of prey. The cunningness of the deed, 
^guila,/. es A ave rapina. astncia, /. hautSa,/. 



EMPLOYMENT OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

4. The Definite Article is employed in both languages 
before Nouns taken in a particular or definite sense : Ex. 

El poder de la ley, The power of the law. 

La velocidad de bs caballos, The swiftness of the horses. 

WHEN THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IS USED IN SPANISH AND NOT 

IN ENGLISH. 

5. The Definite Article is used in Spanish before all Nouns 
taken in a general and unlimited sense : that is, Nouns iq 
which the whole of the kind or species denoted by them, is 
included : Ex. 

El orgullo y la vanidad son los efectos Pride and vanity are the effects 
de uz ignorancia, of ignorance. . 

In this example jtride, vanity and ignorance are spoken of in an un- 
limited manner, and in the full extent of their signification. 

6. Before the geographical divisions of the earth, and the 
names of countries, kingdoms, provinces, &c. : Ex. 

La Europa encierra gran variedad Europe embraces a great variety 
de climas, of climate. 

La Inglaterra es una nacion marf- England is a maritime nation, 
tima, 

La Catalufla es provincia de Cota/o/^ia is a province of Spain. 
Espana, 



LSCTITKB y.] BTTMOLOer AND 8TMTAX OF ARTICLSS. 19 

Exception Ui. The Definite Article is grenerally omitted in 
Spanish, before the names of eountries, kingdoms, proyinces, 
&c. when they are preceded by a preposition : Ex. 

Fui d Inglaterra, I went to England. 

Viene de Francia, He comes from France. 

Still howeyer when these countries, &c. are personified, the 
Article is retained : Ex. 

Los procederes de la Rusia, con The proceedinzs of Russia, with 
respecto d la Polonia, regard to Poland. 

Exception 2nd. Kingdoms, proyinces, &c. bearing the same 
name as their capital cities, do not admit the Article : Ex. 

Argel y Tiinii son puertos de mar, Algiers and Turns are sea-port 

towns. 

Nueva York es an estado floreciente New York is a flourishing state 
de America , in America. 

7. Noans denoting the title, dignity, profession, &c. of an 
individual, require the Definite Article in Spanish, when in the 
third person : Ex. 

El Rey Guillelmo, King William. 

Ei Doctor N. Doctor N. 

El Coronel A. Colonel A. 

El Sefior y la Senora B. Mr. and Mrs. B. 

8. When several Nouns follow each other in a sentence, 
the Article is generally repeated before each, particularly 
when they differ in gender ; and if a Preposition precede the 
Article, the Preposition is likewise generally repeated : Ex. 

Todos iov^hombres, las muj^eres All the men, women and children 
y lot ninos de la aldea, salieron of the village, came out to receive 

k recibirle, . him. 

La ignorancia es madre de la Ignorance is the mother of prer 
preocupacion, del engaiio, y del judice, deceit and error, 

error, 

Those Nouns which are used in the aggregate, are excepted 
from this rule : Ex. 

Judios, Cristianos, Mahometanos, Jews, Christians, Mahometans, all 
todos fueron incluidos en el n6- were included in the number. 
mero, 

9. The days of the week, and the hour of the day, take the 
Definite Article in Spanish : Ex. 

Vendr6 k ver 4 Vmd. et Domingo I shall come and see you on Sun- 
a la una, 6 k las dos, day, at one or two o*clock. 

]Vo vaya Vmd. hasta el L6nes 4 Do not go until Monday at half 
Uu teb y media, 6 el M&rtes k past six o'clock, or Tuesday at a 

las tres menos cuarto, quarter before three. 



W BTTMOIiOeT AMD SYNTAX Of AftTICIiSB. [LBCTrURS V. 

WBBN THB DftFINITB ARTICLB 18 U8BD IN BN9LI8H AND VQT I|l 

SPANISH. 

10. The DeBnite Article is not used in Spanish before Numerieal 
Adjectives, following the names of kinf(s, potentates, &c«: £z. 

Leopoldo Frimero, Rey de los Leopold t^ First, King -of ihsJSel- 
Belgas, gi&os. 

Leon D6cimo, Pontifice de Roma, Leo ths Tenth, a Pontiff of Rome« 

11. It is omitted when we speak of the tiiies of books, 
chapters, &c. : Ex. 

La obra que compr6, se intitula The book which I bought, is en* 
'' Histona de Espana/' titled *' The History of Spam." 

Capf tulo once ; verso segundo, Chapter ike eleventh ; verse the 

second. 

But if we allude to the subject of tba work or any partieihM* 
part of it, we should generally employ the Article : £x. 

La Historia de Espana, trata The History of Spain treats also ob 
tambien de su Literatura, its Literature. 

£n el capitulo primero, encon- In the first chapter, we find, &g. 
tramos, &c. 

12. The Article is omitted, except before the first Nooo, 
when several Nouns are used in apposition, that is, when 
several Nouns follow each other, all alluding to tke same 
thing: Ex. 

Vienen de la ciudad de Parti, They come from the city of JPam, 
capital de la Francia, y rest- the capital of France, and ren- 

dencia de sn carte, dence of the court. 

In this example we see, that the city of Paris, the oapiial 
of France, and the residence of the court, are all one and the 
same place. 

13. When Nouns are used in a partitive sense, they take no 

Article: Ex. 

Deme Vmd. papel. Give me {wme) paper. 

Quiere Vmd. dinero 1 Do you want (any) money 1 
Denos Vmd. vino, Give us (wmej wine. 

In these examples we see that something in the aenaa of 
some, or any, is understood, which in both languages may be 
either expressed or not; for whicb reason the foregoing 
examples in Spanish may also be expressed thus : 

Deme Vmd. tin poco de papel, Give me tome or a little paper. 

t Quiere Vmd. atgxin dinero ? Do you want any vaiooej 1 
>enos Vmd. un poco de vino, Give us tame or a little wino. 



ECTURB v.] BTTMOLOaT AND SYNTAX OF ARTICLB8. 21 

Un poco de, is equivaleDt to a liiile, or a small portion or 
quantity of. Algun, means some or any : Al^tm is derived 
from tbe Indeterminate Pronoun Alguno^ which changes its 
last vowel into a for the feminine gender ; and an s is added 
to it to form the plural number : but when it precedes a Noun 
masculine singular, it drops the o : Ex. 

I Necesita Vmd. dinero alguno t Do you require any money t 

Compreme Vm. algun libro, a/- Buy me some book, some poems, 
gunos poemas, alguna novela, some novels, some fiMes, 

algunat f4bulas. 

Any interrogatively used, is frequently suppressed in 
Spanish : Ex. 

i Necesita Vmd. dinero 1 Do you require any money 1 
I Quiere Vmd. pan ? Do you wish any bread ? 

( For Alguno, used as an Indeterminate Pronoun, see Lee. 24, Par. 3 & 4.) 

Instead of aigunos and algunas^ we may also use unos or 
una$9 io the sense of some or a few i Ex. 

Compreme Vmd. unos libros, unas Buy me some or a few books, some 
novelas, novels. 

In every other case the Definite Article is generally used 
alike, in both languages. 



EXERCISE ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE DEFINITE 

ARTICLE. 

The beauty of tbe poem. The delicacy of the style. 

hermosura,/. poema, m. delicadeza, /• estilo, m. 

[As soon as I received] information, that the soldiers had 

luego que recibl noticia,/. que soldados, m.p. habian 

occiipied the fort and town, m^f zeal for the service 

ocupado fuerte, m. villa,/, mi celo por servicio, m. 

[would not allow me] any longer to remain in the capital. ■ Among 
nomepermitia mas tiempo a quedarme en /. entre 

the advantages which our arms obtained, in tbe glorious action, 
ventaja8,/.p. que nuestras armas lograron gloriosa ,/. 

one of the most interesting was, tbat of having completely 

una mas interesantes,/.p. fu6 la haber completamente 

destroyed the intent of the oppressors. Care ' is often the 

destnudo intento,m. opresores, m. p. cuidado, tn. es amenudo 

attendant on greatness. Man is a slave to his passions, 

companero, m. de grandeza, /. bombre, m. es ^ esclavo sus pasiones. 

Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter are tbe four 
prima vera/, verano, m. otono, m. inviemo, m. son cuatro 

seasons of tbe year. Cowardice and meanness, are qualities 

estaciones, /. p. ano, m. cobardfa,/. bajeza,/. son cualidades 



82 BTTMOLOeT AND SYNTAX OF ARTICLSS. [lBGTURB ▼. 

of a man destitute of honor. Impartial (2) criticism (1) [ahould not 
sin A imparcial crftica,/. nodebe 

offend J on the contrary, [we ought to feel honored by it.] General N. 
ofender & contrano debiamos honramos con eUa. 

[was happily engaged] in maintaining tranquillity and repressing 
se ocupaba con feliz ^csito mantener tranquilidad,/. [en reprimir] 

seditions. The happiness of a man of feeling is to relieve the 

sediciones,/. p. felicidad,/. un sentimiento es * aliviar 

wants of the poor. The love of |dory animatei the 

necesidades,/. p. pobres, m.p. amor, m. gloria,/. [anima&] 

brave. France, Spain, Italy and Germany are 

valerosos, m. p. Francia,/. Espaiia,/. Italia,/. Germania, /. son 

countries on the continent of Europe. Russia is a vast Empire, 
paises de continente, m. Europa, /. /. es un vasto Imperio. 

Europe, Asia, Africa and America are the four quartwa of the 
/. /. /.son cuatro partes, /.p. 

world. Rome and Venice were ancient (2) republics (1). I intend to 
mundo. Venecia fueron antiguas repiiblicas a inteato * 

proceed from Holland to France, and from France to England* 
proceder Holanda Inglaterra. 

Mr. A. lives in that street. Mrs. B. has already (2) spoken (1) 
vive aquella calle. ha ya hablado 

to Mrs. C. I am a substitute of Doctor Sangrado. Gil Bias, said 
yo soy A substitute •, m. • — dyo 

Captain Rolando. Innocence, virtue and honor should be appre- 
capiian,m. — . inocencia,/. virtnd,/. debian ser apre» 

ciated. Men, women, and children, all were [taken prisoners.] 
ciados. hombres, mugeres ninos todos fueron apresados. 

Never be a slave to avarice and vice. [We shall leave London] 
jamas seas * esclavo avaricia,/. vicio, m.' saldr^mos de Londres 

on Wednesday at half past four, and arrive at our destination on 
A Mi^rcoles Uegarimos nuestro destine * 

Friday, at one or two [o'clock]. Louis Philip the first, was proclaimed 
Vi^met 6 a Luis Felipe primero, fu6 proclamado 

King of the French in the year 1830. Leo the ninth, was the 

Franceses, m. p. ano, m. nono fu€ 

first Pope that mantained an army in his dominions. Here is a 
primer Papa que mantuvo un eg^rcito sns dominios. aquf est& un 

book entitled "The civil (2) wars (1) of Granada." The second 
libra intitnlado civiles guerras segundo 

paragraph says, thus. Hercules the son of Jupiter. Here is the paper 
p&rrafo dice as(. hijo • papel,m. 

which I have bought. This is the iey of the sprden. The 
que A he comprado. esta es Have, /. jardin, m. 

Pjrranees divide France from Spain. The Tajifus empties itself 

Pirineos, m. p. dividen Tajo, m. desagna * 

into the Atlantic. The Jupiter of Phidias. Leopold Grand Dnke of 
en AU4ntico, m. Fidias. gran dvqiM 



LBCTURB YI.] BTTM0L06T AND SYNTAX OF ARTICLES. S3 

Tuscany. Nicholas Emperor of Russia. Quarrels frequently 

Toscana. Nicolas emperador disputas,/.]». [mucJias veces] 

produce fatal (2) consequences (1). Take some of the wine that 

atraen fatales consecuencias^/.p. [tomevmd.] vino, m. que 

[I sent you.] They are some of the apples from my orchard. I have 
lemand^.- a son maQzanas,/.p. mi huerto. a he 

received some letters. I want some paper and some pens, 

recibido cartas, /.p. Anecesito papel, m. plumas,/.p. 

I have some documents to answer. Have you (2) received (1) 

A tengo documentos, m. p. que contestar. ha vmd. recibido 

any wine 1 Yes, I have received some. Riches often 

si A he riquezas, /. p. amenudo 

[gain us] credit, power, friends, and respect, 
nos grangrean cr6dito, poder, amigos^ respeto. 



LECTURE VI. 
THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 

1. Thb English Indefinite Article a or an, is translated in 
Spanish un before a Noun masculine, and una before a Noan 
feminine ; Ex. 

Un libro, un caballo, ten agente, A book, a horse, an agent, a bell, 
una campana, una casa, una a house, a woman, an apple, 

muger, una manzana, 

2. In either language the Indefinite Article can only be 
applied to nouns of the singular number: and although it 
may be seen employed with the words dozens gross, &c., still 
the quantity denoted by these words is comprehended in one 
body. 

3. The English Indefinite Article employed before Nouns of 
'weight, measure, or number, in speaking of their value or 
rate, is translated by the Definite Article ; Ex. 

Two dollars a yard, Dos pesos la vara. 

Six pence a pound, Seis peniques la libra. 

Three shillings a hundred, Tres chelines el ciento. 

4. When the Indefinite Article is used in English in speak- 
ing with relation to distance, it is translated por, which means 
hy; Ex. 

At the rate of ten reals a league, A razon de diez realea -^ \«f2^^« 



94 wnwmuDfsr asp stsptax ov MmnmM^ [hmorvrnM n. 



Sometises /M>r is used instead of iIm I>einite Article, in 
spesdcing of ralae or rate ; Ex. 

Se Tendiu i tres dnros /wr vara. It was sold at three dollars per yard. 
Me costiS i das dnros pi/r fibra. It cost me at two dollars jier pound. 

5. When a or on is emplojed in £oflr|jsb as a Numerical 
Adjective, and means particnlarly omCj it is translated into 
Spanish also by the Namerical Adjectire, (from which, in fact, 
the Spanish Indefinite Article is taken) : £x. 

I bought a poand of raisins, ^ Conipr6 una libra de pasas. 

He smd me am ounce of platina, Me vendi6 una onxa de platina. 
Give me a couple of dozen, Deme Ymd. tm par de docenas. 



WHEN THE INDEFINITE ikRTICLE IS USED IN ENGLISH BUT 

NOT IN SPANISH. 

6. The Indefinite Article is omitted in Spanish, before 
Nouns expressive of the rank, profession ^ or country of a per- 
son, when these nouns are preceded by any part of the verb 
to be, as referring to them ; Ex. 

He is an ambassador, £1 es embajador. 

I am an EDglishman, Yo soy Ingles* 

He was a duke, £1 era duque. 

Are you a physician ? j, £s vmd. medico ? 

It is also omitted in Spanish, before Nouns of rank, pro- 
fession or country, when they serve to characterize, or to 
distinguish in some particular manner, the person or thing 
represented by the Noun coming before ; Ex. 

Lope de Vega, a poet of Spain, Lope de Vega, poeta de Espaiia, or 

poeta Espauol. 

Socrates, a famous Grecian phi- Sucrates, famoso fil6sofo Griego. 

losopher, 

Vitruvius, a Roman, and a dis- Vitruvio, Romano, y distinguido 

tinguished architect, arquitecto. 

7. The Indefinite Article is omitted in Spanish before 
Nouns used in apposition ; Ex. 

Cadiz, a town in Andalusia, C4diz, ciudad de AndalucU.^ 

Catalonia, a province of Spain, Cataluna, provincia de Espana. 

8. Also when it is used in English between an Adjective 
and a Noun ; Ex. 

Such a person, Tal persona. 

So beautiful a woman, Muger tan bella, or tan bella mng«r. 



fiBCTVftB ▼!•] SmCMdMT Aim tYWTAX OF AftTICLSS. 25 

9. After tbe word wkaif Qfed before a noan in exclamation 
or sorprise ; Ex. 

Wkat a Doise ! i Que niido ! 

What a fine view ! i Que bella vista ! 

10. Before the numbers tL ihotuandy or a hundred; it is 
retained howerer before a million , though not before a mUlion 
Oiid a half; £<• 

A thousand doUan, Mil pesos. 

A hundred pounds, Cien libras. 

A million of reals, (In millon de leales. 

A million and a half, Millon y medio. 

11. It is omitted before the words half, or one and a h(Uf ; 
and also between the word half and a noon ; Ex. 

Two yards and a half, Dos raras y media. 

One onnce and • half, Ooza y media. 

Half a pound. Media libra. 

12. It is omitted in the title of a book ; Ex. 

A Spanish dictionary, Diccionario Esnanol. 

An English Grammar, Gram&tiea Inglesa. 

In all other cases the Indefinite Article is generally em- 
ployed alike in both languages. 

£X£RCIS£ ON THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 



/ 



Fortune is a capricious (2) deity (1). A fuilty (2) conscieoce (I 
fortuna,/. es caprichosa deidad,/. cnminal condencia, /. 

is a perpetual (2) torment (1). I bought a book, a, sand box, and an 

es perp^tuo tormento, m. a compr6 salvadera, /. 

ink stand. How much a yard t Two dollars a pound. Six dollars 
tintero, m. a como seis 

a hnndred. We trarelled at the rate of ten leagues a day. The 

K camioamos a razon diez leguas dia. 

vessel sails two leagues an hour. Give me a dozen, at two guineas 
buque, ai.anda [deme vmd.] docena,/. [de 4«] 

a doaeii. Give me nine pounds, at a shilling a pound. He is \ 

nueve Q es 

book binder, and his brother a book* seller. I am a German, and he 

encuademador su hermano librero. Yo soy Aleman 

is an Irishman. He acted like a traitor. Parnassus, a mountaia 

Irland^ a obr6 como traidor. Pamaso monte 

•f Phods, is famous for being the residence of the Muses. Captain V., 
Foeida es famoso por ser residencia,/. Mnsas,/. p. Capitan, m. 

an ofiecr in tiie Dutch (2) service (1) said that he had seen Count D. i 
CB HoUuidet fenricio, m. dijo que a habia visto [al Condej 

9 



^ BTTVOLOer AKD SYNTAX OP ASTtflI.B8. [^BCTtfltB TH. 

French (2) general (J). He obtained so complete a victory. She 

Frances ,fn, a logr6 tancompleta victoria. a 

has so fine a house, and so beautiful a garden. What an excellent 

tiene bella hermoso jardin. que belHsimo 

person ! What a fine horse ! Buy me a thousand pens, 

sugeto. hermoso caballo. [Compreme vmd.J plumas. 

ri will give you] a hundred dollars. This palace cost a million of 

le dar6 h vmd. este palacio costo 

dollars, and that a million a«d a half. Give me two dollars and a 

aquel medio. 

half. Here is an ounce and a half of gold, and half an ounce of silver, 

aqufhai onza mfedia oro plata. 

A treatise on philosophy. A histor^r of the world. Here is a lady 

tratado de filosofla. histona mundo, m. seiiora 

and a gentleman. [I was talking] to an acquaintance, 

caballero. hablaba con conocido. 



LECTURE VII. 

THE NEUTER ARTICLE. 

1 . We haye now to consider the netiter Article lo, Thi» 
little word is employed, first, before Nouns formed from Ad- 
jectives. Obserre that all Spanish Adjectives may be con- 
verted into Noans by simply prefixing the neuter Article lo to 
them ; Ex. 

Lo bueno, lo malo. That which is good, that which is bad. 

Lo verdadero es preferible & lo That which is real is preferable to 
fingido, what is feigned. 

No saben lo diflcil que es, They do not know how difficult it is. 

And secondly, the neuter Article lo, is frequently employed 
before the words qite, cnal; Ex. 

£scuch6 todo lo que dijo, por lo I listened to all whatt or that which 
dial supe» que, &c. he said, by which I knew that, &c. 

Now it is necessary to observe in this sentence, that the 
words todo lo que dijo^ are used in so vague a sense, that 
we cannot attach either the mascnline or feminine gender 
to the matter to which they allude ; therefore the neuter Article 
2o, has been called in to refer to it. The same observation 
applies to the second member of the sentence. 

The student must be careful in not confounding the neuter 
Article lo, with the neuter Pronoun lo, noticed in Lee. 16, 



LBCTvmm T^nJ] wttmMAQY and sthtax of Meuns. QJ 



EXERCISE ON THE NEUTER ARTICLE. 

[You are not aware] how beautiful it is. Tke work treats oa the 

Vmd. ignora iKimoso que es. obra, /• trata sabre 

subiime and beantifttl* [Let us prefer] that which is solid, to that 
prefiramos 861ido 

which is vain. [Let him abide] by what is just* What is most 

vano. que se limite & justo. mas 

desired, is (2) not (1) always the most easy to obtain. [I know aU ;] 
apetecible, es no siempre f4ciJ de conseguir* todo lo s^ 

by which I infer that, &e* What I know is not what yo« think, 

por A infiero que, &c. yo s6 Tmd.piensa. 

All that glitters is not gold 
lodo reluce oro. 



LECTURE VIII. 
ETYMOLOGir AND SYNTAX OP NOUNS. 

i . For the definition of this part of speeeh, the student is 
referred to Lee. 4, Par. 5 ; he has now to observe, that, 

Nouns are either common or proper. The term common is 
appropriated to that class of Noons which embraces in it many 
objects of the same kind, as man^ star, province^ river , &c. 
There are many men, stars, provinces^ rivers, &c., but these 
names are applied to them in common, and are therefore dis- 
tinguished by the appellation of common Nouns. But proper 
Nouns are those names which are appropriated to persons and 
places, and U) those things of which there exists but one of 
the kind, as William, Elizabeth, London, Madrid, God, 
Heaven. There are of course many men named William, and 
many women named Elizabeth, yet these names are not com- 
mum to all men and women. 

2. Some Nouns are called collective, which grammarians 
have subdivided into general and partitive ; classing under the 
head of general, all those Nouns that represent a distinctive 
mass or body of objects ; as a nation, an army ; and applying 
the term partitive to such as do not represent any determined 
mass or body ; as sl quantity, a multitude* With the former, 
the Verb, in both languages, is generally made to agree in the 
simgidar number ; Ex. 

Toda la ruiewnfu6 contra eUo, The whole nation teas against it. 

£1 eg6rc%tofui derrotado, The army mu defeated. 



i6 ETYMOLOGT AMD SYNTAX OF VOUM«. [lBCTVAK Till. 

But with the latter, the Verb is generally made to agree in 
the plural number ; Ex. 

IJn gran numero de soldados fueron A great number of soldiers tcchi 
hecbos prisioneros, aaade prisoDenu 

Una infinidad d^ aves han rauerto. An infinity of birds htm died. 



OF AUGMENTATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE NOUNS. 

3. These derivatives, denote a larger or smaller thing of 
the kind, than that which is expressed by their primitives. 
They are formed in Spanish, by the addition of various ter-> 
minations to the Noun in its primitive state, generally drop- 
ping the final vowel if it have one. 

4. Nouns augmentative of the masculine gender, are formed 
by the addition of the letters on^ ote^ or azo ; those of the 
feminine gender, by ona or aza. These terminations are 
equivalent in their meaning to the English words hig^ large, 
stout, tall, and such like ; Ex. 

Primitives. Derivatives. Primitives. Derivatives. 

Ilombre, hombron, or bombroso, A man, a tall or large man. 

Muger, mugerona, A woman, a masculine woman. 

Sombrero, sombrerote, A hat, a large or big hat. 

5. It will not be improper to mention here, that the ter- 
mination azo is sometimes used also, to express the injury that 
a weapon is capable of inflicting ; Ex. 

I A muto de un pistoletaso, He shot her with a pistol. 

Me tir6 en tierra de un garrotaza. He knocked me down with a blow 

ofaitick, 

(i. Nouns diminutive are formed by the addition of the 
terminations in, illo, iio, ico, ete, uelo, or uefo^ to the mas- 
culine : the feminine are formed by adding a to the termina- 
tion in, and by changing the final vowel of the others into a ; 
observing, however, that diminutives ending in ito and ico 
denote not only smallncss, but a kind of endearing expression ; 
and those that end in illo, uelo, or uejo, generally denote 
contempt; Ex. 

Primitives. Derivatives. Primitives. Derivatives. 

Hombre, hombrectto, hombreciZ/o, A man, a nice little man, a pitiful 

little fellow. 
Casa, cas/ia, casi//a, A house, a pretty little house, a 

mean little house. 

This rule, however, is not always strictly uniform ; prac- 
tice only can make the pupil familiar with the peculiar mean- 
ing of these terminations. 



f.Wmi1l«^TfllJ] Sm«L0fiT JTKD 8TNT1X OV HaiTKS. 20 

7. Ob^nre tfattt augmentative and diminutive Nouns art; of 
the gender of tlieir primitives ; but those ending in itzo^ used 
to express the injury inflicted by a weapon* follow the rule of 
their termination with regard to their gender. See Par. 13 
of this leeture. ^ 



OF NUMBER. 

8. Noons are varied in their form, so as to express one or 
many. Nouns have two nambers, namely, the singular to 
denote one of the kind, as a man, a house ; and the plural^ to 
express more than one ; as, men^ houses. The plural of 
Spanish Nouns is formed as follows. 

9. When the Spanish Noun ends in a vowel, on which the 
stress of the voice does not Ml, its plural is formed by the 
addition of an 5 to the Noun in the singular number ; Ex. 

Singular. Plural. Singular. Flubal. 

Estrella, estrellas. Star, stars. 

Ave, aves. Bird, birds. 

Ge6gTafo, ge6grafos, Geographer, geographers. 

10. When the Noun ends in an accented vowel, or in ^, its 
plural is formed by the addition of es to the Noun in the sin- 
gular number. The same takes place with Nouns that end 
in a consonant, unless that consonant be a z, in which case 
the plural is formed by changing the z into ces ; Ex. 



SlNOVLAll. 


Plural. 


Singular. 


Pluval. 


Jabali, 


iabalfes, 
leyes. 


wad boar, 


wild boars. 


Ley, 


Law, 


laws. 


Barril, 


barriles. 


Barrel, 


barrels. 


Lnz, 


luces, i 


L Light, 


lights. 



*«* Obieroe that in the exercises in future, all Spanish Nouns will be put in 
the mngHlar number, whatever may be the xmmber of the eorretportding Nouns 
in EngUth. The student will therefore have to conuder the numb(nr of the English. 
Noun previotts to his translating it, and to be governed by the foregoing rtilen, 
for the formation of the Noun in the plural number when required, 

EXERCISE ON THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL NUMBER 

OF NOUNS. 

The beauty of the birds, and the melody of their voices. The 

hermosura,/. melodia,/. sus voz. 

woods in those countries are very thick. The flocks in toe 

bosque, m. en aquellos pais son muy espesos. rebaho, m. 

meadows. The niceties of the languages. The gilly-flowers 

priulo, m. deKcadeza,/. lengua,/. alelf, i^. 

and roses grew in abundance. ^len and women should be faithful ' 
rasa, /. cre<;i»n. abundancia. deben ser fillet: 

D 3 



30 ETYMOLOGY AVJ> SYNTAX OP K0ifK9. [lBCTUKS TJfll* 

[to feach other.] Those ministers framed good Uwa for ' 

uDos con otros. aquellos ministro, m. formal on buenas ley,/. para> 

their coonlries. The scholars received the hooka and pens from. ■ 

^B paeblo. discipulos recibieron libro, m. piuma 

their masters. Those garrets are very roomy. The 

sus maestro, m. zaquizami, m. son espa^iosos. 

flowers of those gardens are beautiful. 
Hor, /. jardin, m. hermosas. 

1 1 . There are some Nouns which in their nature haVe 
always a plural signification, and consequently require that 
the Article employed with them, be in the plural number ; 
such are viveres^ provisions ; visperas, vespers ; dticaUi, 
pincers, and several others. 

There are otliers, which, notwithstanding their plural ter- 
mination, have not a plural signification, and therefore require 
the article in the singfular number ; such are cor/a -p/iimo^, a 
penknife ; saca-botasy a boot-jack, and some others. 

OF GENDER. 

12. Gender is that property of a Noun, which in all Lan- 
guages, marks the distinction of sex ; and as there are but 
two sexes in nature, the Spaniards (among others,) agreeably 
to this view, have adopted but two genders; namely, the 
masculine and the feminifie: — ^The English in addition to these 
two, have added the neuter gender, thus designating animate 
objects by their respective sex, and classing inanimate ones 
in the neuter gender. 

13. It is very easy to distinguish the gender of Spanish 
Nouns : first, by their signification, as all animate objects, 
are of the gender of their respective sex ; and the rank, pro- 
fessions, employments, and so forth, of persons, are of the 
gender of the individuals to which they belong. Secondly, 
by the termination; the rule to ascertain the gender by 
which, being so easy, would be preferable to be adopted as a 
general standard : This rule is. Nouns ending in a, d^ or son, 
are of the feminine gender : those which end in any other 
letter art; masculine ; Ex. 

Feminine. Masculine. 

Inocencia, innocence. Hoooff honour. 

V'irtud virtue. Sombrero, hat. 

llelacion, relation. Monte, mountain. 

There are, however, some exceptions to this latter rule, 
consisting mostly of words of foreign derivation, of which a 
list will be here given. Observe, however, first, that there 



mre also two other speoies of Nouns, the one called tpicmrn^^ 
whleh is applied to Nouns that express both genders by the 
same word ; as, Elpato^ The duck or the drake ; La ratm^ The 
he or the rat : neither does the Article prefixed to these Nouni 
varj, to distinguish their gender : therefore, in order to point 
out their gender, it is necessary to add some word to them, 
desciiptiye of their sex ; as, £/ pato macho, El pato hembra ; 
La rata macho, La rata hembra ; macho signifying malcj and 
hembra female. 

The other species of Nouns is called common ^ from their 

being common to both genders, and the Article prefixed to 

them points out the distinction of their gender ; as. El tigre^ 

The tiger ; Lri tigrcy The tigress ; UnjdveUf A young man ; Una 

Jotfen^ A young woman. 



LIST OF EXCEPTIONS IN THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 



Adema, 


prop. 


albacea, 


executor. 


almea. 


storax. 


anagrama> 


anagram. 


aneurisma. 


aneurism. 


aatfpoda. 


antipode. 


aponsma. 


ecchymosis. 


apotegma. 


apothegm. 


accioma. 


axiom. 


carisma. 


divine gift. 


ciima. 


climate. 


cometa. 


comet. 


crisma. 


chrism. 


dia. 


day. 


dialragma, 


midriff. 


diagrama, 


diagram. 


dilema, 


dilemma. 


diploma. 


diploma. 


dogma. 


dogma. 


drama. 


drama. 


edema. 


oedema. 


eoi^a. 


enigma, 
entoymeme. 


entimema. 


epigrama. 


epigram. 


esperma. 


sperm. 


Etoa, 


Etna. 


fuardacosta. 


custom-house 




boat. 




Masculine Nou 


AdaliJ, 


a chief, a leader. 


alamiid. 


door bar. 


almnd^ 


a measure. 


archiUnd, 


a species of lute. 


ardid« 


ttratagem. 


aU«d« 


coffin* 



Masculine Nouns ending in A. 

g'uardavela, 

^uardaropa, 

idioma, 

jesuita, 

largomira, 

lema, 

man6, 

mapa, 

metaplasma, 

minimista, 

paradi^ma, 

paradoja, 

paragua, 

pentagrama, 

planeta^ 

pleonasma, 

poema, 

prisma, 

problema, 

progimnasma, 

sfntoma, 

sistema, 

sofa, 

sofisma, 

tema, 

teorema, 

viva, 



main-top tackle. 

wardrobe. 

idiom. 

Jesuit. 

telescope. 

lemma^ 

manna. 

map. 

metaplasn. 

student. 

paradigm. 

paradox. 

umbrella. 

musical stave. 

planet. 

pleonasm. 

poem. 

prism. 

problem. 

essay. 

symptom. 

system. 

sopha. 

sophism. 

theme. 

theorem. 

huzza. 



cesped, 

huesped, 

laud, 

sod, 

taliDudy 



turf. 

guest. 

lute. 

south. 

tahaad. 



■VTMOtiMT Ann snnttz Mr 



(uMnnHi-^Tiiit 



Avion, 



gomoD, 

guioD, 

farampkm. 



Mascnliiie Noons endinf in lON.^ 

a kind of swallow. 

embryob 

tpaiTOw. 

standard. 

measles. 



antOTioBy 



allllYMIII. 

akiadof 
a sodden 



Anade, 

alache, 

alsine, 

are, 

anunbrey 

barbarie, 

base, 

calricie, 

calle, 

ci4>elardente, 

cari^tide, 

carne, 

catdstrofe, 

certidanibre, 

churre, 

dase, 

clave, 

clem&tide, 

cohorte, 

compages, 

corambre, 

corriente, 

corte, 

costumbre, 

crasicie, 

ereciente, 

cumbre, 

dulcedumbre, 

elatine, 

epip4ctide, 

etifer<3ide, 

etpecie, 

estirpe, 

falange, 

fase, 

f6, 

fievre, 

frente, 

fuente, 

gente, 

naipbre, 

helice, 

hemionite, 

henumbre, 
hipocfstide, 

hojaldre, 

incertidumbre» 

Indole, 



Feminine Nouns ending in E. 

iotemperie, 

lande, 

landie, 

laringe, 

laude, 

leche, 

legumbre, 

lente, 

liebre, 

liendre, 

lite, 

Have, 

lumbre, 

mansedumbre, 

menguante, 

mente, 

mole, 

molicie, 

muchedumbre, 

muerte, 

mugre, 

nave, 

nieve, 

noche, 

nube, 

paralage, 

paraselene, 

parte, 

patente, 

peptide, 

pesadumbre, 

peste, 

pir4mide, 

pigide, 

palroicie, 

plebe, 

pod re, 

podredumbre, • 

proffenie, 

prole, 

quiete, 

salumbre, 

salve, 

sangre, 

sede, 

serie, 

servidumbre, 

serpiente, 



dock, 
shad. 

chick weed, 
fowl, bird, 
a measure, 
barbarity, 
basis, 
baldness, 
street, 
fhneral pile, 
caryatides, 
flesh. 

catastrophe, 
certainty, 
grease, 
class, 
key. 
climber (a plant). 

cohort. 

joint. 

hides. 

stream. 

court. 

custom. 

fatness. 

flood-tide. 

summit. 

sweetness. 

waterwort. 

bastard hellebore. 

spheroid. 

species. 

race, or origin. 

phalanx. 

phases. 

faith. 

fevier. 

front. 

fountain. 

people. 

hunger. 

helix. 

the plant hemic- 

niie. 
rust of iron, 
the plant hypo- 
cist as. 
a kind of pancake, 
uncertainty, 
temper. 



^roiiu 

mtemperateness. 
a kind of acorn, 
glandular swell- 

ing. 
larynx. 

praise, an epitaph, 
milk, 
pulse, 
lens, 
hare, 
nit. 

litigation, 
key. 
fire. 

meekness, 
ebb-tide, 
the mind, 
mass. 

effeminacy, 
multitude, 
death, 
dirt, 
ship, 
snow, 
night, 
cloud, 
parallax, 
mock-moon, 
a part, 
patent, 
wild purslain. 
grief. 

the plague, 
pyramid, 
pix. 
plain, 
rabble, 
pus. 

rottenness, 
progeny, 
issue, 
quietus, 
oxide of salt, 
the Salve Uegina. 
blood, 
a see. 
series, 
servitude. 
«rpent. 




tiMe. 






C 




T. 





caiHtal, 
caroel, 
cal, 
decretal. 




AnninaxoB, 

barbeckuia, 

binazoDx 

cargaaoB, 

cliii»«r crin. 
desuoB, 
imizen, 
hiperbaiton. 



Mano, 



Bezoar, 

flor, 

labor. 



.Vnagiiis, 

aatiperlstasis, 

apoteosis, 

bflis, 

colaplscia* 

crisis. 




bjperbatoB. 



Feminiiie Noans codinf in O. 
IuumL I 



tiMlwtdV 

S|kQCUI(, 



FeminiDe Noons ending in R. 



bexoar. 
flower, 
laboor. 



sepir, 
zoster. 



axe. 
shinglts. 



Feminine Nouns endlug in S. 



beap trefoil. 

antiperistasis. 

apotheosis. 

bile. 

isinjslass. 

crisis. 



diaper^sis, 

diatr48is, 

diesis, 

enfit^usis, 

epigl6ti8, 

etites, 



diapedesis. 

diathrasis. 

diesis. 

emphyteusis. 

epiglottis. 

•liteSt 




deui-netdie. 




«p vm^noL [laBCTURB yiiit 



rickets, 
liead of cattle, 
azifrage. 



synsresis* 

syntax. 

thesis. 

phthisis. 

cough. 



Cerrix. 



^oaiL 



haa. 



childhood. 

nut. 

peace. 

partridge. 

pitch. 

pomice. 

loot. 

swface. 

surplice. 

complexion. 

time. 

▼oice. 

And all those Noons ending in e, denoting qualities in the abstract 
irUUmtez* brilliancy ; esemaeZf scarcity, and many others. 

There are also a few Nouos, of which the Gender is not generally fixed, 
as some authors consider them masculine, and others feminine. I'he fol- 
lowing is a list of them : — 



hot. 
matru. 



▼sage. 

bundle. 
dR«. 

sicQe, defile. 
Hght. 
matrix. 




as, 



Albala, 


certificate, codiet. 


hipirbole. 


hyperbole. 


anatema. 


anathema. 




mart. 


sea. 


arte*. 


art. 




noma. 


seal of a letter. 


azucar. 


sugar. 




neuma. 


a significant ges 


calor. 


heat. 






ture. 


canal. 


canal. 




6rden, 


order. 


cisma, 
cdtis. 


schbm. 
skin. 




pringue, 
puente. 


erease. 
Bridge. 


dote, 


dowry. 




reuma. 


rheum. 


hermafrodita. 


hermaphroc 


lite. 


tribu. 


tribe. 



EXERCISE ON THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 

*«* The Gender of the Spanish Nouns will not bepmnUd Mt in the Exercises in 
future; as it is presumed the foregoing Rules will enable the Student to 
distinguish them. 

Self love and pride are the oifspring of ignorance. Innoctu««, 
amorpropio orgullo son hijos ignoranda. inocenda, 

honor, and the Jove of virtue are estimable (2) qualities (1). The 
amor virtud estimables prenda 



* Arte, is always femiiiine when used in the plural number. 

t The compounds of m», are universally femiuine : as, he^fomar, low 
water ; p/Mimrr* high water. . . 



I/BCTUEB IX.] tflTMOLOGT A^TB SYNTAX OF VOUITB. 35 

summiU of those monntaiiis are very pleasant. Her conversatioft i» 
cima aquellos iiionte m«y agradables. su t» 

very agreeable. Good cultivation contributes to the fertility of the soiL 
amena. buen cultiro contribuye fertilidad tienrt. 

They follow the same system. The situation of the country. The 
^ siguen mismo pais. 

treatise appears to have been written by an historian. She is a servant 
tratado parece ^ haber side escrito por historiador. ella es criada 

of the datchess. Amplification or climax, is a figure of speech 
duquesa. -^— — [6 sea] graduacion fignra ret6rica 

which ' gradually heightens the circumstances of an object, 

que [va suoiendo de grado en grado] circonstanda obijeto. 

He was decorated with the cross of honor. The symptoms ^f the 
A <u6 condecorado con 

disease. It is the custom of the times, 

enfermedad. a es tiempo. 



LECTURE IX. 

ON CASE. 

I . We have now come to that yariation of Nouns, called 
case. It ia one of the most difficult parts of Grammar to 
comprehend fally : it is one of the utmost import, and con- 
sequently demands the greatest attention. Much has been 
sud by many Grammarians, respecting this important sab- 
ject, but few have brought it home to the comprehension of 
the learner. Some indeed, have dispensed with it alto^ther, 
alleging that no such thing as case exists, in the greater 
number of modern Languages ; and have thus avoided to 
treat on a most essential part of Grammar. 

The motive which has led some Grammarians to deny the 
existence of case, has doubtless originated in the different 
eases being denoted in Latin by the inflections which a Noun 
exhibits in its various terminations ; and as Nouns in most of 
the modern Languages, are not subject to these inflections, 
some have supposed them to have no case. But cases do 
not originate in consequence of the inflections in Nouns : — it 
is the inflections, that point out the case, or state of the 
Noun : it is the sti^ or relation of a Noun, that causes it to 
be in any particular case : and these causal states^ or rela- 



35 SmiOI^MT AMD 8TVTAX OF XOOm. [bBOTVAB IX. 

ikms an denoted in modern laaif^tigw, by tlte assistanee of 
Prepositions, with the same precision, as Nouns in Latin are, 
by inflections : For instance. 

Nominative. Dominus, £1 SeSor, llie Loftd. 

Genitife or Possessive. Domini, l>el Sefior, Of die Lord*. 

Dative. Domino, Al Sefior, To tiM Loid. 

AGcusative or Objective. Dominoro, Al Senor, The Lord. 

Ablative. Domino, For el Sefior, By the l<ord. 

Here are the cases exhibited in three Languages* la 
Latin, no Article nor Preposition is required to point out tbe 
ease of the Noun ; the termination alone of the Noon, Is 
adequate to this purpose ; but in Spanish and EngHshi 
Prepositions and Articles are employed for this end ; and dieir 
office in these Languages, is precisely the same as that of the 
terminations in Latin. 

In the sentence, The man saw mc^ — ^the man is to a very 
different case or state, to what he is, in the sentence, / mow 
the man. In the first example, the man is in the case of 
governing the Verb io see; he is the agent of that Verb ; but 
in the second, the man is the object upon whom the ac^n 
falls, of the Verb to see. In the first instance, the man aetg; 
in the second he is acted vponx — his state is different, his 
case is different. Can it then be doubted that cases mast 
exist in every Language, and that it is of little importance 
whether they are denoted by particles placed before tiie 
Nouns, or by inflections in their terminations ? 

2. The object now, is to explain the nature and use of the 
cases. The names by which they are designated are of 
Latin origin. There are five cases to be considered, namely, 
the Nominative, the Genitive , the Dative^ the Accusative ^ 
and the Ablative. In addition to these, we see in all Latin 
Grammars, another case, called the Vocative^ and which has 
likewise been introduced by many, into the Grammars of 
modern Languages. Ex. Dondney in Latin ; O SeHnr^ in 
Spanish ; and Lord in English. By vocative^ we are to 
understand invoking or addressing. But this case, howerer 
indispensable it may be in Latin, appears entirely useless in 
those Languages, in which the Nouns have not the infleetiooa 
of Latin Nouns : since a Noon in the vocative case, ii evi- 
dently the Nofninative in a different attitude, for when we say 
O Lord, we make use of an ellipds, by leaving out the words 
which are wanting to make the expression complete : thus, 
O thou who art the Lord : — And here we see Chat the Noon 
Lord, is in the Nominative case, coming after the verb art, and 
vfho (the Relative Pronoun) is the Nominative, before the Verb, 



VBC. IX.] BTTHOLOfiT AIJ1» STSTdtX OF HOUN8. 37 

3. The word eate, ii derived from the Luiii Noun camtf 
tbe Iherkl aignifieation of which is /iiU ; and as Litin Nouns 
have six cases, all except the nominitife are represented a 
falling or declining from the nomiiiHtive : hence tellriig the 
cases, is called declining a Noun ; and therefore tbe word 
case, BH applied to Grammar, means the relation which a 
Nonn bears in a sentence to another Noun, or Verb or P 
position. I'he cases as before observed, are denoted in Latin 
by the termination of the Noun. In Enjclish one case, namely, 
the posscaive, is lurmed by the addition of an s with the 
apostrophe : as ihe Lord's. In Spanish, the Noun never 
dergoes any variation to denote ease. 

4. A Noun or Pronnnn, ia in the nominative case, whe 
names a person or thing in a state of bfing or doing some- 
tbing, at any period; as Henry is good; He wroie; 
diip wi/l tail : in which instances, Henry, He and the ship, 
are each in the nam ma f be case. Thti Noun Henry ileooies 
a person in a stale of being, as being good : The Pronoun He, 
denotes a person that has performed something ; and tbe 
Noun ship describes an inanimate olijecC about to do so 
thing. Therefore tbe person or thing that is or that acts, U 
in tiie notBtnalitie case ; and as being and action are expressed 
by Verbs, the nominative ia said to gijvern the Verb, or to be 
the au^eet or agent of tbe Verb. 

Tfae following are some Nouns and Pronouns in the nomi- 
natire eaae. 

Thtmni ig good, rnrnui es bupno. 

He wrilCE well, £1 Fscribe bien. 



Theae Nouns Thomas, trees, and the Pronouns i/t; and iSAeare 
all in (be nominative ease, because they are either in a state 
of being, or acting, and in both instances they govern the 
Verb. 

5. A Noun or Fronoan is in the genitive or possessive 
casct when it describes any person or thing in possession of 
any other person or thing; or when it describes any person 
or tiling to which another Noun relates ; as The laws qf the 
country; His sword; Her husband; Maria's fan ; In these 
cx«mples. Country, His, Her, and Maria, are iu the genitiv 
caae, they being the possexsore of the persons or things 
described as being poiiseised by them, or the persons or thinga 
related to, 



M.3I1C following are Some Nouns knd Pronouns in the genidl^H 

■r|>03BeH»ivii! cute. ^^M 

P* jlRl/iony'i speech, Ei iiscano de Antenio. '^^| 

pi The leiga of Atigunui, E] ceiaKdo d/i dugTiart, ^^M 

^. Hii jjuper^, 6'hi pspelnB. ivH 



Their goodnfl^B, ^fL bonditd. 

fi. It liRS been remarked before, that the poRS 
uf Nouns in English, is sometiGies denL>tetI by an s, with the 
aj)Dstrii|>1ie, added to the Noun denoting ihe possessor. In 
Sp&niiil) however a Noun in this catte is always preceded by 
the Preposition de. There are sentences also in Engliab, 
where the sign 't In employed as a substitute for the Noun 
which it represents ; ai Helives at die GtncraCs, I come from 
Ihe Doctor'i : where we see that the '« occupies the place of 
residence or house. In Spanisb, howeTer, no sur.h suppres- 
sion is allowed ; instead of which, the order of the construc- 
tion is reversed ; Ex. I^tie en caia del Generalf fengo de Ci 
dd Docior ; which literally mean, He liva iil the house qf ll 
General ; / come from the huuse of the Docior, , 

7. As it has just been stated that the p'enitiFe case I_ 
Spanish is always preceded by the Prepusition de, it is neces'-' 
sary to warn the student that this Preposition sometimes 
governs the ablative case also. ]t g-overus the gfmtive case, 
when the Nuun whrch it precedes, denotes the possessor of 
sny tiling, or when the Preposition is dependent on an otJl 
■Voun that precedes it, expressed or understood : " 

I El paUcio del Jiey, The pdace of the King, m- Ihe S 

Ud dffedMt dt U jusdcia, A defender of ji 

In the first example, palacio, being possessed by the Noun 

Rey, the latter is iu the genitive case : and iti the second, the 

Noun JMticiii, is also in the genitive case, being governed by 

the rrepusition de, which is dependent on the antecedent Noun 

But, if the Noun preceded by the Preposition de, should 
it denote the possessor uf any thing, or if the Prepoait' 
cs not relate to an antecedent Noun, tbe Noun preceded, 
B Preposition is in the abUitiue case : Ex. 

Engo de EspaSs, I come/iDm Spain. 

OBiquidt raicartern, I drew ilouio/my poekel-book. 

: the Nouns Espafia, and cartera, are not dependent 
y any antecedent Nouns ; nor are they the possessors of 
' thing ; tliey are therefore not in the genitive, but in 
aUaUve case. (See tbe ablative case, Par, 13.) ~ 



se n 

leccff- 
times 

the 
dby 

ould 

% 



iiBC. ix.] BmnH.saT a» ststax i>r vovm. 39 

8. Those peracMM or tUoirs to vUch tmf iknf is jfecn, 
direeted, or eomtiaaicaied, are in the datiee case ; as / ;«« 
(Ac fcooi (o Hornet, He Krou nt a Utter, 

Nouns in this case are preceded either bj ihe PrrpositioD 
<i or para, \o or for. Pninouns in the dative rase, are some* 
times, but not atwajs, preceded by ■ Preposition, (See the 
Declension of PronouDS, Lee, 16, Par. 3.) 

9. ObKrre that « Noun in the datire case, is not the 
immediate object of the A'erb (that is, the actiou of ihe Verb 
dues not fall immediately upon it); it is \he indirect object: 
the thinit inven, directed, or coinmanicaled, is the immediate 
object of the Verb, and is in ibe accnsuiite or olifeclirc case, 
as will be noticed presently. Verbs are therefore said to 
govern directly or indireeily. 

The following are some Nouns and Pronouns in the dative 
case. 

■he Xayor, EicHbliil Carrtfidirr. 

■ '-- 'nin, Lo compr* jm™ Jww. 



■ Iboughlil^Ji 

1 cairnd Ihe letlet 
She givelAmlbei 

10. Althfiug-h Nnuns, and Pronouns in the dative caise, are 
preceded bj- the Pre|io>itiong d and pitra, it must be observed 
thM these Prepositions do not always govern the dative ca«e. 
They only guvirrn this case, when the Noun or Pronoun, 
which they govern, receives the beneBt or injury of the 
action of the Verb, which precedes the Preposition ! £i. 

Entregu^ la carta at kombre, I dvtiverei) the Utler Id Ifie maR. 

In which examples tlie Noun hombrc. anU ihe Pronoun el, 
receive the benefit or the injury of the action of the antece- 
dent Verbs. In all other instances these Prepositions govern 
the accusative or objective case, as we shall now see. 

11. A Noun or Pronoun is in the atxttsative or objective 
case, when it represents the person or thing affected by some 
action done ; or when it denotes the person or thing on which 
Ibe energy of the action expressed by the Verb, falU ; or in 
other w(i(d»i. it represents the object of the Verb: at Albert 
ami Henry, You tut t lie paper. In the first example, Henry 
is the object seen ; the energy of the Verb to see, falls on him. 
lo the second, paper is tlie object of tlie Verb to cut, the 
energy of the Verb falls upon it, the paper is affected by the 
action of the Verb to cut. All Nouns ur Proiumus in this 
case are the direct or immediate object of the Verb, as before 
noticed. 



1 



I 



40 fiTTlfOLOeT AMD BTIfTlX OP MOtTHB. [lBC. IX. 

The following are some Noons and Pronotms in Ms 
case. 

He loves Mary, Ama d Maria. 

They fell the trte, Denibaron al drboU 
Julia bought it, Juliana lo coitipr6. 

He esteems her, • £1 la aprecia. 

12. The Prepositions which govern the accosatiye dase, 
are the following, namely, d, aniCy contra^ entre^ hacta^ haan^ 
parot seguny iras : Ex. 

Ella aborrece d CUaidio, She detests Claudhu* 

AntetlJues, . Before the Judge* 

Di6 contra la pefia. He struck against the rock, 

Entre los drbotest Between or among the trees* 

Van hacia Valeneia, They p^ towards Valencia, 

Lle^aroD hasta Paris, They arrived as far as Paris* 

Sali6 para Madrid, He set out/or Madrid, 

Segun la ley. According to the Law, 

No habr& mas tras esto, There will be no more after this. 

The Preposition por^ also governs the accasative case, 
when preceded by Verbs that denote tnovemeni : Ex. 

Voy k major por Espafia, I am going to travel through Spain* 

Pas6 por mi ventana. He passed by my window. 

Here the Verbs viajar andpa«d, denote movement^ and 
therefore cause Espafia and ventana, to be in the accusative 
case : — But when par, is preceded by a Verb that does not 
denote movement, it governs the ablative case : Ex. 

He hahlado por Vmd,, I have spol^nfor you, 

Lo hixo por yerro. He did it through mistake. 

The Preposition sobre, likewise governs the accnsative 
case, when it denotes superiority : Ex. 

La caridad es sobre todas las virtudes. Charity is above all virtues* 
But when it denotes place, it governs the ablative : £x» 

£st4 sobre la mesa. It is upon the table, 

(See also observations on the employment of the Prepoei* 
tion d in the accusative or objective case, Paragraph 16.) 

13. The ablative case derives its signification from the 
Latin word ablativus, which means a taking away : The 
Noun or Pronoun in this case, is said to represent a person 
:or thing in the state of having something separated, divided, 
or taken from it ; as They took it from her ; He was released 
from his difficulties. Here the Pronoun her, and the Noun 
difficulties, are in the ablative case ; each having something 



,..0. ,1.] 

separated o 



BTTHOLOOI AKD BTNTAX OP 1 



41 



' taken from it> Nut withstanding tbis liowever, 
ttierc are many Nouns and Pronouns, wliich liare nothing 
separated or taken from them, and are nevertheless in the 
ablative ca»e. in fact, thix case, besides separation and the like, 
denotes instrumenlalily, ami the meant bji which, ur the manner 
how, a thing is done ; as Tkt book was seni by the servant. 
Here the servant was mstrumentul in carrying the book : the 
servant is therefore in the ablative case. Again, He vias 
killed by an arroai. Here the arrow is in the ablative case, 
because it is the Noun denoting the meant bf which the 
act of killing was effected. 

14> Besides the Preposition de, mentioned in Paragraph 7, 
Mjtdpor and sobre, noticed in Paragraph 13, the following are 
also employed in the ablative case, namely, con, desde, en. 
Kin; Ex. 



1 



The following are some Nouns and Pronouns in the abla- 
tive case. 

Htseparaledlhe mother /roJH (he ApsrtiJ & is madre d< li hu'u. 
lie s«;[e[ed biinieir/rDin thej'iu- £:e ocnltiS d> iajiulicia. 



It is upon Ibe lebit, 
Do ODt come wiihunC h 
Go uilh him, 
HelLvest»S..P«fri4, 



Eatd lobre la men- 
No veaea vmd. tin ilia. 
Vaya vmd. am 11. 
Vive eA Sati Feiersburro. 



15. The following are a few examples in both Languages, 
by whicli the student may exercise himself in ascertaining the 
different eases of Nouns and Pronouns, as they may occur. 
In the first three sentences the cases are denoted by their 
respective initials ; while, in the rest, they are left to be 
pointed out by the learner. 



He(n.) exlracled it face.) from 
■D official document, (ab.) 
whicb wai addresied to the 
General (d.) of the array, (ff.) 

No one (n.) can accuse those 
men (ace.) of havin? been 



LI (ti.) Id (ace.) sac6 de un docu- 
mento (at.) oficial, que s« diri. 
gi6alGeneril(d.)deleE^reito(;>) 

Nadie (n.) podr^ acusar 4 aquellM 
hombres lace) de habcr sdo m- 
fieles, 

NapDedeecsiBtiiiaciBdad(n.)bieii 
ordaaada, sin una imparcial ad- 
ministraciaDt^iib.) &cva3>^''^fc-t 

B 3 



49 



mmmumr am9 wnrtAX ov womn. [lbc. ex. 



(It is necessary to observe that Verbs do not always gorwa 
tke same ease in both Languages, and also that the nominatire 
is freqnently suppressed in Spanish, where it is not in En- 
glish.) 

Pedi al hombre lo que me baluft 
quitado. 

Convino desde luego el Geaertl en 
el armisticio, para evitar lee in- 
calculables males que debian sa- 
Mr lo8 babitantes de aquella 
ciudad. 



I demanded of the man what he 
had taken from me. 

The General immediately agreed 
to the armistice, in order to 
avoid the incalcalable evils, 
which the inhabitants of that 
town would solTer. 

In whatever manner a body acts 
upon us, we are only a wareof its 
action, by the change which it 
produces on our frame. 

It is not possible to explain mi- 
nutely all the physi<»l causes 
of the memory. 



De cualquiera maneraque un cuerpo 
otee aobre nosotroe, no conocemos 
esta cqperacion, sino por. la muta- 
cion que produce en nuestra mk- 
quina. 

No es posible esplicar por meaor, 
todas las causes ffsicas de la me- 
moria. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE PREPOSI- 
TION i, IN THE ACCUSAT1\T: or OBJECTIVE CASE. 

16. The Grammar of the Spanish Academy has given it as 
a rule, that active transitive Verbs govern a Noun or Pro- 
noun in the accusative case, with the Preposition d, if it re- 
present a person ; and without the Preposition, if the regimen 
does not represent a person ; and the greater part of writers 
of Spanish Grammars have copied this rule : but the universal 
application of it would very frequently cause sentences to be 
obscure in their signification. Tlie adoption of the Preposi- 
tion d in the accusative case, should not he confined to per- 
sonal or personified Nouns, and it is sometimes dispensed 
with even before these. Its use is to point out the imme- 
diate object of the Verb, when it is not sufficiently denoted 
without the assistance of the Preposition ; a circumstance 
that very often occurs in Spanish, where there is so great a 
variety of syntactical inversion, as will be observed by the 
following example, which may be expressed in six different 
ways, without altering its sense in the least ; Ex. 



Caio mat6 4 Abel, 
Cain k Abel mat6, 
A' Abel mat6 Cain, 
A' Abel Cain mat6, 
Mat6 Cain k Abel, 
Mat6 6 Abel Cain, 



-Cain kiUed Abel. 



LSC. tX.] BTYVOLOSY iVO STNTIX OF MaVHI. 

It is evideDt ia tbis esauple, that we could got dtBCtver 
Abel to be the object of tbe Verb, were il not for the I're- 
pasitioii a. So far the rule of the Academy stand* good, u 
regards the necessitj of emplojing thiH Preposiiion befor« 
personal Nouiiii in the Rcuusative cast; : but the following 
example will show ihe necessity of employin^c it in » 
Etances, before Nouns iu the accusative case, tlint do 
present personal beings ; Ex. 

F.i iibol abrigu d fa cara. The Uee iheltsreH llir bum 

Here casa, is the object of the Verb abrig6, which the Prr- 
positicin (i poiiita out to be audi, litt us invert Ihe ayntac> 
lical order of the phrase, thus, A' la casa abrigii tl drbol, mid 
casa, being governed by the Prepo§itiun d, still appears the 
object of tbe Verb. We will now dis|>eDt^e with the Prepo- 
sition d, and see faow the sentence stands ; for instance, Im 
caia abi igo el drbol ; and here we see that if It hove any 
meaning at all, it is diametrically opposite to that of the sen- 
tence in its oi-iginnl form. 

Wherefure it appears, that the Preposition <( should not be 
dispensed with before Nouns in the accusative case, whether 
ibej be personal or not, when both the nominative and accu' 
sative cases are of the same number, as in the foregoing 
example ; but it is not absolutely required when they differ 
in number as then the Verb itself will be sufficient to point 
out the nominative, by its agreement with it. In cases where 
tbe nominative and accusative Nouns are of different jiersom, 
we may likewise dispense with the Preposition. 

There are some iostancea in which u sentence may contain 
two Nouns of the same number, one of which being governed 
in English by a Verb, becomes ilie direct object, and conse* 
quently in the accusaiive case : the other being governed by 
tbe Pri'po«itiun to, becomes the indirect object, and therefore 
in the dative case ; as, IVe leni the captain to the merchant ; 
where it is seen that the captain is the immediale object of 
the Verb lait., and therefore in the accusative case ; and the 
merchant being the person to whom the captain was sent, is 
in the dative case. Now, as it frequently hapjwua that tbe 
dative as well as the accut^ative cases are governed in tipanisb 
by the Preposition a; if in translating the above sentence 
intn Spanish, we employ the Preposition in both cases, it 
would produce ambiguity, and we should not know whether 
the person sent was the captain or the merchant : to avoid 
which ambiguity, we should dispense witb the Proposition in 
tbe accuttuive case, and employ it onlj in ttifc duiive, "wi'v* 



1 



J 



44 BVVil6li(MIT AND STMl^X 09 NOVWK [l*IC. IX. 

sttnciM of this nature ; Ex. Enoiambi el caption al mercader, 
and not enviamos al capiian al mercader. 
• Hiere seeoiK, however, to be a tendency to the general 
adoption of the Preposition 4^ l>efore personal Nouns in the 
accusative case^ although not to the entire exclusion of it, 
before Nouns that do not refer to persons. Upon the-wlioie, 
therefore, it will be advisable to adopt it in the accnitatlve 
case, except in such instances where the object of the Verb 
is sufficiently conspicuous without the use of it ; and to em- 
ploy it where ambiguity might be the result of its exclusion : 
this method would be the easiest to practise, and would har- 
monize with the idiom of the Spanish Language. 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS WITH THE ARTICLE. 
Masculine Nouns referring to persons. 

Singular, 

KoM. £1 hombre, The man. 

Gen, . del hombre, of the man. 

Dat. k or para el hombre, to or for the man. 

Ace. el or al hombre, the man. 

AvL, por, de, en, sin, con, sobre, by, from, in, without, with, upon, 
el hombre, the man. 

Plural. 

NoM. Los hombres. The men. 

Gen. de los hombres, of the men. 

Dat. & or para los hombres, to or for the men. 

Ace. los or k los hombres, the men. 

Abl. por &c. los hombres, by &c. the men. 

Feminine Nouns referring to persons. 

Singular, 
NoM. La muger, The woman, 



of the woman. 

to or for the woman. 

the woman. 



Gen. de la muger, 

Dat. k or para la muger, 

Aoc. la or & la muger, lue woman. 

Abl. por &c. la muger, by &c. the woman. 

PluraL 

NoM . Las mugeres, The women. 

Gen. de las mugeres, of the women. 

Dat. k or para las mugeres, to or for the women. 

Aoc las or & las mugeres, the women. 

Abl. por &c. las mugeres, by &c. the women. 



MiMC. Z«] arfMOLOGT AND STTNTAX OF N0UW6. 46 



Masculine Nouns referring to things^ 

SingHlar. 

XoM* El libTO, The book. 

Osir. deimHro, oftfaeboolu 

Dat* & or para el libro, to or for the book. 

Aoc* el or allibro, the book. 

Abl* por &e. el libroi by &c. the book. 

Plural. 

Nox. Los libros. The books. 

Gek. de los libros, - of the books. 

Dat. 4 or para los^Kbros, to or for the books* 

Aoc. los or & los libros, the books. 

Abl* por &c< los libros, by &c. the books. 



Feminine Nouns referring to thingps. 

Singular* 

NoM. La carta* The letter. 

Gen. de la carta, of the letter. 

Dat. & or para la carta, to or for the letter. 

Ace la or 4 la carta, the letter. 

Abl* por, &c. la carta, by &c. the letter. 

Plural, 

NoM. Las cartas. The letters. 

Gbn. de las cartas, of the letters. 

Dat. 4 or para las cartas, to or for the letters. 

Aoc. las or 4 las cartas, the letters. 

Abl. por &c. las cartas, by &c. the letters. 



LECTURE X. 

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF NOUNS. 

1. Whbn in English two Nouns follow each other, the first 
senring as it were as an Adjective to the second, specifying its 
kind, purpose, occupation, or the like, their order is reversed 
in the translation, and the second Noun is placed in the geni* 
tive case preceded by the preposition de ; Ex. 

Door-lock, Cerradara de puerta. 

Tea-spoon, Cuchar de t^. 

Mahogany table, Mesa de cahoba. 

Gold watches, Reloges dt oto. 



46 BTTlIOIiOGT. AND STNTJiX OF ADaBCTFRBS. [lB€. XI. 

2. The same inversiOQ of order is likewise observed, in 
translating the English possessive ca^e with «, and the apos- 
trophe, (whether the Noun possessed be expressed or not, 
see Lee. 9, Par. 6,) and the same also is to be observed 
when several possessive cases of this nature follow eaeh 
other in English, translating all the Nouns in a retrogradiiig 
order ; Ex. 

The sun's rays, Los rayos del «ol. 

Go to the bookseller's, Ve & casa del librero. 

John's father's horse, £1 caballo del padre de Juan. 

My unde's wife's sister, La hermana de la esposa de mi tio. 

EXERCISE ON THE CONSTRUCTION 01? NOUNS. 

I bought a watch chain. The bed curtains were, of India 
A compr6 cadena. cama cortina eran 

muslin. The front of the edifice was adorned with marble 

muselina. frontera edificio estaba adprnada de m&rmol 

columns : in the interior were seen several bronze statues. I 

coluna ■ se veian varias bronce est&tua. ^ 

prefer buck skin gloves. Show me the straw hats, and 

prefiero ante cuero guante. [muestreme vmd.] paja sombrero 

the silk ribbons. M^ brother's house is situated near to the . 

seda cinta. mi hermano est^situada cerca de 

Governor's garden. He is at the shoemaker's. I saw (2) 

Gobemador a estden zapatero. Yo vi 

them (1) at the tailor's. I speak of the Duke's brother's conduct, 

los sastre. a hablo Duque conducta. 

Anacreon flourished after Honser's death, and after the defeat 
■ floreci<j fdespues de] Homero muerte derrota 

of Croesus the King of Lydia. Darius's son Xerxes, ascended the 

Creso Rey Lidia. Dario hijo Serses ascendi6 al 

throne of Persia after his father's death, 
trono — su 



LECTURE XI- 

lETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OP ADJECTIVES. 

1. For the definition of Adjectives, the student is referred 
to Lee. 4, Par. 6, after reperusing which, he will attend to 
the 

AGREEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE. 

2. Adjectives and Participles used as Adjectives, agree In 
Spanish, in number and gender, with the Nouns to which they 



LSC. XI.] BTTHOLDGY ASO BTKTiX at .tDJBCTIVBbl. 47 

refer. Adjectires in English never vary their form on ic- 
couDt of (tender or number : for instance, A tall man, A tali 
woman. Tall mm. Tall wonci. Where we see that the Ad- 
jentive iiill, remnina iu its unchanged orisinal furm ; but in 
^anish it would have to appear in/our different furtna in the 
translation of ihe foregoing GxampleH ; ns. 



3. The ohject now is to point out to the iituilRnt, in what 
manner Adjectives are made to agree with Nouns : jireviouHly, 
honevcr, to enterintr on which, it u iieceHvary to premise, that 
the whole of the nilee on the treatment of Adjectives, apply 
equally to ParticipleH adjectively UKeii. See the definition of 
Participles, and all that is connected with them, iu Lee. 22, 
~ 11 to 30. 



If 



B Adjective refers to two or more Nouns in the 
singular number, and follows them, it must be put in the 
plural number, but if it precede the Nimn»i, it is used in the 
singular. (Observe that the plural termination of Adjectivea 
is formed precisely the same as the plural uf Nouns ;) Ex. 
Is »r™2lpla?l^'^^ol^S'' ( Hi-'iD^"'"! applause and praise. 

Nevertheless should there be a Verb employed with the 
Adjective that precedes the Nouns, tliim the Adjective is pot 
in the same number as the Verb ; Ex. 

Son )r«-m™™ 51. palHcio J jardin. ( ^. , j j beautiful. 

£• Afrmoia supalacio ysu jaidiD, ^ '^ " 

5. Wben two or more Adjectives refer to one Noun in dw 
singnlar number, each Adjective must be in the singular; Ex^ 

Un tninislro sabio j prudenie, A wise bdi) pruJenl miaUter. 

Uuproyei'ioetiiide. provethoso, A ureal, profitable, and deairabia 

; recomendable, ptojecl. 

'- ' *- - "ipru- ConseieDcc is a prudent Bad failh- 



I dente t Bd. 

^^^H AGBBG 

^^^■t Adjective 

1 liMjr refer, as i 



in gender with the Nouns to which 

Bn by the following rules •, ijie,^la>».\^ 

(1 the pu/)il'B becoming Bcqaavnle& vr'vftv Vhesa, M^v 



49 BTTMOtlWT AND BTHTAX' or AP# <Cfl » M> [lBC. XI. 

neeetmnrj that he shoald know how to distinguish the gender 
of Adjectives. This will first b^ explained to him. 

7* Adjeeti?es that termbate in on, cm, or 09 are of the 
mascvUne gender : The feminine is formed hj adding •- to. 
those ending in an or on ; and by changing the final o into a, 
of those ending in o : All Adjectives terminating in any other 
letter, are common to both genders : Ex. 

£1 muchacho haragan, The lazy boy. 

La iniicha€ha haragana, 1\t lazy girl. 

£1 hombre jugueton, The playful man. 

La muger jugwtona, The playful woman. 

£1 guerrero famoto. The famous warrior. 

La accion /amoM, The famous action. 

£1 padre /e/», llie happy father. 

La nija /«/iz, The ha^py daughter. 

£1 muchacho amable. The amiable boy. 

La muchacha amable. The amiable giii. 

8. To Adjectives derived from the names of kingdoms, 
countries, &c., an a is generally added to form their feminine 
termination : Ex. 

Ingl6s, m. Inglesa, /. £Dglish. 

£spanol, m. £spanola» /. Spanish. 

Note, — When this kind of Adjectives is employed in English 
with reference to articles of commerce, the productions of a 
country, and such like, the Noun expressive of the name 
of the country that produces those articles, or in which they 
were manufactured, is generally used in Spanish instead of 
the Adjective : Ex. 

£nglish cloth, Pailode Inglaterra, which mean literally, Cloth of Englaud. 
Spanish wine, Vino de Etpatia, Wine of Spain* 

French silk, Seda de Francia, Silk of France. 

The same construction is likewise generally observed, in 
Spanish, in referring to persons of whom we rather intend to 
describe the eountry from which they come, or in whose 
government they are employed, than the place of their 
nativity: Ex. 

llie Austrian Ambassador, Kl Kmbaiador de Austria. 

The Spanish Consul, £1 C6nsul de £spana. 

This however must not be taken as an absolute rule, for 
such sentences may also be translated as follows. 

Pafio Ingl^. 

£1 C<insul £spaool, &c. 

9. We have now to consider the Affreemeni of Adjectives 
}a gander irith the Nouns to which they refer ;— And first ; 



hmC. It.] BTTMOLOCT INK BTNTAX OP *DJ«CT1T88. 49 

When one Adjective refers to two or more Nouna in the 
ringuiar number tind of different ganders, it is used In 
the niMCuiine (render if it j'aUoui tlie Nounii ; but agreel 
ID gender with tiie first Noun if it precede the Nouns : Ex. 

El «i^rci(0 J la artnidiL darrotadot, The army snd nav; defealed. 

La annada j el eghcila derrotadoi, The itavir and aimy defeated. 

He leido m (tmuM epiiwliii r noiela, 1 have read his beiulitnl epiiode 

aad novel. 
He leido lu hmnoM norela y epiaodio. 1 have read hit beautiful Dovel 





unuiii) 


*nd 


valleys. 






The Watititnl 






moDBtaini. 






The bombarded 


caallu 


and 


balEeciea. 






l-he bombarded baltertea 


and 


castlBi. 






id qualifyinir t 


wo Nouns, 




Adjective 



13. When one Adjective refers M two or more Nouns in 
Iha plural number, it shouid agree in gender with the nearest 
Noun to it: Ex. 

Lu htrmotat monlafliu T voiles, 
Lol WnMHU valiti J moDlanns, 
Lm caslilloi J haltriai btmbardeadai, 
Las bateiias y cauillas iombardeadBi, 

11. We should endeavour to 
that differ both in gender nud 

th&t admits of both the masculine and feminine terminatiuD i- 
fm instance, though vfe may see examples of the fullowing 
nature t 

Lm lino) J la/rulit eian eiquiiitoi, The wines aod fruit weia eiquisite. 
l/U frulm y el Sinn et3,a tiqiiiiilai. The fruits and wine >rere exquisile. 

Yet, there is something in them that offends the ear. In 
Mch GAses, it would be much better to employ an Adjective of 
the Gommon gender ; as 

Lta vinoa y ia fruU eran rscetfnta, Tbp wines and fruit were excellent 
Lm (httai y el vino eran acelnlti, The frails and wine were ej " ~" 

I for each 

Lot vaui ana nquitittt yhfrutB The wines were etquitite and [be fiuil 

dfficnm, delicious. 

Lu fntai eran dttkiasas j el The fruits were delicioui and the 

12. An Adjective referring to the fif/t:uf an individual, agrees 
in gender with the person, to whom the title belongs : Ex. 



I 



k 



50 BTTMOI/OGT AVD eTNTAX OP a>rKI7TTVES. [lBC^H 

Here we see tliat the Adjectlvee tnaio and bondadoso Aa-wtl 
agree with the Nouna AUeia sni Sc^orias, whieh arc of the 
fiminine geniet ; but they ag;ree with the persons to "When 
these titles are given, who are males; were they fttimUs, the 
Adjective would be required in the/cminine gender : Ex. 

8u AUtvt tati mata. Her Higbnesa U U1. , 

Sou muy bontindosit sus Saftmss, Tbeii L^d^siiipi uc l«y kiiul., 

i.iS. Wlien the Adjectives po^'frero, &ueno and medo prectd 
• Noun masculine, in the singular number, they drop ^ 
final o -. Ex. 



Un butn hQmbre, A good o 

ITq mil hombre, A bnd mt 

£1 poatrer dia. The last < 

Note. — See bIeo the numerical Adjet 
tercero, and cknto, Lee. 14, Par. 3 to 6. 

14. Sanio, Saint, when employed in the singular numb^ 
before proper nameB of persons and places, drops the iM 
syllable ! Ex. 

enD Pablo, Shu Juan, St. Paul, Si. Jahb. 

San Peterstiurgo, Si. Petecsliurgb. 

With the names Domingo and Tomds, Dominic a 
Thomas, the Adjective sajUo may be used either -with, 
without the 6nal syllable. 

15. Grande, great or large, used before Noons'in t 
singular number, beginning with a consonant, sometw 
drops the final syllable, when In referring to Nouns it is i 
intended to convey an idea of site or quantiij/, so mucb 
one of greatness or excellence; but it frequently retains t 
final syllable, when It is wished to cunvey un idea of sixe « 
tlie like ; and also when the substantive that follows It ' 

I with a Towel or h : Ex. 
K. Un gm» caballa, A nobU hone, 

■^ \^D^ gran c»,ah, A magmficent iiaoK' 

K tfu^nuiiIcelDEiOi 't grful praise. 

^^ Grnni/f bazaiia, A^MIdeed. 

^^lifl rule, however, ia not a general one. 
KEXERCiaE ON THE AGREEMENT O? ADJECTIVES IN 
■ NUMBER AND GENDER. 

* deaialelc* 



bsc- ■xt,'] wmtouoar. and ktivux op. a 
[Letuinaect] on the ud c< 



1 



\de] 



UeU a brave <2} and faithful (3) inaa(l). She ii 
es biiairo fiel ' 

The) live in a f 



I) near a imiiU village. The; possess coQuderablemoraJ (3) 
streDgth (1) and heroic viitue; ardent (2) imaginstioB!i(l) and Doble (3) 

bettud). Itiiahappr(3)idea(l> Heis > h'Rpy (2) manCD- A. 

coraain . feliz n 

■■caciouj (!) hoy (!}■ A sagacious girl. A Freach (2) higiH^ (I) uxt 
sagai Biuchacho fngala 

..(■)■ 



Rouian Fleaipelentiary, and the Engliih Ambassador, wet« s 

PleaipDienciario. se v 

the FicDcfa Emisiarr. Hanor and 



free, bat [thai of a bad c 



I 

J 



52 ETTMOUWT AKD BTHTAX OF ikIMBCIlTBS. [l.BC. XI. 

lately from the islands of St. Dominic and St. Thomas. A great 
iUtimamente isla 

project 1 That is a great man. [I have no] gitat ajppetite. A gnat 
proyecto ese es no tengo apetito. 

victory. 
Victoria. 



LECTURE XII. 

SITUATION OP THE ADJECTIVE. 

1. Adjecdves in Spanish in most instancef generaUy /bUam 
the Nouns to which they refer : Ex. 

£1 obieto principal, The princ^l object. 

£1 egercito IngUs, The EnkUm army. 

Una vida octosB, AnidUlih. 

Ideas deipreoeupadas, Vnpr^udiced ideas. 

2. To the foregoing rule, however, the following instineet 
are exceptions, as in them, the Adjecdve usually preccdcB the 
Noun to which it ha^ reference. 

1st. Numerical Adjectires : Ex. 

Vtinte hombres. Twenty men. 

La jmiR^ra cosa* The first thing. 

In referring to royalty and other dignities, however, the 
numerical Adjecdve foUows the noun : Ex. 

Goillermo Cuarto, William the FontCh. 

Gregcvio Primero, Gregory the First. 

2d. The Adjectives todo^ mucko^ poco^ deriOf AD, much* 
few, certain, likewise precede the noun : Ex. 

Todo el mnndo, All the wcltld. 

Mueho dinero, Much money. 

Poeoi hombres. Few men. 

Ciertot indivfduos, Certain individuals. 

CieriOs nevertheless, in the sense of sure^ generally follows the 
Noun : Ex. 

£s cosa dirta, It is a certain thing. 

Son AOticias cierta$, They ace certain news* 



3d. AdjectireB thit denote the natural or inherent pro- 
perties of NouDi, generally precnle tbem : Ex. 



4th. Adjectives nsed as epithets, precede the Noun : Ex. 

^B El tohrrbio Lficifer, The proud Lucifer. 

^^-. ElpwMiM Job, Ttie paueot Jvb. 

^th. Adjectires that terminate in isimo, generally preced 
the Noun: Es. 

Son Jltrvrmiahnta obri 
I Que hrlliimo dU ? 

3. The foregoing rules on the situation of Adjectives, are 
not to be considered »s potiiive rules; the situation of the 
A^ctive depends much on (aste ; as writers for the 
wke of energy, harmony and variety, titnttte the Adjective 
variously with re&pect to the Noun which it qualifies. As k 
^neral rule, it might be said that Adjectives in Spanish 
commonly follow the noun, except when for particular em- 
phasis or elegance they are placed before it : For instance in 
the following example, Cadaho, in describing the local situa- 
tion of Spain, says, Esta fbliz situacion ia tuso oljeto tie la 
codicia de lot Feaicins y otroi pueblot. This happy situation 
rendered her an object of avarice to the Phteniclans aod 
other ualjons : In which sentence, without douht, be placed 
the Adjective felit befote the Noun niuation, because it wu 
hifl principal intention to express the tuperiorUy of the local 
situation of Spain. Again, Luis de Garcian, in his apostrophe 
to Death, says, " , U tnuerle, munVe .' O implacable enemige 
iel genera humano ! Ife. Oh death, death I Oh implacable 
enemy to mankind ! ke, : In which he places the Adjecdve 
implacable, before the Noun nmerie, because it was bis prin- 
cipal object to give energy to the meaning of the Adjective :— 
had he said ertemigo implacable, the sentence would have lost 
much of its force. Thus Fejoo also, in describing an ambi- 
tious man, says, " Tiene el alma yet cuerpo en coktinoo 
novimiento," &c. His soul and body are in a continual 
movement, &c. In which sentence, it was his principal 
intention to display the clrcnmsiance of the man's perpetual 
restlessDess. 

in these examples, it is seen, that although the rules rela- 
tive to the situation of the Adjective with regard to the Noon, 
mxy appear at first sight arbitrary, ihej ue n«'««c<t^<^c»k 
s 3 



54 SITUATIOW OF THB ABJBGTITBS. [l«mC« Ul. 

fboDded OD retsoD ; and that the natoral coostmetion of the 
koff^ag^ may be altered, not only with regard to Adjectiyes 
and Noons, but as respects other parts of speech, in order to 
add elegance and energy to a sentence. 



EXERCISE ON THE SITUATION Of ADJECTIVES. 

llie sight of a finf landacipe it aa inexhaastiUe MHiroe of delishtfal 
vista bello paisage es inagotable manantial delictoeo 

sensations. (There are] seven days in a week and fifty-two weeks in a 
hay dia semana 

year. The refiment was composed of twelve companies of fifty men 
ano. regimiento se componia comp^a 

each. They captnred all the ships and sank all the 

[cadauna.] ^ apres&ron navio rhechhnm & pique] 

^n boats. He made many friends* bat contracted many debts, 
canonera lancha. a hiso amigo, peio oontrajo deada. 

Many are the disappointments in the Ufe of man. Few men are happy, 
son contratiempo vida 

His virtoes are few. A certain friend of mine gave (%) me (I ) certain 
SOS amigo ^ niio dio — 

instructions respecting a certain person. It is a certain thing. The 
[acerca de] persona, a es cosa 

fierce lion devoured the tame sheep. On that step of hard 
fiero leon [devor6 4] manso oveja. sobre aqael escalon daro 

marble, she rested her wearv limbs. The cold snow withered the 
marmol ^ repos6 sus fatigaao mtembro. frio nieve, /• marehit6 

delicate flowers. My dear father, where are my dear sisters? The 
delicado flor, /. querido donde estan mis hermana 

wise Solomon. The worthy Titos. The ambitious Aleiander. What 
gi^|)io _,._ benem^nto Tito. ambidoso Alejandro. 

[a very fine] idea! Various spots in North America discover 
bellfsimo • vario punto de septentrional descubren 

evident signs of remote epochs, and prove the existence of a great 
evidente indicio remote epoca, manifiestan ecsistencia 

and powerful people, whose history [is doubtless lost] for ever, 
poderoso poblacion, cuya historia sin duda se perdio para siempre. 

Immense heights, unfrequented by the modem Indians, covered with 
Inmenso elevacion no frecuentado por moderno Indio, cubierto dr 

human bones, unknown arms, remains of walled cities, and numerous 
humano hueso, desconocido arma, resto circundado ciudad numerosa 

inscriptions in unknown lan^ages ; all announce the indisputable ezistcDce 
desconocido idioma, m. anuncia ' ■ ■ ecsistencia 

of a people different to those which European navigators found in 
pueblo diferente aquellos que Europeo navegante encontraron 

those countries, 
pais. 



LECTURE XIII. 

ON THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 

1. Ab Adjectives express some quality or property of ths 
'Novo, this quality or property, nben compared to that of 

Other Nouns, may be ei/ual, superior, or inferior to it : 
instance, Your cloth is fine, mine ii finer, hut hia is the fines 
the three. In this example are distinsuished three different 
degreeti in the quality of the cloth : these are by Gramme 
rians called degree* of comparison, and are generally Ais\' 
gvished by the positive, the comparative, and the iuperlatii 

2. The positive expresBcs a quality without any particular, 
nference or compariROn, ae in the foreg'oiuR' example. Your 
ctotA if fine ; but when we say mine is finer, there is a com- 
parison drawn between the two ; and in the conclusion of the 
Hntauce, kit it the fiaeit of the three, the quality of the cloth 
is pbced in the highest degree of fineness. 

3. Iti the comparative, there are three states to be observed^ 
namely, that of e<juality, that of aaperiority, and that of in- 
feriority ; for in comparing objects together, we consider 
them to be equal, superior, or inferior to each other ; theas 
Afferent states are distitiguished by the terms comparative iff 
eijualily, comparative of luperiority, and coiiquirative of ii\fe- 

4. The superlative expresses the quality in the higkeit or 
l(nBeti degree : it is of two kinds, the one relative, the other 
absolute. The superlative relative expresses the quality of a 
thing with reference to the quality of Homo other object ; as, 
Thii is the largest hovse of the three, Thai is the worst koutt 
of them all. And here we see that the suiierlativc largett; 
allades to the largest house in relation to the three housef 
mentioned ; and the superlative viorst refers to the worit 
house, as regards the wbolc of them, ilut the superlstire 
abtolute expresaeB the quality of an object without reference 
to, or comparison with any other object in question ; as, He 
ira very tall man, She U a very short woman. 



now -JO FOHM THK COMPARATIVE DEGREE. 

5. The comparative of equalittf is formed in Spanish by 

placing the word tan (so or as) before, and como (as) after 



[lBC. Xl^a 

by phchig the word as before and after tlie Adjeclire, 
are traDflUtad by this rule ; Ex. 

El et tun lico como au hermaoo, He ii ni rich as his brother. 

Soy Inn alto como el, I am oi tall at he. 

In n negative sense so as are employed in English, and 
Other alteiatiOD is required in Spanish, but tlie pUciog' oft 
oeg^ative particle before the Verb ; Ex. 



6. The comparative of ivperiorii^ is formed in Spanish 
placing- the word mas (more) before the Adjective, and f 
(^Bu) after it. English comparatives of superiority eiti 
end in er, or are preceded by more, and followed by than, a 
are translated by tliis rule ; Ex. 

£t es nai rico que la hermana, Re is richer than his broiher. 

I 'bbis letrenou ion inoj eEtenios These grounds 

^^^■^ qtit aquellDs, lJiu?i Ibose. 

^^Htf In a negative sense the addition of the negative partid 
' on\j is required in both languages, as in also the case in 4 
the following comparisons ; Ex, 

Ueis not ricAer Ifiun hisbiother, A'0 es nui rira giu 5D bcntiami. ' 

7. When in comparing the dimensiona of two objects, u 
difference thereof is indicated in English by of tlae pit 
position b^, the sentence takes a diCFerent turn in Spanid 
Ex. 

I TbiE hall is longer than that by Esla sala es eeispiesmsB Urga qi 

^^^__ til feet, aquella. 

^^^* Which means literally, Tliis hall is six fat longer than thi 

I 8. The comparative of iiferioriiy is formed in Spanish 1 

placing the word menos (less) before the Adjective, and 91 

(than) after it English comparatives of inferiority are pn 

ceded by less, and followed by than, and ore translated by tb 

^^^^^-£<le muchaclio ea mitioi ptu- Thia btiy is leu pnideat than Ui« 

w 

' 9. 







Thia boy 








Aquelta casa es Tnen 


D] elegaale 


Tliat ha 






yODta. 



I leu eteguit 1 



HOW TO FORM THE 3DPERLATIVE DEGREE. 



9. The superlative relative U formed in Spanish by 
fixing the DeGnite Article to the Adjective in the conpi 



LBC. Xlll.ll ON TBB DSGBBSa or COMPARISON. 5? 

degree. Enf^ish superlativea relative ending in si, cr [ire- 
ceded by moat, are translated \ij th'iB rate ; Ex. 

Erg la mii£ bermoia mu^er que Sbe wii ihe liandiimtU wanma JD 

habia en b concurrencia, the assembly. 

El lu TRfli belli de li>da5, She is the most beautiful o( all. 

10. The BDperlatire abiolute, is formed by prefixing the 
word muy (very or most) to the Adjective iu the poaitive de- 
gree, or by adding kimo to the Adjective in the positive de- 
gree, ending id a consonant i those which end in a vowel 
drop the vovel before they admit tlie Uima. English super- 
laldves absolute are preceded by very or mott, and are trans- 
lated by this rule : Ex. 

Et muy hermgaa muger, She is a vm/ beaubful, or a mMt 

beautiful woDiaD. 
E> obiB utilUima, ll is a very useful, or ■ mat uuhil 

^KBKthtituam idea, It ii a viry tine, oi a moif beantifill 



iLr]!. Some Spanish Adjectives, in order to preserve their 
primitive sound, undergo a flight alteration in their ortho-' 
graphy before they admit the termination isimo ; thus Adjec- 
tives ending in 

r, chaoge Iheae lelten into bit, as from amMt, amabiHiimo. 



better, be$t. 



oinives. CoMr.ii* 


IVES. SDFEHL.T1 


FK». 


Bumo, iiKlcr, 


6ptimo, 


Good, 


Mole, ]«nr. 


7(^... 


Bad, 
S G.«t 


pfnde. najKir. 




1 large, 


L,., ..... 


mini^. 


I Small 
\ little. 


K«, i«firhr. 


infi«o. 


Low. 


Attn. niftri-r 




High, 



neater, neatest, or' 

Btnalter, amalleit, or 






Of this list, the positives and comparatives may be altKi 
formed iiitn superlatives ; the positives, by prefixing the Ad- 
verb mu}/ to them, or by the addition of the termination iiimo, 
according to the directions already given (observing, how- 



er, that iuena has bonisimo for its supertatire) ; ond-^ 
^amparatiTes by the preRxing ot the defioite Article ~ 

Muy buena or baiiisiina, Very good. 

May mala of ntalliiniD, Very bad. 

El mejor, el peor, The best, the woiat. 

' The positives in the foregoing list may likewise be fom 
""'o comparatives by prefixing the Adverb via* to ' " 

' Mat buenu, maa malo, Belter, worse. 

Mai gtinde, mas pequeiio, larger cr grealet, raialler or Utller. ■ 

12. Before concluding this Lecture on the decrees of com- 
parison, it must not be omitted to notice, that comparison 
takes place with relation to Nouns, Verbt, and Adverbs, as 
well as with Adjectives ; and this being a point that should 
not be sliglitly passed over, the comparison in relation to 
each of tlic aforesaid parts of speech, will be treated on sepa- 

13. The comparative of equality in relation to Notmt, is - 
formed in Spanish by placing tanio (aa much) before, sd' 
cmno (as) after the Noun ; Ex, 

Fosee fantn taleato coaio su her- He possesses ai murA taleol u bi 
mtDD, brolher. 

14. fn relation to Tcr^s, it is formed by placing (e 
or taiUo como (as much as} after the Verb ; Ex. 

X«hepagadaUN(»cuanloorliiilo I have paid Iiitn oi mL 
anao le debia, him. 

15. In relation to Adverbs, it is formed by placing Ian (u 
[bsftire, and como (as) after the Adverb ; Ex. 

L £wribe lan biea como habia, He wriles ai veil bi be i] 

16. So mueli and so many, as much and as many, 
translated tanto, which must agree in gender and namlH 
with the Noun to which it is prefixed ; Ex. 



^^&qi 



tire so much ntooey, 

jewels lo be happy, 

fie has atmvch ink, 






«tl»ma$ 



17. So as, used in English with an in6nitire of a Verb, 

[uire tan que in the translation ; and auch ai, tal que, uid 

the iofinitive is generally rendered by a Verb in the samf^ 

tense as that in which the preceding Verb ia placed; Ei 

The niglilwniv dark <( lo rttvwnt La noche ntiin) ipn aima fa* 4 

our going out, Doipinniliil elulif. 

Hit coaduct uwj inch 01 lo txcitt Tal Sai ni conduct*, giM arild I 
t great towall, Ei-mde alboroto. 




bBC. XIII.] ON TBB SBGREBG OP COUFARISOH. 59' 

18. CoBftaratives of tuperiority with relfttiou to Noum and 
Advtrbi are formed by placing tnai (more) before, and giiff 
(thui) after them ; Ex. i 

PD6Ee miu laleoto qae bu bei- He hasman talent fhunhiibrotbet.' 

Escribe mai elegantemsDle giie He vnfilea more elegantly thm hii 
■u predeceioc, ptedecessor. 

19. In relatioD to Verbs, they are formed by placinff mat 
i/ue (more thait) after them ; Ex. 

Escribe masqve bu preclecesor, Hewriteimoreifconhii predeceswt. 

20. The more being repeated in a aentence in English, the 
l&ttei' expresiiuu being consequent on tlie former, should be 
tnuateted, the firitt by cuanto mas, the Becond by lanl 
Ex. 

Tht Pttrt jfou study, the marc you Cvanln maa estudie imd. Ii 

will learn , snbra. 

I^ mora affable JOB are, tktmori Cuania sua aftblc sea vmd. Utsiitj 

you wiU be eileemed, mui aeru esLimado. 

SI. Comparatires of iTffeiioriij/, in relation to Notmt and 
Adverbs, are formed by placing jnenoa (less) before, and gut 
(than) after them ; Eit. 

PcHce mciwi taUola gue su her- He has I*ti talent Ibun big brathei. 
£lcnbe menoseleganlementefiis He v 

23. In relation to Verba, they are formed by placing meaot 

9ue(tess than) after them; Ex. 

Apreude miaai que bu lieraiano, He lea.rDS iesit Ihitn his brother. 

23. TTian,. after a comparative (eitlier of superiority or in^' 
feriority] coming before wliuc, expressed or understood, is 
generally trDnslated de in the affirmative, and ipie in the nega- 
tive sense ; Ex, 

More i^n uAuf he has, Mas de In que £! liene. 

Less iduu ahai I thought, M^DOS ilc lu que creia. 

No more than tckat 1 said, A'o mss ^«t lo que dije. 

Kolhiiig less (ian he deserved, JVudumenDS gue lo que niErtcia. 

24. Than, after comparatives coming' before numeral Ad- 
jectives, is translated Je ; Ex. 



60 tfN TBI BBBRBBS OF COMPARISOV. ^SG. XHI. 

.; 25. 7i^ /essi litf /cM7 4k mortf» iAe kss^ and iA< 2e»9, lAe 

moreshoAug uaed in dUTereni puts of a aewtenoe, «re- trans^ 

lated cuanto menot^ tanto mefto€ ; atanio mot, tanio memos; 

^k^cuanto.fn&MiitaniofttUS^ £s. , 

Tke ku you leftd, the lest yoa will Cuanto m^nn l^ti, totito m^nat ubr& 

- 2%« «i0r« he reads, the Um ht . CuonteaMt lee, tanto m^iMtaptttde* 
learns, 

. The Uu' yon spend, thewure you Ctumto m^noi giiUre yiii4*» tmUo 
lirillsave, mof ahorrarik. 



EX£RCIS£ ON THE DEGREES OF COMPABISON. 

Some consider Virgil as great a poet as Homer. Those 

AlgniMt consideran Virgilio poeta Hdmero. aquellos. 

ideas are (2) not (1) less sublime than these. , His progress was as 
uni estas. sn progreso en 

slow as certain. My books are as good as his. Nature 

leaio mis . son [lossuyos.] natvrtleza 

is more admirable than art. The Republic of Athens was more 

^ ■ . ■ — Rep6blica At^nas era • 

illustrious than that of Lacedemon. The second Punic war lasted 
iiustre Laccdemooia. Pfinica guerra d«r6 

six yean less than the first. This is higher than that. The 

eso es alto ai|ueUo. 

style of Bossuet is less harmonious than that of Fenelon. He is (2) 

cstilo . ■■ harmonioso el — — 

not(l) so' obliging as his brother. Xerxes was more ambitious 

bondadoao au . Serses fa6 ambiddo 

than prudent. The general appearance of the Island of Jamaica, 

prudente. ■ aspecto isla • 

presents such a magnificent prospect of the beauties of nature, 
presenta magnffico prospecto belleza 

Jieightened by the industry of man, as very rarely to be seen 
perfecdonado indnstna' '"'" "' raramente ^ se ve 

in Europe ; and ofiers to the stranger a most delij^htful field for 
ofrece estrangero delicioso caropo & 

contemplation and reflection. The inhabitants also of this island 

■ ■ ■ ■ habitantes tambien 

possess much frankness, sociability, and benevolence ; and in very few 
'poseen /fraoqiteza, sociabilidad benevoleneia ; 

parts is (1) hospitality (5) more (3) generally (4) practised (t). 
parte -se hospitalidad generalmente practica. 

The city of London is the largest, moat populous, and wealthiest in 
ciudad I^ndres poblada rico 

Europci New York and Boston are very fine cities, but Philadelnhia 
Nueva Yorka ■ son pero Filadelfia 



tsM^.Xnui OK TBI PBORBS8 OF COMPARISOV. 61 

U the moetbeautifiilofUie three: it contains also one of the finest 
cs A eontiene tamhien hennoso 

flMfket-places Uk the world. The iprmcipal street in New York makes a 
sado . ■ called* presenta 



retj handsome appearance : the harbour is very capacious, and presents a 

vista Puerto estenso olrece 

scene of very great activity and opulence. It is a most eas^ work to 
emmik isdustria opuloicia. ^ es ftcil obra de 

translate. Gratitude is the noblest passion of the soul. IngrattUide 
tnulucir. gratitud es noble cualidad ingratitod 

deserves the severest punishment. They read a* much as they write, but 
meiece severo castij^Of ^ leen ^ escriben,mas 

they do 9ot q>eak as much as they think. We have as much money 
^ A no hablaa ^ piensan. ^ tenemos 

asywi. She plays as well as she sings. She has more wit tiian 
vmd« A toca ^ canta. ^ tiene talento 

beauty. She has as much money and as many friends as you. She 
hermoBura. ^ tiene amigo 

has more admirers than her sister. He thinks more profoundly than 
adoradores su ^ piensa profundamente 

his contemporaries. The more she reads the more she improves. Her 
contempor&neo. a ice ^ adelanta. 

sister has less pride than she. The less you study the less [you will gain], 
tiene orgullo elU. ^ estudie gaiuri vmd. 

[It is not] more difficult to do good than (what) you think. I do not 
no es dificil ^ hacer piensa. ^ ^ no 

admire the st^j^le of Fope less than (vvhat) I oug^ht. [It is worth] mare 
^irecio estilp ' ^debia. v^e 

than a milUon. I remained in France and Italy more than idne months. 

me detuve mes. 

They speak Spanish less fluently than you. 
^ hablan corriente 



LECTURE XIV. 
NUMERICAL ADJECTIVES. 

1. This class of Adjectives is dirided into two kinds, 
namely cardinal tnd ordinal Dumbers. 

Cardinal numbers, simply denote the number of things to 
which tliey refer; as one man, two hookt^ three pem^ and so 
forth. 

Or^&nfil numbers mark the order and rank of things ; as, 
ike firu chapter i the second hook^ the third num^ aad so f<ii:Uk« 



62 



VUaiBRICAIi ADJBCTIYBS. 



{lBC. XIV. 



CARDINAL N13MBERS. 



*Uno, 

dos, 

tres, 

ciiatro, 

cinco, 

seis, 

siete, 

ocho, 

nueve, 

diez, 

once, 

doce, 

trece, 

catorce, 

3uince, 
i^z y seis, 
diet y siete, 
diez y ocho» 
diez y nuere, 
veinte, 
veinte y uno, 
Yeintey dos, 
veinte y'ttes, 



one. 

two. 

three. 

four. 

five. 

six. 

seven. 

eight. 

nine. 

ten. 

eleven. 

twelve. 

thirteen. 

fourteen. 

fifteen. 

sixteen. 

seventeen. 

eighteen. 

nineteen. 

twenty. 

twenty-one. 

twenty-two. 

twenty-three. 



ycdnte y oaatro, twenty-four, 

veinte y cincp, twenty-five, 

veinte y seis, twenty-six. 

veinte y siete, twenty-seven, 

veinte y ocho, twenty-eight, 

veinte y nueve, twenty-nine, 

treinta, thirty, 

treinta y uno, thirty-one. 

cuarenta, ' forty. 






cincuenta. 


fifty. 


sesenta. 


sixty. 


setenta, 


seventy. 


ochenta, 


eighty. 


noventa, 


ninety. 


ciento, . 


one huudied. 


ciento y uno, 


one hundred and 




' one. 


ciento y dos. 


one hundred and 




• two. 


dos cientos. 


two hundred. 


tres cientos. 


three hunted. 


cuatro cientos, 


four hundred. 


qmnientbs, 


^e lmiMlr«tf . 


seis cientos, 


ftixhimdfeck 


setecientos. 


seven hundred. 


ocho cientos, 


ei^ht hundred. 


novecientos. 


nine fitindred. 


mil. 


. onotthounukd. 


dos mil, 


tWQ thovsaftd. 


tres mil. 


three thousand, 
foufr ihousatid. 


cudtro mil. 


diez mil, 


ttfn thousand. 


cien mil. 


^we hoadred ibou- 




aaod. 


dos cientos mil. 


two hundred 


• 


thousand. 


un millohj* 


a million. 


mil ocho cientos 


(methoutond eight 
hundred and 


treinta y tres. 




thirty-three. 



2. All the cardinal numbers except uno, and the compounds 
of ciento, are indeclinable. 

3. Uno agfrees in gender with the Noun tp which it refers, 
but drops the o when it immediately precedes a Noun mascu- 
line singular : Ex. 

Uno de los documentos, One of the documents. 

Una cueslion, A question. 

Un hombre, un libro, A man, a book. 

4. The compounds of ciento, agree in gender with the 

Nouns to which thej refer. Ciento, drops the last syllable, 

when placed immediately before a Noun singular, of either 

gender : Ex. 

A hundred men and a hundred women. 
A hundred and twenty pounds. 
TWo hundf^ t^ldiers. 
Three hundred muskets. 



Cisn hombres y cien mugeres, 
Ciento y veinte libras, 
Dos cientos soldados, 
Tres dmlat esccJpetas, 



* MiliUm, however, belongs rather to the class of Substantives ; for we 
cannot say tin miUon homhres, as we would cien hombres : tnillon being a 
Substantive, governs the following Noun with the Preposition de; as, un 
miUondeh»ndn'ei, 



hWC. XIT.] 



NUMBKICAL AIXIBeTITBS. 



63 



OKDINAL NUMBERS. 



Primero, 

segundo, 

teicero, 

cuarto, 

qmntOt 

sesto, 

s^ptimo, 

ocUvo* 

noveno or nono, 

d^cimOf 

und^cimo, 

duod^mo. 

d6cbMat«rcio, 

d^cimaouartow 

d^maquiiito, . 

d^cuBO sesto. 



first. 

second. 

thiid. 

fourth. 

fifth. 

sixth. 

seventh. 

eighth. 

ninth. 

tenth. 

eleventh. 

twelfth. 

thirteenth. 

fourteenth* 

fifteenth. 

sixteenth. 



vig6simo sesto* twenty* sixth, 
vig^simo s^ptimo, twenty-seventh, 
vig^simo octavo, twenty-eighth* 
vig^simo nono, twenty-ninth, 
trig^mo, thirtieth, 

trig^simo prime, thirty-first. 
cuadrag6simo, fortieth. 



d^cimo s^ptimo, seventeenth. 
d^cimo octavo, eighteenth. 
d^cimo n«no, nineteenth, 
vig^simo, twentieth, 

vig^simo primo, twenty-first. 
vig^9ypM>8^g«Bdo, twenty-second. 
vig^suDO tercio, twenty-third, 
vig^mo caarto, twenty- fourth, 
vigdsimo quinto, twenty-fifth. 



quincua^^simo, 

secsag^simo, 

septuag^^simo, 

oct^^simo, 

nonag^simo, 

centesimo, 



fiftieth. 

sixtieth. 

seventieth. 

eightieth. 

ninetieth. 

hundredth. 
cent6simo primo. hundred and firii. 
centesimo segundo> hundred and 

second, 
docent^siino, two hundredth, 
trecent^simo, three hundredth, 
cuadragent^imo, four hundredth. 
quingent6simo, five hundredth, 
sesent^simo, sixth hundredth. 
septeDgent^imo, seven hundfedth. 
octagent^simo, eijsht hundredth, 
nona^ent^simo, nine hundredth, 
mil^simo, a thousandth. 



5. All the ordinal numbers agree with the Nouu to which 
they refer, in gender and number : primero drops the o when 
placed immediately before a Noun masculine : Ex. 



£1 primer dia. 
El primero de todos, 
IjOS prmeros dias, 
Laa primerM noches, 
£1 segundo tomo, 
Las iegundas nuevas, 



The first day. 
The first ofall. 
llie first days. 
The first nighu. 
The second volume. 
The second news. 



6. Tercero or tercer^ may be indiscriminately used ; for we 
may either say el tercero diuy or el tercer dia, 

7" Besides the cardinal and ordinal numbers, we must 
notice the collective^ the disiribuiive, and the proportion^il ; 
but observe, that these are Substantives, and not Adjectives. 

8. The collective^ denote a determined number of things, 
colleetecl into one distinct mass or body : Ex. 



Vnzdoeena, a dozen, 

media docena, half a dozen, 

una eentena, a hundred, 

una jteintena, a score. 



un par, a pair or couple, 

un miliar, a thousand, 

un millon or a million. 
cuento, 



9. The iUstributive, denote the different parts of a whole : 
El. 



La mitad, the half. 
el tercio, the tiiird. 



una cuarta, a fourth, 
una d^ma, a tenth. 



64 KUMBftlCAL AJMECmrWy [l^c. xi^y. 

10. The proportional, are sueh as denote the progressiye 
increase of things : Ex. 

Kl doble, the dotiUe. I el cuadniplo, ^e qiiadraple. 
el trq>le, the triple. | el centuplo, the hundredfohi» 

11. Numerical Adjectives referring to a Noun or AdjeiB^ye 
of dimension, require the preposition de, after them : Ex. . 

Uoa mesa de tres pies de ahura, or A table three feet in h^bt, 

df altot or high. 

Fano de dos varas de aneha, Cloth of two yards wide^ 

12. When the numerical Adjective that relates to a Noon 
or Adjective of dimension, is preceded In English by some 
part of the Verb io be, this Verb is rendered by the Verb tcner, 
to have : Ex. 

The table is three feet high, &r La mesa tiene tret pies de alto, or 

in height, de altura. 

13. Six feet by four, twelve inches by eight, and so forth, are 
translated literally; as Seis pies por cuatro, docepulgadas por 
ocho. 



OBSERVATIONS ON PREPOSITIONS EMPLOYED WITH 

ADJECTIVES. 

14. Adjectives are frequently followed by certain preposi- 
tions that gfovern the word to which the Adjective is directed. 
This is a matter in which not only the English and Spanish 
languages frequently differ, in regard to the Preposition em- 
ployed ; but one in which the greatest nicety is required in 
each language. The following are some examples, in which 
the two languages differ in this respect. 

Agradeddo d las bondades de vmd.. Thankful for your kindness. 

£1 janro es may ancho de boca, The jug is very wid£ at the mouth. 

"Ea etctuo en sa me^a, He is sparing at his meals. 

Es hondadoso eon todos, He is kind to every one. 

Ingrato para eon sus bieobechores. Ungrateful to his benefactort. 

Es vtil para todo, He is useful in everything. 

It would be an endless, and perhaps a useless task, to 
attempt at reducing to a set of rules, what custom has 
rendered so arbitrary and capricious, and what can only he 
attained hy constant reading. The Royal Academy of Madrid, 
aware of the difficulty attending on the choice of Prepositions 
(not only as employed with Adjectives, but more particularly 
as employed with Verbs), has in its Grammar, given a very 



LBC. XT.] BTTIlOtiOSr AMD BYNTAS OF PHONOU 

copious alphabetical list of Verb^, and other words, witb the 
Prepositions by which they are followed, and the wonls 
^verned by the Prepositions. In order therefore to lessen 
the difficulties which may present tliemselres to the learner 
in this respect, it has been deemed expedient to insert the 
same list in the Appendix to this work, giving the English 
translatioD to each example, to serve as a reference iu cases 
of doubt : and it is to this list that the student js now referred in 
order to know what Preposition he should employ with the 
Adjectire he may be translating. This list will be even more 
im]>ortaDt to him when he arrives at tlie government of Verbs : 
he is therefore referred to what is said respecting it, in 
Lee. 2(>, Par. 9. It would also be advisable to the student 
to peruse the said li^t as frequently as possible. 



1 



I 



LECTURE XV. 
'^ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS. 

1. FoH the deGiiitioo of this part of speech, the student 
IB referred tu Lee. 4, Par. 7; Bft«r rcperusing which, he will 
observe that Pronouns are generally classed under six different 
beads ; namely, personal, possessive, demonitratwe, relative, 
inierrogaiive and indeteTiainate. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

2. Personal Pronouns are those n'hich are used in re- 
ference to persons, and supply their places. There are three 
persons, namely, the_/trs/, or the person that speaks; the 
iecanii, or the person spoken to ; and the third, or the person 
spoken of ; as / wrote the letter, you sealed it, and he de- 
livered it. Here it is seen, that the pronoun that stands in 
the place of the person that speaks, is 1, which is the first 
person, that which stands iu the place of the person spoken 
to, is yoa, which is the second person ; and that which stands 
in the place of the person spoken of, is he, which is the third 

3. Personal Pronouns are subject to a variation of luimber, 
person, gender, and case, ns observed in the following, — 



00 



aTTMOLOOT AV9 ITHTAX OF BftOKOlirVi. []jfiC«YT. 



DECLENSION OF PERSONAL PRONOXTNS.' " 

First person singular number, common to both genders. 

NoM. Yo, L 

Gen. dem(, of me. 

Dat. d, or, para mi, me, to or for me. 

Ace. me, or, d mi, me. 

Abl. par mi, by me. 

First person plural number. 



Mtaculim, 
NoM . Noutros, We. 

Gen« de no$otros, of us. 

Dat. d, orpara nowtrog, not, to or for us. 
Aoc. not or d m»otrot, us. 

Abl. por nototrot, by us. 



^dntnine. 
Nototrat, We. 

<i^ nosoirof , of ui. 

dorpamiunoerai, kos, to iir lonii. 
not OT d nototrat, uft* 



jM>r nototriu, 



by«s« 



Second person singular number common to both genders. 

NoM. Tu, Thou. 

Gen. deti, of tiiee. 

Dat. d or para ti, te, to or for thee. 
Ace. te or d (£, thee. 

Abl. por ti, by thee. 

Second person plural number. 



Masculine* 
NoM. Vototros, You or ye. 

Gen. devotfftroi, of you. 

Dat. d or paravosotrot,os, to or for you. 
Aoc. 4if, or d vototros, you. 
Abl. por vototrot, by yon. 



> i 



Feminine, 
Vototros, You or ye. 

</o oo«Dlra<» of you. 

d or para «osotra<, oc» to or for yon. 
OS or d vosofras, you. 

por ^pototrat, by you. 



Third person masculine gender. 



_, Singular, 

Nov. El, He. 

Gen. de il, of him. 

Dat. d orpara 61, le, to or for him, 
Aoc. le or d ^Z, him. 

Abl. por 61, by him. 



Piuraj. 
£</os. They. 

de ellos, of tnem. . 

d or para ellos, let, to or for them, 
lot or d ellot, them, 

por e(/o5, by them. 



Third person feminine gender. 



Sin^lar, 

NoH. Ella, She. 

Gen. de ella, of her. 

Dat. d or para W^, U, to or for her. 
Aoc la Old ella, her. 

Abl. por ella, by her. 



Third person neuter gender. 

NoM. Ello, It. 

Gen. deello, of it. 

Dat. d or para ello, lo, to or for it 
Aco. lo or d ello, it. 

Abl. por jZ/o, by it. 



Plural, 

Ellas, They. 

d« ellat, of them. 

d or para ellat, let, to or for them. 

las or d ellas, them. 

por ellos, by them* 



L'Hc. xy,} BTmoLOOv and ktmtax op prohouns. 67 

The Neuter Pronoun has no plural nuniber in Spanish. 

4. The ihird person, is also used reciprocally, anil is de- 
clined ill the folloning manner, without the noniinatiTe caae, 
and is common to all genders and numbers : Ex. 

Gen. Desi, Ofbimieir, herMlf. itself orthemselve*. 

DiT. d or para li, ti, to or for biniaclf, &c. 

Ace. Mora si, liimaclf, &c. 

Abl. par (f, b; himself, &c 

5. Kos, is sometimes seen used in the nominatire case 
instead of nosotro*, and tins instead of vosolros ; but this 
practice is now nearly obsolete, and confined chiefly to poetrj, 
or to the elerated style of writing. 

6. The Pronouns el, la, los, las, might, in consequence of 
their similarity in spelling, be mistaken for the Articles; but 
they may be easily distinguished from them, since Articles 
are only employed with Nouns, whereas Pronouns can only be 
employed with Verbs. 

7- terrors may also arise in the use of Pronouns of the 
third person singular and plural, of the dative and accusative 
cases : to prevent which, let the following be attended to. 
When the action of the Verb falls immediately on a Pronoun, 
the Pronoun is the direct object of the Verb, and is in the 
accutalioe case ; but when the energy of the Verb falls on any 
other word in the sentence, the Pronoun will be the indirect 
object, and therefore in the dative case, and the word on 
which the energy of the Verb falls, will be in t^te accusative 
case : (See Lee. 9, on Case.} The Pronoun in the dative 
caae must lie expressed le in the singular, and les in the 
plarat number for both genders ;- But, and observe, that in 
the accusative case, the masculine pronoun singular is le, and 
its plural is ios .- the feminine singular ia la, and its ptnral 
las ! Es. I -»■■' 

Yofcdiellibro, 
Yo Us di el libra, 

In these examples, the Pronouns It and ks, arc in the 
dative case, becauJi^e the action of the Verb does not Fall on 
these Pronouns, but on the Noun libra : — But in the four 
following examples the Pronouns le, los, la, lai, are in the 
e, because to them is the action of the Verb 



kl Is lliDiA, lie callei! him. 

Kl lui Ilam6, He called then, (mis.) 



directed : 



He called lAtn.(fem.) 



66 



BTTHOLOGY AND gTHTAX OV PHONOVlTS. {hMC. SV. 



8. Notwithstanding the foregoiog rule on the proper em- 
plojment of personal Pronouns in the dcUivc and accusaiivt 
catee, and whieh eannot be too strictly attended to, It is IHs^ 
quently violated ; even Booietimes by writers of moeh cela- 
brity. 

9. An equal want of precision is also observed, iind fre- 
quently too by classical authors, in confounding the neater 
Pronoun to with the masculine Pronoun le^ in the acdtuaiive 
case : a practice which should be scrupulously avoided. The 
masculine Pronoun should be employed only m reference to a 
Noun masculine; and the neuter Pronoun iu reference to 
something, the gender of which is not denoted ; as in the 
following examples. 



Lo tomaif miiy de«{»acio« 
i Que es aquello ? tiaeme lo, 



You take it very leUurely. 
What is thati bring it to me« 



We see that in each of these examples, lo refers to soide- 
thing understood, the nature of which not being known, Is 
(kmstdered netiter. 

10. The foregoing observations are also applicable to the 
iPrdnouns 97ie, re, se^ no5, 05, as regards the ascertaining of 
their case, on account of their similarity of spelling in the 
dative and accusative. 

11. The Pronoun se is also frequently employed in the 
tfurd person singular and plural in any of the tenses, to form 
the passive voice ; Ex. 



£1 dinero se recibird, 
•S^ han recibido los libros, 



The money will be received. 
The books have been receiy^. 



(See also Lee. 24, Par. 7)- 



SMfLOTMBNT OF PBR80NAL PRONOUNS IN THB N0MIMA7IVB 

CASE. 

12. Personal Pronouns in the nominative case, in the na- 
tural tsonstruction of the language, precede the Verb in Spa- 
nish ; Ex. 



I speak. 

Thou hast come. 
He will take. 
We will come. 



Vosotrosiuisteis, Yea went. 
Que ellos com- That they may 
pren, buy. 



¥• hablo, 
T^ has venido, 
"El tomarft, 
Nosotros ven- 
dremosy 

13. This natural order of placing the nominative case before 
the Verb, may be inverted for the sake of elegance, or to add 
greater energy to the expression, not only with respect to 



Ii^. IV,] BTTHOLOGV 4»B BTNTJK OP FHOHODNfl. 

PronODDH and Verbs, but also with Nouns and Verbs. Indeed 
the natural conetructioD of the Spanish language, admits a 
great variety of h; ntactical inversion as regards several of the 
other parts of speech, as we have already seen with the Sub- 
stantive and Adjective, and as we shall further see as we 
arrive at the construction of the several parts of speech re- 
spectively. Custom appears to liave established aa a rule, 
that that word should take precedence, which we would have 
appear the most conspicuous in the sentence : for instance, 
we would say in English, Then said I tn her, fear nothing ; 
and ID Spanish, Enlonca U dige yo, nada umas : in whieb, 
contrary to the natural order of the Spanish language, the 
Verb digo precedes its uominative i/o. It happens the same 
in the English sentence, where the Verb said precedes the 
nominative /, because the intent of the speaker is principally 
on the $aj/ins. This licence, however, is allowed a much 
wider latitude in Spanish than in English; and writers tbat 
know how to avail themselves of it, are able to display the 
variety and elegance which the Spanish language is capable 
of exhibiting. 

14. In interrogative sentences, personal Pronouns usually 
follow the Verb in Spanish ; Ex. 

( Hablil (I eon vmd. \ Did he spealc lo you 1 

I Qaiere vmd. algo ? Do you wisli any Ihinn ! 

15. Personal Pronouns likewise follow the Verb in Spanish 
in the imperative mood ; Ex. 

Vtttga vmd. conmigo, Come with mc. 

Hagamoi nmalrai nueslio deber, Let ua do our duty. 

16. Personal Pronouns are generally omitted in Spanish, 
in the nominative case, unless Ihey be the emphatieal word in 

r when their omission would create ambiguity, 

la libio. 1 am going to purchase a book. 



In the first example, the termination of the Verb voy, de- 
notes its nominative to be th^firti person singular, and there- 
fore the Pronoun i/o is dispensed with as unnecessary. In 
the second the Verb es, denotes its nominative to be of the 
third person singular, while the feminine termination of the 
Adjective hermota points out its gender. In the third c 
ample, the Pronouns are the emphatical words in the sen- 



70 Kmra&ocnr akb stktaxof psoNOWf. [i.bc. xy. 

teM6,>and «ro therefore^ eipotseed. Atid ihtke- fourl^^ both 
Verba being^-in the tbtrd: personi singfolar, thiivxnoiseion of the 
ProaeuD^ would ioreote lambigiiity as > regards ' the gender of 
the nottinatiyes. 

. 17- The nonriDative case of the neuter Pi^onoun- (elh)i U 
always eoppresserti in Spanish, when^ employed witbtmpfr- 
«oiia/ Verbs; that is, Verbs used- only in the thitrL person 
SM^/orf Ex. 

• Por^to ctue llo?er& hoy. It appears that i( will i:ain to dty. 

£t pFtcBo qua vayaMos, It is neceisaiiy that, we go. 



BHPLOTMBNT OF PBRSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE DATIVB AND 

ACCUSATIVB CASBS. 

18. We will first treat on those personal Pronouns, which 
are governed by the Verb, namely, me, te^ Ze, /a, Zo, mu, oi, 
leSf laSf loSf se. These in the dative and accusative cases are 
placed after, and joined to the Verb, in the infinitive and tm- 
peraiive modes, and also the participle active; Ex. 

Dative, 

Voy d darle el dinero, I am going to give him the money. 

Bniefieme vmd. el libro, Show me the book. 

Estoy escrUfUndole una carta, I am writing him a letter. 

Accusative, 

iQuiere vmd. verle ? Do you wish to see him 1 

Traigala vmd. aqu(, Biiog her here. 

Estan maltratdndolos. They are ill-treating them. 

Note, — The first and second persons plural of the Verb in 
the imperative mode drop the final letter, when nos and os are 
affixed to them ; as sahimonos, let us save ourselves ; insirU' 
io8f instruct yourselves ; instead of salvemosnos, instruidos. 

On all other occasfons, the foregoing Pronouns are 
generally placed before the Verb ; Ex. 

Dative, 

El not diA la noticia, He gave us the news. 

Yo ie he etcrito la carta, I have written him a letter. 

Ellos me enviaron el libro, They sent roe the book. 

Accusative. 

NoBOtros le vimos, We saw him. 

Ellos se han lastitnado. They have hurt themselves. 

£1 la aetmpaiUurd, He will accompany her. 



IfBC. XV.] BTTUDLOOT AND STHTAX Of eRONOUKa, 71 

19. To give energy to the expression, the syntactical order 
of the Pronouns in the daiive and accusative cases, maybe in- 
Verted, and particularly when the senteuce be^ns with % 
Verb ; Es. 

Mialriise may Hento i idLj slj- He shaded himself very atlent^e 
plicas, Id my eolrealiea. 

20. When it hnppcns that both the direct and indirect 
objects are Pronouns, the direct objeirt JH translated by a Pro- 
noan in the accusative case ; but the indirect object, is ren- 
dered by one of the Prououna me, te, le, in the singular, and 
nos, OS, sr:, in the plural : and ob^^erve that the order of the 
fronouna is rcvei'sed in the translation ; Ex. 



w 



Vaj & daite In, I am go 

EnsiaetelM. Show lA 

£1 not 1(1 dijo, He told 

YoDilaenviari:'. I will » 



31. We have now to consider those personal Pronouns of 
the dative and accusative cases, that are preceded by a Pi 
position ; namely, a mi, a ti, a el, d cUa, d ello, d si, d no. 
trois, a Tiosotrat, a vosoiros, a vosotras, a elloa, d ellas. These 
Pronouns are frequently employed with the other class of 
Pronouns, of the dative and accusative cases : their use is 
either to add more energy to the object of the Verb, or to the 
person to whom the object is directed; or to distinguish more 
particularly the gender of the object ; Ex. 

La HevaroD & ilia a so casa, y a They carried her lo her homie, and 

mi me eaiiaioa al deapacho, sent nie to ihe office. 

Yo le EScrihl a it con pieferencia. I nrole lo him in prcfertnce. 

In the first esample, the additional Pronouns a ella, and 
d mi, add greater energy to the sentence, by placing th« 
objects of the Verbs in a more conspicuous light ; and in the 
aecond, a el determines the srj of the object; for without 
this additional Pronoun, te escribi would be ambiguous in iti 
signification, and mean either / virole ti> Mm , or I wrote lo 
her. It is also seen in the latter part of the first example, 
that the additional Pronouns may, fur the sake of emphasis, 
alter their situation. 

22. This class of Pronouns in the indirect regimen, and 
aliio ^er comparatives, may sometiraes he used by them- 
selves ; Ex. 

Dele Tmd. el libro d fl, j la Give the book lo Aim, and the letter 

carta a Ella, lo lier. 

Nm han dado menoa que tt tlloi, They have given us les> than Ihtm. 



72 WrWMQhOQY 4M» fTlfTAZ OF VAOKOVVS. [lBC. XT. 

■MFLOTMBNT OF FBR80MAL FROKOUKS IV THB OBBITXTB ABB 

ABLATrrB CA8BS. 

23. There is nothing very particular to be obserrecl In the 
employment of personid Pronouns in these two cases. They 
are always preceded by Prepositions. It must be obaerted, 
however, that ihejirsi and seetmd personal Pronouns singmkri 
and also the reciprocal Pronoun, are, when in the ablative ease 
preceded by con (with), written thus, conmigo^ with me % eoit* 
tigo, with thee ; consigo, with him, her, or them. 

24. Observe also, that formerly, when the Preposition ie 
preceded the Pronouns eZ, cUa^ ellos, ellcu^ eUo^ it dropped 
the tf, and was thn^. contracted with these Pronouns, del, dellA, 
ddlo9^ dellas, ddlo ; but this usa^^e is now obsolete, though 
sometimes seen in the poetical style. 

BXBBGISB OB PBRSONAL PRONOUNS. 

I have a book. Thou [wilt come] to-morrow. He and' she 

tengo veDdr&s manaiHu 

[will be] here [to-day.] We m. have written. We /. have 

estar&n aqnf hoy; hemoscicrito. 

told the truth. Youm. are happy. You/, [shall go.] Hieym. 
dicho veidad. sois dichoso. ir^is. 

answered. They/, came. He came, said he, but it was too 

respondieron. vinieroni vino dijo pero fu^ muy 

late. They knew (2) not(l) what to sa^r* Art thou there? 

tarde. sabian no que ^decir. estat allH 

Who is hel What are they? Go thou. Stay you here, 

quien «s que son . . ve. quedad 

He rttnroed within an hour* He waa more unfortunate tkm 

Yolvi6 [dentro do] hora. fu^ desgradado 

guilty* They cam^, we did not come, We had 

dehncuente. vinieron . vinimos. faabiamos 

[set off] before tl^ey arrived. He came to pay me the debt, 

partido [dntes que] Ilegasen. vino ^ pagar denda. 

Give us tome wine. Examine yourselves well. Let us go 

da ecsaminad bien. a vanoa 

home; They were persuading me to so. I [thould like] 

[icasa.] estaban persuadiendo [dquefueie.] quiaisra 

to know him. Bring her here. Ck>mfort thyself, and listen 

A oonocer trae conaoela eacncha 

tome. They are trying hmi. Ht was beating her. 

estan justificando -estaba pegando 



LEC, IV.] BTTMOLOOY A> 


B STNTiX 


OF PHONOOKS. 


7a 1 


We paid them, 
pagimos 


1 Lave 
he 


spoken to 
hablado 


her. Vice deteive^ us. 1 
eogaiia ■ 


PfOsperilj gaini 
proiperidad Brangea 


lo ftiendii, but advetsily Iriei Ibtm. ■ 
amigo, mas advenidad [pane i la prueba] ■ 




house. 


I related to him 
cemte 


all her 
odo 


biilory. I brought a letter 
bUtonti. Iraga 


aud gai« <I I 


her. Here 


are tlie 


dib^o ».<.e.^ 


them to 


them. 


1 hive tM it 
he dicho 


W her. 


fWilUhou refuse] it 


lotliem'! 


1 sa* her, but could (2) not 
vf peropude 


(l)«e 
vet 


-■"""'"■f" 


to thee in prefeienoc. 


They handed m 


■ pjale 
piato 


oTmbp, but sent tbem beef 
«ipa cnviarou carne 


Ian 


going to send i 
voy mandar 


to him 


that he [may f 
[para que] ren 


rward] it In 
ita 


her. 11 


s to them Ihu 

[Squienes] 


I apoke. 
h*bl«. 


It is better lo give it 


o her thao b 


him. 


They [«ouid sand] 


it to as 



rather than retnrn It to hint. Do they apeak of me or of him 1 

&ates volver . hablan i 

What does he >ay about it ! He says <2} nothing C 1 ) of himself. 

que . dice de dice nada 

Was it done by him or by her 1 He is gone with them. He did 

fo^ hecho ha ido con hiio 

it for me. I can go without him. They spoke agunit 

me, [He would neither stay] ivith me, nor with thee. He 



25. Before ronttluding this lecture on personal Pr 
there is one thing marc of importance to notice ; which is, 
that the lecand personal Pronoun is employed ii) Spanish in 
addressing; those persons with nhoin we are on terms of the 
greatest familiarity ; also hy parents to their children ; be- 
tween brothers and sisters ; suraetimes by masters to their 
Hervants ; it is also utied in scripture and in poetry. In 
novels and romances, we frequently see the second personal 
Pronoun plural used in addressing persons, for whom a kind 
of reoenble respect is entertained. 

But in polite conversation, or addressinK strangers, instead 
of the second personal Pronoun, Usied is used with both 
^ndcrs in the singular number, and Uuedes in the plural. 



74 I DM wi l l HMSOmM. [lBO. ZTI. 

Uked IS an abbremtM «f Wmetim Mrreed^ vliieli, siriedjr 
speaking, has no eqoiTalent mcaniny is English ; but h is a 
term of nearly the same import as jroKr^roor, ftryomr honour. 
Id writiDgy Usted is thus contracted, Fau/., or thas, vmd, (as 
maj be seen in aereral of die examples already giroi in diis 
work) ; some write it thos, ^n. ; others Fc/. or F. j^n « Is 
added to either mode of abbreriadon to form the plural 
number : and obsenre, diat the Verb and the possessive Pro- 
noun are put in the third person singular to agree with Vmd,^ 
and in the third pertOB plund to agree with Fmub. The fol- 
lowing are a few Eimnples on the empfoyment of Fmd, 

i Seoor, hm Yiilo «wl. & mi her- Sir, kmm ymi kcb aty brother 1 
numot 



pafiia, 
Seoon, paiece que esid vtmd. caa- Mtdam, jfon appear tired. 

iOae dice vmd. ? What do y«m $99 ? 

Cabal]en»,aminw2i.iD«y corteses. Gentlemen, jam are very polite. 
i.Senoiitasctde«aii.estam68ica? Does this music belong to you, 

young ladws? 

Obserre that the AdjecdTC which refers to vmd, or vmds.j 
agrees in gender with the person to whom these abbreviadons 
allude: Ex. 

i Etta Tmd. bueno (aduUtro) ? Are you well (Sir) 1 

{Se^ormi) ton tbos. muy bonda- (Ladies), yon are very kind. 



LECTURE XVI. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

1. PoSBBssiTB Pronouns are thoee which da aote the poi- 
setdon of any thing bj the persons or things to which they 
refer. They are of two khids, namely, thoee whieh precede 
the Noon, and are by some grammarians called confuncHve 
possessive Pronouns, and those whieh JbUow the Noiin> or 
that refer to some Noun "understood, and are tsalled by some, 
diffuiUittte tftnlative pMsessiiie Pronouns. 
* 9. PossessifB Fronomw do ana vary their fenn<on aeeonnt 



of eM#.; but jkhey adndt tiM nme Prqpoiition« in fcbe several 
cases as personal Pronouns do. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS THAT PRECEDE THE NOUN. 



Mi, 


m* 


tu. 


thy. 


8U, 


his, her, Hs. 



nueitro. 


our. 


vuestro. 


ybor. 


«*, 


their. 



3. These are iq^plied to things possessed in the singular 
number;. ADS -is alidad, to theoii to, agree with Nouns pos- 
sessed ui tbe plnral number: mip lUt au^ are applicable .to 
both geodera ; but miegtra and vucitro are of the matculine 
gender, a^d .change their final letter into a, when they refer 
to Nouna possessed, in Urn feminine gender : Ex. 

Mi sombrero. My hat. 

Mis espadas. My swords. 

Ttt carta. Thy letter. 

Tns lihros. Thy books. 

Sa ndor. His, her, ^ its valonr. 

Sos virtudes. His, her, or its virtues. 

Noestro deber. Our duty. 

NoestracQMUnei^ Our constancy. 

Vuestrojuicio, Your judgment. . 

Vuestros hechos. Your deeos. 

Su talento. Their talent. 

Sns espenlnzas^ Their hopes. 

In these examples we see that all the Pronouns, agree in 
Spanish, in person with the possessor ^ and in sion^ with the 
thing possessed ; and dint the first and second persons plural, 
agree also in gender with the thing possessed. 

4. The word oton, used in English together with possessive 
Pronouns, is translated propio or miimo : Ex. 

Hablo de mi propio negodo, I speak of my own business. 

Son JIM casas propias. They are hi$ own houses, 

Hablaba de mi miamo, I was speaking of my own self. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS THAT FOLLOW THE NQUN, OK 
THAT REFER TO A NOUN UNDERSTOOD. 

mo, 

5. This class of petseesife Pronouns, are made to agree in 
peraon with the possessor, and in gender and number with the 
thing possessed^ An s is added to them to form thA ^W^V. 



miae. 


muttro. 


OttlS. 


thine. 


mtestro. 


yours 


his, hen, its. 


tuyo. 


theirs 



76 P088BS8ITB PROKOUMS. [istC. XTI. 

number, and they change the final letter into a to fbrfn ihe 
feminine gander : Ex. 

El dolor tnio. My grief. 

La paciencia mia, ^ patience. 

Los doeos mtot, J^ oetiies. 

Las esperanzas miat, 1^ hopes. 

£1 valor tuyo, Tny valoar. 

£1 candor myo. Hit or her candour. 

Los esfuerzos nuestros. Our efforts. 

Una carta vii«f(ra, A letter ofyimrs* 

La Tirtud tuya. Hit, her, itt, or their yiitue. 

6. When these Pronouns are employed in reference tos 
Noun understood, they are also inreceded by the Article i^ee- 
ing with them in gender and number ; except when used in 
answer to a question, in which case the Article is not neces- 
sary, unless we wish to identify or to particnlarixe. the thing 
to which the Pronoun refers : Ex. 

Mi libro y el tuyo estan aquf , My book and (Aiiie are here, but 
pero el tuyo no, not hit, hert, or liimrt. 

Nuestra carta lleg6 6ntes que las Our letter arrived before hit, hers, 
tuyas, or theirt* 

I De quien es este libro l-^-mio. Whose book is this'!'— mine. 

I Cual quiere vmd., el nuettro 6 Which will you have,- ourt ot hisl 
el tuyo 1 — el nuettro, •^'ours, 

7. Neither is the Article required when there is a Verb 
between the Noun and the possessive Pronoun, unless we 
wish to particularize the Noun : Ex. 

£1 sombrero.es mio, The hat is mine. 

La espada es tuya. The sword is hit, 

Este paragua es el mio. This umbrella is my own, 

8. Disjunctive possessive Pronouns are sometimes lised 
with the neuter Article, in the same manner as Acyectives 
substantively employed are : Ex. 

Lo mio. Mine, or that which is mine. 

Lo tuyo. Thine, or that which is thine. 

Lo suyo. His or hers, or that which is his or hers. 

Lo nuestro. Ours, or that which is ours. 

Lo vuestro. Yours, or that which is yours. 

Lo suyo. Theirs, or that which is theirs. 

9. Disjunctive possessive Pronouns, preceded in English 
by the Preposition o/*, do not generally admit the Preposition 
in Spanish t Ex. 

A dress of mine, Un vestido mio. 

Two servants of hit, Dos criados iuyos. 

But should we wish to lay a particular emphasis on the 



hW^. XVI.] POSfBSSITB PROirOUIIS. 77 

JPiCfOQWiy then both Prepofiitioii Mid Article ar^ required in 
Spanish : Ex. 

Two servants of hit, and one of Dos criados de lot suyos, y uno de 
mine, los mict. 

Two of my servants, one of his friends, wootd he rendered, 
dos de mis criadw, uno de ms amigos, 

10. The Pronono my\ used in Eqglfsh fii' Addresses, is 
translated mio, and follows the Noun : £z« 

Do not ffO, my son. No vayas, htjo mid. 

My Goa ! i l^ios mh ! 

JMydtorSir, Sfeform^ "'•''• 

11. As in the employment of possessive Pronouns of the 
third person, some amingfuity may arise respecting the gender 
and nttmber of the possessor ; it would be preferable in doubt- 
ful cases, to employ a /7^«ona/ Pronoun in the genitire case, 
aUufi?e to the possessor, in addition to the possessive Pro- 
noun ; by which means erery obscurity will be removed : Ex. 

SvL^itaa. de £i, His house. 

Su casa de ella. Her house. 

Su casa <fe «/tot. Their house CmatctdiM)<, 

Su casa de ellas. Their house (feminine), 

Su casa de vmd. Your house (masculine and feminine nngular), 

Su casa de vmdt. Your house (nuueuUne and feminine plural). 

We may also wf. La casa de el^ his house.; Lacast^ de elluj 
her house, &c. 

12. The same rule is to be obserred with possessive Pro- 
nouns, as with personal Pronouns, as regards the employment 
of the third person instead of the second, as notieed in Lee. 
15, Par 25 : Ex. 

Tome vmd. su sombrero. Take your haU 

Aquf estan nu, or los ipiantes de Here are your gloves. 
vind.y 

13. In i^rases like the following, namely, / wounded his 
arm^ I washed my face, and such like ; instead of the po<- 
sessive Pronoun used in English, a personal Pronoun in the 
dative case is employed in Spanish, in allusion to the person 
to whom the action of the Verb is directed ; while the defi- 
nite Article points out the part affected by the Verb : Ex. 

I wounded his arm. Yo le herf el braio. 

I washed mv face. Me lave la cara. 

My head aches* Me duele la cabeza. 

He took them by the hand, Les tom6 de la mano. 

14. The same construction is obserred \y\ ^^v(v\^^ ^^^\k 



78 rossBisivs PftovMmi. fjuscns. 

when tiie olgect affected liv the Verb :doee not deaote ny 
part of the person ; but merely something appertuning to 
it : Ex. 

Am qviUion Us eq[^adas, They took away our swords. 

Lt cortaion im casaca. They tore hit coat. 

15. In the following exaaplee, and otlMts of a^ilke coBStme- 
tion, the debute Ardde alone is ased in Spanish, ' in place of 
the Enf^sh jMMiessiee Pronoun. 

$he has lost her sight. Ha perdido U vista. 

He lost ibis right ann in battle, Perdio el brazo derecho en batalla. 

I put the money into siy pocket, Metf el dinero en la faltriquera. 



EXERCISE ON POSSESSIYE PRONOUNS. 

My father and my mother are at (ome. My books are well 

estan en casa. estan biea 

bound. Your houses are well bollt* and yonr gardens are 

encuademado. edificado jardin 

adorned with beautiful flowers. Her sertant took her horses to the 

adomado de bello flor. criado llev6 cabalio 

stable. Ifis genias and his talent are esteemed. ' Our 

caballeriza. genio talento son estimado. 

roostancy and our efforts [will siinnoant] every obstacle. Thy 

constancia esfuerzo vencer&n todo obst^culo. 

randour and thy virtue are well known. £<Mier» f your brave 

candor virtud son conocido. soldado bizarro 



conduct has filled my hopes, and satisfied my vrishes. That 

ronducta ha llenado esperanza satisfecho deseo. aqaella 

is his own idea. My friends did not serve me with the same 

es amigo a no obsequiaron mismo 

zeal as his. The greater part of the goods are damaged ; but 

celo parte genero estan averiado ; pero 

yours and mine are in a good condition. Your conditioo 

[cannot be compared] with ours. Their confidence deserves mine, 

no puede cotejarse confianza merece 

\\ hose gloves are these ?^mine , and that hat I—his. It 

cuyos guante son estos ese es 

this her coach ?^-no, it is mine. A friend of mine has qioken to a 

cste coche a es ha hablado 

relation of his, concerning some business of yours. We sent 

pariente [acerca dej negocio envi^mos 

a servant of ours to an aunt of hers. He has sold one of his 

criado tia ha vendido 

liorses. . [What ails thee] my child ? Here it is my friend. 

que tienes aquf est6 



UMK WIlO DBlf^NStRJITiyB TlfiffNOUNS. 79 

OufB taA yevs «ra suptrior to hit.. Hen [wiK-go] flriit. "^ It is 

of her house that I speak ; not of his. Her letter is 

[de la que] hablo [de la de] carta est4 

better written than hit. I took off my hat* [It is better] 

escrito [lade€l.j qait6 mas vale 

for a maa to lose his life than hb honour. He is putting on 

que A pierda rida «i^pQnieMlose a 

his coat. She cut her finger. H« lost his' life in a 

casaca. se cort6 dedo. perdi6 

duel, 
desafio. 



LECTURE XVII. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

!• Dbmonsteatiyb Pronouns are tiiose which point out^ 
or identify the objeetsi*to which they refer. In Enfflish they 
are of two kinds, namely, Mis, which refers to an object near 
to the speaker ; and ihat, which refers to aa object at a dis- 
tance from the speaker : this forms its plural by these ; and 
that by those. In Spanish, however, there are three kinds of 
demonstrative Prononns ; the first esi6, refers to an olgect 
near to the speaker ; the second, ese, refers to an object that 
IS nearer 'to the person or thing spoken to, than to the speaker ; 
and the third, aquelt refers to an object which is distant both 
from the speaker, and from the object s()oken to : Ex. 

Este libro que estoy leyendo, ete This book which I am reading, that 

tratado que tiene vmd. en la treatise which you have in your 

mano, y aquel foUetq que est4 hand» and that pamphlet which 

sobre la mesa, son mios, is on the table, are mine. 

2. Demonstrative Pronouns in Spanish are subject to a 
variation of gender and number ; they do not vary their form 
on account of case, but admit the same Prepositions to point 
out their case, as personal Pronouns do : Ex. 

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. 

Singular. 

Estet esta, estOy This. 

ese, eta, eso, that. 

aquel, aquella, aquelb, that yonder. 



Ettes, 


eitat. 


twrumter. 


eso$, 


esa$f 


noneutir, 


aquellos, 


aqMUoi, 


no neuter, 



90 i^iBilbirfitRAtiTB fUMNnriii. [lbc. xvu. 

These. 

those. 

those yonder. 

3. llie terms the fbmer, and the laitet^ are transteled este, 
Biid aguel : Ex. 

Jamas iengas soberbia, ni^ vanidad ; Nev«r possess haughtiness nor 
aquella te adqaeriri enemigos, y esta vanity ; the former will gain 

8er4 tu ruina. thee enemies, the latter ^ill be 

thy ruin. 

4. When Demonstratiye Pronouns refer to time, etie is 
applied to the present, and e$e or aqtuel to the past, according 
to the remoteness of the time referred to : Ex. 

• 

E$te es el siglo de la ilustracion, Tlus is the age of knowledge. 

Me acuerdo bien de ess or aquel dia, I recollect that day well. 

OBSERVATION ON ESB AND AQUEL. 

5. Although what has just been obeenred with regard to 
the employment of ese and aqueit is conformable to the rules 
giren by the Spanish Academy respecting theto, h would be 
more advisable to employ them with' objects, the relative 
local situation of which, or distance with regard to time, • 
could be more distinctly denoted in English by an abrerb : 
Ex. 

That book there an the table, and Eselibro que tAtk sobre la mcaa, y 

that one yonder on the shelf ' aqt^l que est& en el eatante 

belong to you, pertenecen a Vmd. 

That vessel which arrived yester' Ese buque que lleg6 oyer, y aquel 

day, and that which was ship- que naufrag6, el aflo pasado, 

wrecked Uut year, belonged to pertenecian al mismo dueno. 
the same owner, 

6. The expressions namely ^ and that is, or that i$ to My, 
are translated esto es: Ex. 

Ia encomcnd^ que no anduviera I desired him not to walk much ; 
mucho; esto es, <iue soIq hiciese that is, that he should only take a 

un poco de egercicio, little exercise. 

Medijoquelecompraralosiguiente, He told me to purchase him the 
etto eSt following, namely. 

7. Ette and ese, are sometimes used also compounded 
with the word otro^ other: in such cases they drop the final 
vowel ; Ex. 

Ettoiro, estotra, this other. Estotras, eUotras, these others. 

eeotro, esotra, that other. esotros, esotras, those others* 



This compoondBBf af tlie !«• voris, 4an BOt take ]riaee 
with aquel ; bat thef are written eftipai rtelj : Ex. 

8. SoaetMneg^ ^KMigli mUom, ajwriir and o^iiat are 
ployed instead of e$te sad 



TH£ ARTIGLB UtBD IKBTSAO OF TUM BKHOVSTaAtlTB 

FKOKOUK. 

9. When in English the demonstntiTe ProDonn is IbUowed 
by wAoy whieh^ or that, exp resacd or understood, it is aooMtiwes 
rendered in Spanish by llie d^bmte Article. Tlus imwefer 
is not to be comprehended as a general role : in this case, 
the employment of the one in preferenee to the other, is a 
mere matter of taste, although the Article seems to ht more 
generally adopted In funifiar language : Ex. 

Mit libros y lot que YVML^camfit6, My booki sad tktme (that) yon bought. 
Lot que lo dicen se engapMn, Thote who say lo are ndstaken. 

Tiaigame vmd. el que vi ayer, Biing me that wkkk I saw yeeterday. 

10. Also when the English personal Pronoon is followed 
by who or that^ expressed or understood, it may be either 
translated by the Article, or by the demonstratf ve Pronoun 
aquel I Ex. 

El que es sabio, or, aquel que es sabio. He that is wise will not say so. 

no lodiri. 

hot que or aquellot que lo dicen, Theiy who uiy so. 

La que or aquella que vmd. ii6. She whom you saw. 



BXBRCI8B ON DBMONSTRATIVB PRONOUNS. 

[Do you know] this man and this girl 1 [Have you read] these lines ? 
conoce vmd. a muchacha ha leido vmd. verso 

These pens do not write well. This garden is full of flowers. These 
^ no escriben bien. est4 lleno flor. 

apples are better than those. He is a relation of that 

manzana son es pariente 

gentleman whom you (2) met (1) here [some days ago.] 

calmllero [k quien] encontr6 aquf hace algunos dias. 

[Are you acquainted with] those ladies there J That was a brilliant age 
conoce vnid» a fu6 brillante siglo 

for the Athenians. He arrived on that very day. What is that ? 
para Atenienses. Ileg6 ^ qne es 

Prefer virtue to vice, the former [will make] thee happy and the latter 
prefiere virtud vicio har& feliz 

miserable. That is what be may do, that is to say, what he ouaht to 
. es paede hacer ^<!o^ ^ 



83 ftAL4TI¥B riUINOUVf. [lBC*. XYlIf. 

do« Those tkat CBltiTate iMraiiig sbould be eBceurBM^* Uappgr .they 

4ailtivan ctencias debenser protegiuou 

who are virluous. I prefer that which you have, to those whiich I bourfit. 
que son Turtiioso. prefiero qae ttene compr^ 

Those who meak ill of her <fc» aot know her. He that ig wm speaks 
hablanmal ^ conoce» q«e «a aabia haUa 

when it is necessary; but he that only [presumes to be so] speaks 
cuando necesario mas solo lo presume 

incessantly, 
incesantemente. 



LECTURE XVIII. 
RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1 . Rblatiyb ProDOUDs are such as refer, or relate to some 
person or tbingr in a sentence, which person or thing so 
referred to, is ctMed the antecedent; for instance. The man who 
spoke to you ; The bird which you killed ; 7%e sh^ that vms 
lost : In these examples, who, which^ and that^ are relative 
Pronouns, and relate or refer to thfs antecedent Nouns moii, 
hird and ship, 

2. Who becomes whose in the genitive case, and whom in 
the accusative case : which and that are indeclinable in. regard 
to case ; and neither of the three, vary on account of gender 
or number. 

3. Relative Pronouns in Spanish, do not vary their form 
on account of case ; but admit the same Prepositions as per- 
sonal Pronoans ^^ in the several cases. There are four 
relative Pronouns in Spanish, namely, quieny who;, cuaty 
which; qwCy who, which, or that; and cuyo^ whose, or ik 
which. 

4. Sluien and cualy have a plural termination, as quienes, 
cuales; but they are common to both genders. £iiien, refers 
to persons only, and cual^ both to persons and things : Ex. 

£1 es quitn lo tiene, It is he who has it. 

liOS senores con quienes hablaba vmd.. The gentlemen with whom yon 

were speaking. 

Lassefioras&futenfsor^f ^8c«a/nenvi6 The ladies to whom I sent the 
el recado, message. - 

£s una ciencia de la cutU tengo muy It is a science of which 1 have 
poca eoJDOcimiento. bat little knowledge. 



(.Bfl. XTIU.J KBLATIVG PROSODHS. 83 

Note. — Some classical authors, have employed qulen in 
refereDce to things, and have also used it in ita singular 
terminatioD, in referring to a plural Noun ; but this practice 
is by no me&us sauotioned, nor general. 

5. We sometimes see guien and cual, used in the sense of 
some, and others : Ex. 

Quien se lalvi L nado, quUn en Semeiaved theantlvtsbj swimmiag, 

lancfaas, oihrn in boats. 

Peleabsn cuai tun cuehillos, runl Sume fonsht with knives, .iWjwJth 



s hoto, or tn uhat 



1 



,- Cual it halle • 



7- ^ue, is common to both numbers and genderf, and is 
applied to persons and things : Ex. 

£t hombri qve vino, The mini mho for ihai) came. 

Lai muterei que vimos, The aiomeiiwhomi that or ithichjvt^ii. 

Uii cahaltoi que vmd. comprii, Ttie hortei icAic'i (or thai) fou boughl. 

Los cDHi ^ que vntd. se refiere, The ihingi to mAitb joii allude. 

Abfe. — The second example, migbt be also thus expressed) 
Las mugeres i quienes vimos ; but tt is preferable, when lotiom 
is not preceded by a PrepoBition, to trasElate it que. 

8. When mho is repeated in a sentence, it may be translated 
uther qne, or el cual: Ex. 

El haxAre que parlifi ayer, y qtie or The ninn o/ih staited yeiterday, aad 



Also if whtim b 
translated d quia 



y. Cuyo, partakes of the nature of both a relative and a 
possessive Pronoun ; as a relative, it relates to an aDiecedent, 
and as a possessive Pronoun it refers Co the person or thinf 
possessed; in which latter capacity it agriies in number and 
^nder with the person or thing possessed, and not with the 
possessor; Ex. 



84 RBLITITB PROHOVHS. [l«M. X?ni. 

10. RelatiTes are expressed !n Spanish, where they are 
frequentljr omitted in English : Ex. 

La casa que fnimos k Ter, The house we went to see. 

Las iostituciones de qus hablaron. The institutions they q»oke of. 

In each of these sentences in English, there is a relatifc 
understood : and the sentences, to be complete, should be 
thus expressed ; Jlie house which we went to see ; The institU' 
tions of which they spoke, 

11. The relative In English, does not invariably follow the 
Preposition by which It is governed; as in the examples, 
7%tf gentleman whom / wrote to ; The persoms which you speak 
of : in which we see that the Prepositions to and qf, come 
after, and are separated from the relatives whom and which, 
which they govern. In Spanish, however, the relative most 
immediately follow the Preposition by which it is governed ; 
as JSI cahallero d qnien escr\fn, Las personas de quienes habla 
Vmd. 



EXERCISE ON RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

It is he who has seat us here. The gentlemen from whom I have 
es ha enviado aqui. he 

received so mach kindness. The men whom we met, and whom we 
recibido bondad. encontr&mos 

questioned. Where is the man from whom I could derive any benefits 
pregunt&mos. donde est& podria sacar provecho 

The lady with whom you danced. The ladies to whom yon sent the 

bail6. envi6 

drawings. The man wlio wrote it. The house that you see there. These 
dibujo. escribi6 ve allf. 

are the works that you should read, in preference to those which yon have 
obra debialeer conpreferencia ha 

selected. The general who oondocted the battle and that [was killed] in 
elegido. dirigia batalla mnrid en 

it. A man that spends his life in idlenessi dies miserable. Give it to 

pasa vida ocioadad muere ' . d^ 

whom you please. Virjdl whose works we admire. It is an evil, the 
guste. Virguio admiramos. es mat 

cause of which is unknown. The book, the owner of which I am. 
causa es desconocida. dueno soy. 

Milton, whose sublime genius is so universally known. Lope de Vega, 
._ ■ genio es universalmente conocido. — ■ 

whose ardent spirit knew (2) no (1) bounds. Idleness is a vice we 
aidieote eqpfritu conocia If mite, ociosidad 



I««« XVI«j INTBftMOATtlW fpfyjajgji^. $^ 



^usIU to . aluuk. The men «« saw this sooijiiiif . . The law 

debemos evitar. '. Tiinds manaliia. ' ley 

which I [was speaking] of. The idea which you referred' ' to. 

. iiabUba [sere&ria] . 



LECTURE XIX. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

M. Intbrrooativb Pronoans are so called, from their 
being employed in askiDg qaesfions. ~ Thej are in liiet rela- 
tire. Pit>QOiins used interrogadyely : El. 

iQiaenesI Tl^isUI 

jCuoi esdevmd.? WJUcharunn^. 

I Que es aquello 1 What is that 1 

I Cvya es esta casa ? Who$e house is this 1 

2. Ctt^o, in interrogative seDtences, is very frequently sub- 
stituted by de quien ; tiierefore we may. with eqiial propriety 
say, i De qmen es esta casa ? or, ^ Cuifa es esta casa ? 

3. The same Preposition which we employ iu the interro- 
gation is required in the answer; whlich Preposition must 
dwiiys 1>e expressed in Spaiiisb, altboiigli sometimes omitted 
in English : Ex. 

I A* qpien fii6 vrnd. a ver 1 — d su Whom cUd you go to .see 1 — your 
hemianOj brother. 

^ Coo quien yiiio 7 — conmigo. Whom did he eomt^wUkt — with 

me. 

i £n <itte Tiajaban 1 — en coche. What did they travel in 1 — a coach. 

* 

M»re.«- Should the question be asked with cuyo^ the Prepo- 
sition de is required with the answer, in the same manner as 
if the question were put with de quwn ; Ex. 

I Cuyo es este reloj 1 — de mi ^- Whose watch is thisl — ^my father's. 

dre, 

i Cuyas son estas Hayes 1-^dei Whose keys -are these 1 — the mas- 

amo> ter*s. 

EXERCISE ON INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Who are those ladies 1 Who is that gentleman ? Whom 

son es 

[did yaa give it) to t Which of those carriages [do you like best] t 

lohadadovm^i cajttoi^ \!^i;a<^\.tkV^RBA.'VM& 



86 



IirOAmUHINATB PRMOUMB* 



[f»C. 



Which are yonr works? 
son 

[shaUItak«]withme1 
llevar^ 

What[shaUw6do?] 
har^mo^ 

What hour is iti 
hora es 



Whtft lay yim to thttt 
dice 



What 



Who is he? 
es 

Whose is this seal ? 
es sello. 



WhatC^aH^fvebtty?] 
eomprar^mos 

Whose is thai housed 



[What did yon do it for?] — to save hei. 
para que lo hizo vmd. a saWar 

[What was it painted on 1] — on paper. [Whom do ihey fight agunst X] 
en que fu^ dibujado. papel. contra quien pelean 

— the Turks. Whose was the decision ?— the judge's. 
Turco. fu6 juez. 



LECTURE XX. 



INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS- 

I. Thbse ProDOons are so called, because they are em- 
ployed in an indeterminate manner, with regrard to the objects 
to which they refer ; that is, they do not point them out, or 
identify them so precisely as demonstrative Pronouns do. 
The following is a list of indeterminate Pronouns, succeeded 
by rules for their proper employment. 



Alguno, alguien, 

nno, 

algo, 

nno k otro, 

^bos or entr&mbos, 

cada, 

cada uno, 

otro, 

todo, 

mucho, 

▼arios» 

ninguno, 

naoie, 

nada, 

ni uno, ni otro> 

cualquiera, 

cualquiera cosa, 

quienquiera, 

nilano, 

fulano 7 zutano, 

cuanto. 



Some, somebody, any body. 

one. 

something. 

one another, each other. 

both. 

each. 

every one. 

other. 

all. 

much. 

several. 

no one. 

nobody. 

nothing. 

neither. 

whichsoever. 

whatsoever. 

vrhosoever. 

such a one. 

such and such a one. 

how much. 



2. These Pronouns are subject to a variation of number 
and ifender^ except alguien^ olgo^ cada^ nadie^ and nada, 



I««C« «&.] lND8VB«ifINAT& «BMIOIUK8. 87 

which are always Ujsed id the smgular namher, aod are com* 
mon to both genders : dmhos, entrdmbos^ and varios^ are al- 
ways employ^ in the plural number, and are made to agree 
in gender with the Nouns to which they refer : cuatquiera 
forms its plural by cualesqukra^ and is common to both genders : 
quienguiera has, generally speaking, no plural, but is common 
to both genders ; unosy the plural of tino, sigpaifies some; todos^ 
the plural of iodOf means evety body ; and muckos, the plund 
of nmchoj means many. 



EMPLOYMENT OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS, 

3. Alguno and a/gu>dt,are equivalent to somebody ^ some^ 
some one^ any body ; or to any one^ used interrogatively : £x. 

Alguno deberd saberlo. Somebody or some one must know it. 

Algunos Tendr&a con vmd. Some will come with you. 

4 Lo ha dioko algnien 1 Did any ene or any body say so ? 

4. Uno means one^ and unos some : Ex. 

I Que puede hacer ttno en tal What can one do in such a case t 

casol 
Unoi dicen que sf , otro ; dicen que Some say yes, others say no. 

DO, 

5. Algo and aiguna cosa^ are equivalent to something ; or 
to any things used interrogatively ; £x. 

Tengo alguna cosa que decirle, I have something to tell you. 

I Tiene algo para mi ? Has he any thing for me 1 

iTnealgot — si,algotxz.e. Does he bring any thing? — yes, 

something. 

Note. — ^When tdgo is employed as a Noun, it requires the 
Preposition de between it and the Noun or Pronoun following 
it: Ex. 

i, Sabe a(g-o de mundo 1 Does he know any thing of the 

world 1 
Sabe algo de 61, He knows something about him. 

6. Uno d otro may be translated one another ^ or each other; 
which, when preceded in English by any other Preposition 
but to, a corresponding Preposition in Spanish supplies the 
place of d : Ex., 

Lo digeron uno d otro, They told it to one another. 

Se aman uno al otro. They love each other. 

H abian uno del otro. They speak of one anothMr, 



7. Amho», &t 9omet\tneit etmrimhiMi iAgtAffh&iki Ex^ 

Amhoi vendiiDi They will hath conle. 

Me di(i dmbai manos. He gave me bHh hands. 

Los vi k entrdrfibot, I »aw them both, 

8. Cada is equivalent to each or every ^ when either of these 
is iiDinediately joined to ft Noun : Ex. 

Cada pais tiene sas costumbreS) Every eoutUry has its customs. 

Vi nil peso por cada obra, I gave a dollar foi cocfc work. - 

When each is not immediately joined to a Noun, it is trans- 
lated cada uno, or cada cual : Ex. 

Cada una me cost<> un peso, Each cost me a dollar. 

Todos vendr&n ahora, y cada cual Every one will come now, and each 
con tQ propia histbrta, with his own story. 

9. Todo signifies ally eveiy things or every one : Ex. 

Todo es vanidad. All is vanity. 

Todo tiene su fin. Every thing has its end. 

To^8 lo saben, Every orte knows it. 

Todas las senoras. All tne ladies. 

10. Otro is equivalent to another , other, or others : Ex. 

i Tiene vmd. otro libro ? Have you another book? 

Tengo otrtu obras mejores, y otras I have other better works, and olher» 
que no son tan buenas, which are not so good. 

Note. — Others^ referring' to persons, and used in a vague 
sense, is frequently translated proffmo ; and another's is ren* 
dered ageno : Ex. 

Debiamos amar al pr6gimo, como We should love others as we do 

k nosotros mismos, ourselves. 

No codicies el bien ageno. Do not covet another* $ wealth. 

11. Mucho is equivalent to much, and muchos to many : Ex. 

Tiene mucho dinero, pero no mu- He has much money, but not much 

cho juiciOf sense. 

Muchos lo dicen. Many say so. 

12. Varios means several or various : Ex. 

He hablado con varios de su pa- I have spoken to several of his opi- 

recer, nion. 

Habia alH varias senoras. There were several ladies there. 

Corrian varios rarooses, Various rumours were afloat. 

Id. Ninguno signifies none, not one, or not any : Ex. 

Ninguno de ellos vino. None of them, or not one of them 

came. 
No he leido ninguna de estas I have not read any of these works, 
obras. 



14. JUadk Li equivi4eat to nobody ^ or so^ 09t^ on^ : Ex. 

No he visto & madU, I have seen nobody. 

No se lo d6 Tmd. 4 nadie, Do not ^ve it to any «ne. 

15. iVac/a means nothings or no/ an^ Mi/ig : Ex. 

No hay nada que temet. There is nothing to fear. 

No dijo fuida, He did not say ciny iftm^f. ' 

Note, — ^When nada is employed as a Noan, it requires the 
Preposition de between it and the following word : Ex. 

No hay nada de nuevo. There is nothing new. 

Observe also that when nada is used as a Noun, if there be 
an Adjective referring to it, the Adjective must be put in the 
»f<ucti/t7ic gender : Ex. 

Nada hay tao cierto. Nothing is so certain. 

16. Niuno^ ni otro, may be translated neither^ or neither 
one nor the oilier : Ex. 

Ni uno ni otrv me gnsta, I like neither one nor the other. 

No me acomodan ni unot ni otrot. Neither of them suit me. 

17< Cualquiera is equiralent to whichever ^ or wUchoever : 
Ex. 

Cualquiera que vmd. gU8te» Whichsoeoer you please. 

CnolAifuteraquevenganprimero, Whu^uver of them should come 

first. 

18. Cualquiera cosa may be translated whatever^ or tvAa/* 
soever : Ex. 

Cualquiera cota que diga, Whatever he may say. 

Cualquiera cosa que hicieien. Whatsoever they may do. 

Note. — Some writers frequently drop the final letter of 
cualquiera and cualesquiera ; but the retention or omission of 
it is a mere matter of taste. 

19. Shiienquiera is equivalent to whoever^ whosoever j and 
whomsoever : Ex. 

Quienquiera que vaya. Whoever or whosoever should go. 

De quienquiera que vmd. hable, Of whomsoever you may speak. 

Observe that when cualquiera ^ cualquiera cosa^ or quienquiera 
is followed by a Verb in the sentence, the relative que must 
alwavs be expressed in Spanish before the Verb. 

1 3 



90 INDBTBRiltNATB ^RONOOITS* [lillO. XX* 

20. FulanOf and fulano y zutano : the former expresMOD 
means such a one^ and the latter, such and such a one : Ex. 

£1 senoT fulano le dijo que — Mr. such a one told him that— 

Vmd. di^o que /u/ano y zutano ya You said that such and such a one 
lo sabian, already knew it. 

21* Cuanio means haw much, and cuantaSf how many : Ex. 

I Cuanto quiere vmd. 1 How mtich do you want 1 

^o 86 cua&tas veces, I do not know how many times. 



EXERCISE ON INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 

Has (1) any body come (2) 1 Let ( I) some one go (2). I am 

ha venido. que vaya. estoy 

waiting for somebody. They are some of his friends. Can 

esperando k son puede 

any one [be ijpnorant of it ?J One is (2) not (1) certain of living 

ignorarlo. est4 cierto vivir 

till to-morrow. [Have you bought] any thing for me ^ 

hasta manana. ha comprado vmd. 

[Have you sent her] any thing ? He has given me something for you. 

le ha enviado vmd. ha dado 

Does the post (2) bring (1) any thing new'i They communicate 

^ correo tiae nuevo. comunican 

their ideas to one another. Their interests are connected with each 
interes estan enlazado 

other. Both said so. I gave them both what they de^rved. 

[lo digeron] [les df 4J merecian. 

We revised each paragraph separately. Every plant has its 

revisimos p&rrafo separadamente. plantatiene 

virtue. Every one should think for himself. All the world. 

debia pensar mundo. 

Every one applauded him. He can do every thing, 

aplaudieron sabe [hacer de] 

Every celestial body has its purpose. Every thing that he said. 
cuerpo tiene designio. dijo. 

(iive me another pen. The misfortuues of another (man) 

d^ desgracia 

should be a warning to us. The mines of Peru produce much 
[debia servimos de escarmiento.] mina producen 

gold and silver. He has many friends. Many [would rather lose] 
oro plata. tiene perderian &ntes 

their life than their honour. [ITiere were] several persons of distinction. 

habia persona •— .•^...._— 

We sometimes have friends in prosperity, and none in 

[algunas veces] tenemos prosperidad 



L«C. tMlJ] BtlTfiOLOfiY 1MI> SYMTAX OF TBRB8. 9i 

adrenitr. [TImtc is dot] any one of them there. No promises 

adyeisidad. no hay allf. promesa 

conld tempt him. No one knows it. [I am not acquainted with] 
'pudieron tentar sabe no conosco k 

any body in that town« Nothing [shall be said] about it. Nothing 

ciudad. se dir& de 

should hinder us from speaking the truth. Neither has done his 

debia impedir decir verdad. ha hecho 

duty. Neither deserves praise. Whoever it [may be.] Of 

deber. merece elogio. * sea. 

whomsoever you [may speak.] Whatever fhe should say.] Give 

hable. diga 

me whichever you please. Whatever situation. Whatever 

guste. colocacion* 

rank. Such orders [could never have been issued] by such a 

rango. 6rden jamas pudieran ser dadas 

general. Such was his conduct. [Do you know] what 
>- fa4 condttcta. sabevmd. 

such-a-one (2) said (1). [Why do ^ou wish] that such and 

dijo porque quiere vmd. 

such-a-one [should know it] 1 How many misfortunes awaited 

losepan. contratiempo aguardaban 

her ! How much money [do you require ?] 

dinero necesita vmd. 



LECTURE XXI. 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF VERBS. 

1. Th8 pupil IS referred to Lee. 4, Par. 8, for the defini- 
tion of this part of speech. It is now to be observed, that 
there are four species or kinds of Verbs, which are distin- 
guished by the names auxUiary, active^ passive, and neuter. 

2. 'The auxiliary Verbs in Spanish, are kaber^ to have ; 
and ser, and estar, to be. They are called auxiliaries, from 
their peculiar office in forming the compound tenses of other 
Verbs. 

3. A Verb is called active, when the action described by it 
passes from one person or thing to another person or thing ; 
for which reason it is also called transitive : thus, to stnke, 
to hate, to buy, to write, to see, to love, &c., are active Vftth«.\ 
^because the action described by tbem, pTOc^^^^vo^^ l\^\&^^ 



98 XTTMOLOGT AND SYNTAX OF TAlBS. [lBO. XZI. 

peraon or things that acts (whieh it called the nominaliTe or 
agent of the Verb), may pass oyer to a person or thing acted 
apon ; that is, on which the energy of the Verb £dl8 ; or the 
person or thing affected by the Verb ; or in other words, the 
object of the Verb : for instance, WtiUam struck Hemry; They 
hate vice ; in which examples, William and Tkey^ are the 
agenit^ or actors, or nominatives of Uie Verbs struck and haie; 
and Henry and vice being the person and thing acted open, 
or affected by the Verbs, are the objects of these Verbs. 

4. Active Verbs become reflective when their agent and 
object are both the same person or tiling ; thus / see myseffs 
He loves himseif; in each of which examples it is obserred, 
that the action described by the Verb, does not affect any 
object beyond the actor. When there is a reciprocity of action 
between two or more persons or things, the Verb denoting the 
action is called a reciprocal Verb : for instance. We see each 
other ; They love one another, 

5. A Verb is called passive when it describes the suffering 
or the receiving of an action by the person or thing to which 
its influence is directed. All active Verbs become passive, 
when employed with the Verb to be; thus, Henry was struck 
by William ; Vice is hated by the virtuous. And here we see 
that the Verbs to be struck, and to be hated, express SLpasstve*' 
ness or suffering, on account of which, they are called passive 
Verbs. 

6. A neuter Verb is neither transitive nor passive. By a 
neuter Verb something is represented as existing or being, 
denoting only the state of the agent of the Verb : the meaning 
of the Verb does not pass over to any other person or thing ; 
for which reason neuter Verbs have also been called itUran" 
sUive. To live, to sleep, to sit, to walk, are neuter Verbs, 
because they merely denote the state of being of their agents : 
for the same reason to he, independently of its capacity as an 
auxiliary Verb, is likewise a neuter Verb. 

To distinguish a neuter from an active Verb, we have only 
to put a Noun after it, and if it makes sense with the Noun, 
it IS active ; if not, it is neuter. 

Although a neuter Verb is not called active, still there are 
some neuter Verbs that denote a visible action : such as to go, 
to come, and many others. But the action denoted by these 
is not transitive, for it remains with their agents. This kind 
of Verbs has been called active intransitive. 

There are some Verbs, which according to the manner in 
which they are employed, are sometimes active, and at others 
netUer : thus, to run is active when we say, To rtm a race; 



r,EC. sTi.l BTTMOLOtn' Avb stntax of tbbbs. 9^ 

because the act of running passeii over tu an object, vhich is 
race : but it is neuter when we say He rum fast, because th«: 
act of running remains with the agent, and admits of 09 
objective case after it. ' 

7. Verbs are ajrain subdivided into titular, IrregularJ^ 
impersonal and Defective. 

tj. Regular Verbs, are all those which are conjugated 
tbroughuut every mode aod tense, caufDrmably to a model, 
which is considered as a staudard for all regular Verbs. In 
Lee, 24, th.e Verbs Aablar, to speak, lemer to fear, aud sufrir, 
to suffer, are given as models for conjugating all the regular 
Verbs in the Spanish Language. 

9. Irregular Verbs are Chose which deviate in some in- 
stances from the general standard for conjugating regular 
Verbs. In l<ec. 25, are given lists of all the irregular Verbs 
in the Spanish Language ; painting out iu what their irregu- 
larity consists. On this subject, the student cannot bestow 
too much attention, for unless he be perfectly acquainted with 
every irregularity peculiar to these Verbs, he will inevitably 
find himself much embarrassed in the course of his transia* 

10. Impersonal Verbs are those which are used in the third 
person only: thus, to rain, lo davm, to be necessary, besides 
many others, are impersonal Verbs. These Verbs are called 
impersonal, because in their employment, there appears no 
apparent Noun or Pronoun belonging to them, acting as their 
agenl ; for when we say, it ruins, we do not precisely express 
who or what it is that rains, and we therefore give to the Verb 
an agent in the third person and neuter gender, Hee the 
conjugation of impersonal Verbs, Lee. 25, Par. 4. 

11. D^ert ice Verbs, are those which are only used in cer- 
tain tenses, and with certain persons ; bcckuse their peculiar 
meaning does not admit them to be employed with every tense 
and person. See the conjugation of defective Verbs, Lee. 25, 
P«r. 7. 

12. We have now four more things connected with Verbs 
tn consider, namely the conjugation, the modes, the lenses or 
limes, and the number and person. 

THE CONJUGATION, 

13. By conjugatiou we are to understand, all the various 
changes that a Verb undergoes in the several modes, tenses, 
persons and numbers. Conjugation, in other words, is the 
uuidng under one view, all the various changes n<\\\c\\ «.N«.'^ 



M ETTMOLOGT AND STNTjIX OF TBRBB. [lSC. ZXI. 

admits. These yariations are very numerous in Verbs in the 
Spanish, and in most foreign languages, comparatively to 
what they are in English Verbs ; and consequently liecome a 
matter of the greatest importance to attend to. 



THE MODES. 

14. Made or Mood, which signifies manner^ expresses the 
intention of the mind concerning the manner in which we use 
the Verb. There are four modes, namely, the /njEntdvr, 

- the Indicative, the. Subjunctive, and the Imperative. 

15. The Infinitive mode, which is the root of the Verb, 
represents the act, or state of being, in a general and un- 
limited manner, without any reference to time, number or 
person : thus the Verbs hahlar, comer, and permitir (to speak, 
to eat, to permit), in the manner here expressed, do not denote 
when, or in what manner, the actions represented by them, 
take place, nor who acts as their agent : to determine all 
which, a Verb in the infinitive mode must have an ante- 
cedent, or as it is sometimes called, a governing Verb : Ex. 

Voy k hablar, I am going to speak. 

No puedo comer, I cannot eat. 

No quiere permitir. He wUi not permit. 

In these examples, it is also seen, that the infinitive in 
both languages is sometimes preceded by a Preposition, 
and sometimes not. To know when they require the Prepo- 
sition, and when not, is a subject that will be referred to in 
the government of Verbs, Lee. 26. 

^ote. — The Spanish infinitive is frequently seen to partake 
of the nature of a Noun, and becomes the nominative to 
another Verb : Ex. 

£1 eititdiar macho a veces daua la Too mnch study or studtiing, is 

salud, sometimes hurtful to health. 

£1 trabajar con moderacion for- To work moderately strengtheos 

talece el cuerpo, the body. 

16. The Indicative mode, is so called, because it simply 
indicates, or points out the action or state of being, in a posi- 
tive and unconditional manner, and depends on no other Verb 
to determine its signification ; Ex. 

Yo hablo, I speak. 

£1 come. He eats. 

Nosotros permitimos. We permit. 



t.SC. XTI.] BTTHOLOaT AKD STNTA!( OP VBRBB, 95 

It does not always occur, that the same mode and teoBS are 
employed in both languages : it frequentlj' happens, that when 
one p&rticalar mode or tense is required in EngliBti, a differeut 
one is employed In Spanish. This subject will be treated on 
in Lee. 26, Par. 10. 

17. The subjunctive mode, makes do complete sense of 
iteolf ; but represents an action under condiiiort, doulii, wish 
or mppotiiian, A Verb in this mode, depends on the antece- 
dent Verb, to renderits sigoi6catiou complete : the antecedent 
Verb is sometimes expressed and sometimes only understood. 
All conditional phrases suppose two propositions, the one 
principal, the other sjihordinatc. The principal proposition 
precedes the Conjunction, and the subordinate, is governed by 
the Conjunction : Ex. 



1 



In this example leeria ccnlinuamenie, I would read con- 
linually, is the principal proposition, to which si tuviera buenot 
libroi, If 1 bad good hooks, is subordinate. 

It IE not absolutely necessary that the principal proposi- 
tion should always precede the subordinate ; for instance, 
the foregoing sentence may in both languages, be altered in itii 
DOnfltroction, thus. 



But notwithstanding tins iiiTersion, the Verb governed by 
the Conjunction, is still subordinate to the Verb in the prin- 
cipal proposition. 

18- The Imperative mode, is that used for commanding or 
ezMonittg: Ex. 









Very little further explanation is required with regard to 
this mode, except that when it is employed in English in tt 
negative sense, or la forbid, the present tense of the subjunc- 
tive mode, preceded by a negative particle, is used in Spanish, 
instead : Ex. 



'"yiX! 



1 i'ni;a, 1 eiLbeal •%% 



TU£;XKKS£& 

J 9. .The meaning of the word tense , is simply iitntf* and as 
all actions or states <^ being, mt^st necessarily be limited to 
time, they are said to be either in the present tense^ the ,f>af^ 
tense or V\^ future tense. These are the three grand (fiyisions 
of time-— the past, the present and the fatare. In the preseat 
tense, the meaning of the Verb is confined to the presjBnt 
time, and denotes the acUon, or state of ^eing represented by 
the Verb, to be taking place at the time of expressing it ; as 
/ writCj he sleeps^ they travel* In the past tense, the actions 
or state of being, is represented as having taken place or to 
have already commenced ; / wrote^ he dept^ they travelled. 
And, in the future tense, the action or state of b^ng is re- 
presented as not having taken place yet, but which it is 
expected will take place at a time to come, as / shall write^ he 
vnU sleeps they will travel, 

20. Each of these three grand divisions of time, has ifj 
Grammarians been subdivided, in order to denote the time 
of being or action, with greater minuteness- and precision. 

These subdivisions of time, are what are called, the com- 
pound tenses. They are so 'called, because to express them, 
more than one word is required in English and Spanish, and 
in most of the modern languages : for instance, / have 
xvritten, is the compound of the present tense of the Verb to 
turite : He had slept, is the compound of the past tense of the 
Verb to sleep : and they will have travelled, is the compound 
of the /u/ure tense of the Verb to travel. We here see, that 
each of these tenses, is formed by compounding the auxiliary 
Verb to have, with the participle past of the Verb, by 
which we express the action or state of being. Verbs in the 
Latin language, admit of such great variety in their termina- 
tions, that each of these compound tenses, is formed by a 
single word ; and therefore, instead of being called compound 
tenses, they have each a distinct name. Many of the writers 
of modern Grammars, have adopted Latin names in a variety 
of forms, to apply to the several tenses ; and indeed almost 
every Gramniarian has made use of different names to desig* 
nate them ; but the foregoing disposition of the tenses, has 
been considered more comprehensive, and less tedious to the 
student*. 

* The names of Latin origin that are usually employed to designate the 

several tenses, are as follows, 

Present, I write. I Preterpluperfect, I had written. 

Preterimper. I wrote. Future Imptrfeet, 1 %hiU oc will wfite. 

J^reterperf, I have written. | Future Perfect, \s\i?1\oiV\\\Wn^ 'wdXtea, 






OF NUMBhR AND PEK50N. 

21. There are two numbers in Verbs, the singular and the 
plurnl. All Verba must agree in number and person with 
their agent, or nominatiTe case. If therefore n Verb has but 
one agent, the Verb must be plaecd in the singular number ; 
if It has more than one agent it must be placed in the plural 
number t For instance, in / love, thou singesi, ihc ihip tails, 
the Verbs are each ill the singular number, because each has 
but one agent : i3ut in iVe set, you walk, the trees bud, the 
Verbs are placed in the plural, because their agents are each 
of that number. 

32. Every Verb must have a Noun or Pronoun belonging 
to it, for its agent ; for no setioii can be done without an 
agent to perform it. Sometimes however the agent is under- 
stood in the sentence, though not expressed. 

23. Each number has three persorts, namelj, the first, tlie 
second, and the third. The fini person is tlie person 
thftt speaks ; as / read, in the singular number, and we read in 
the plural : The second person is the person or thing spoken 
to; u, thou readesi, in the singular, nnd i/ou read in the 
plontt : and the third person, is the jierson or thing xpnktn of; 
she or it readi, in the singular, and they reaJin tha 



f 



LECTURE XXII. 



USE AND EMPLOYMENT OP THE TENSES. 

PRESENT TENSE OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

I. Thih tense expresses the existing «tate of things, and ' 
what is being done, or talcing place, at the present time : fix. 



It likewise expresses what we do habitually : Ex. 

£a(iM)ia (I Espanol, 1 study SpanisK. 

Vmd. dibuja muj bien, You dt»* teii ««.\V 

Elloi le lersDtaa rouy laide. Ttiej i»e i«i \»>« 



98 VSS AND BMPMTVIVT «P TBB VMIMW. [UMtZXIl* 

This tense is sometimes formed with the participle aetifc 
and the Verb to be ; and, in a more forcible manner, denotes 
the acUon as occnnring at the tamo oi oxprossiaf il : £Cz. 

Fstoy escribiendo, I am writing. 

£staiiiOB leyeado. We ave midwa. 

The same construction is also made use of, to dcnole oaj 
action in a progressive state, though not actually in epontioo 
at the precise time of naming it : Ex. * 

Mi hermaDo estd viajando por Espuia, My brother it traveiHng in SfW&iu 
Kttoy fseribiendo ana obra, I mm writing a woHe. 

There is one thing more to be observed r os p e et i ng the 
employment of the present tense, and is lliat there are three 
ways of employing it in English ; as Ibr mstance, / wriitf I 
am writings and / do Vfriie, The two former are alao used ia 
Spanish, as we have already seen ; hot the latter, with the 
auxiliary do, which is intended to add greater energy to the 
affirmation, does not admit of a literal translation in Spanish: 
instead of which, the Verb is pronounced with greater en* 
phasis, or sometimes it is preceded by the affirmative partidc 
At, yes : Ex. 

La aino apesar de cnanto me ka hecho, I do love her, Dotwithstanduif all 

that she has done to me. 

i Le conoce vmd. ? — Si, le conoxco. Do yon know him 1 Ido knoiw him. 

Observe, that when the Verb to do, is used as a principal 
Verb, and not as an auxiliary, or as a sign, it is translated by 
the Verb hacer : Ex. 

Yo hago lo qne Tmd. me diet, I do what jou. tell me. 

Hiso todo lo qne pudo. He did all he coald. 

The Verb to do, is also used as the sign of negative and 
interrogative sentences, for which see Verbs, used aegatively 
and interrogatively. Lee. 25, Par. 8 and 9. 



PAST TENSE OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

2. This tense in Spanish, is divided into the past imperfect, 
and the past perfect ; and as in English both are freqoentiy 
expressed by the same word, learners of the Spaniiji lan- 
guage (and of most of the other continental languages) are 
ifrequently at a loss to know, which of the two forms of the 
verb to employ; as in translatiog from the Epgliah, they 



■•HO. XXn.] »■■ IKD «MFL»THSHT Ot THE TSNSBfl. 99 

hhiM, in sioGt oases, be foided \tj the tnemntng of the pbiMf, 
in Mder to determine vbechec the Verb be in tbe psvt imjurm 
Jieet, or the put perftei teuw. 

Tbe principal and most general distinction tiiat ch»rac- 
terizes these two tengea, is, that a Verb iu the paat ioipei/ect, 
denotes the action to be in a progressive state, or that it ha^ 
some GODnexioii with the present time, or to be takiug place 
at a time, when aoother action was performiiig : whereas, a 
Verb iu the past perfect tense, denotes the nclioii to hare 
completely gone by at some particular or stated period, having 
no connexion with the present time, nor reference to any 
other action. For instance, if I say, FraneU loved Isabel, 
my hearer is in doubt whether that love has ceased, or con- 
tinues to esist, or whether it existed at a period, when 
another circumstance baring reference to it, was occurring. 
This doubt will be removed by continuing the sentence; na, 
Frdsc^ loved Isabel, and ttiU loves her. Now we see, that 
tbe act of loving is in a^state of progression, and is also 
connected with the present time ; consequently /or c^ii is here 
in the past imperfect tense. In the following example, Fran- 
eit kond Itabei long before he mamed her; although the act 
of loving may have no connexion with the present time, 
neverdieleBS it i;i in a progressive state, and therefore lavrd 
is likewise here in the past imperfect tense: and again, in, 
PraiKii loved Imbel v/ken ie married lier, the act of loving it 
represented to have existed at the time of marriage ; or it 
expreaaes an aLtiun present, with respect to a time past, and 
tbetefare laved, h here also in the past impeifecl tense. But 
in the sentence, / wrote la mv broilier lutl Mondai/, the act 
of writing is stated to have taken place at a particular period, 
which is entirely gone by : It is not in a progressive state, 
iior has it any reference to tbe present time : it is therefore 
in tbe past perfect tense. 

It is of essential importance to the student, to know how 
to distinguish the nature of these two tenses at once; and 
therefore, for their better illustration, he is here presented 
with some examples, in both languages : 



Botb these examples are translated, / went la the library; but 
the meaning of the fir^t, is, / used to go, or was in the habit <^ 
going to the library ; as when we Hay, 



1 



IflO 



t AND BMrLavKBK-r op t«b tuish. j^tBC. 3 



In wbieh. the act of goug is described u » reitenrted 
•etioit, or one that the •etor w&e Kccustomed to da repcuedlf ; 
but in ihe second instAnce the Verb tllDdes to some particular 
ur Slated period ; b>, 

i' * Bent lo the iibnty wilh him Anodit fui i la libreri'a fOD (I. 
,^ laslnighl. 
E'And here we see that the particular period ip which the act 
if going toak place, is referred to, and that it ia perfectlj' 
past, and has do counexion with the present time. 

With the past imperfect tcDse, are described ail former cus> 
tonis, habits, manners, professions, &c., of iodividuals and 
SBtionH no longer existing, as well as those which belgngid 1 
lerly to persons siill existing : Ex. -J 

The liiKelitei aiadt tacriGcBiill 
God (i. e. wtn ix lie I 

The Egypliims mtlivaUd I 

Cesar uni 3 greit jenera]. 

My nude IRU a coniul. 

Mj falhet uiu a great travellei. , 

lie uui in the habit ofvriting 

'^The past pe^ecl tense, describes a former, but not > 

'^Kssive act, or state of existence. It represents the oc^ 
rence as entirely past at some particular period, 
stated, To authorize the use of this tense, the time In whld 
the circumstance represented hy it happened, mast have f 
relation whatever with the present period : that is, 
be employed in referring to an action that has occurred in tj 
present century, age, year, month, week ur day, 
period, of which the time in which we are speaking, formlV 
part. Therefore, though we may say, It was iliscovcred lar 
year, we cannot with grammatical propriety say. Many u, 
things were discovered during tht present yetir ; for in th 
instance, the time spoken of is entirely past, but i 
second it is not, since we still exist in the year of wlilch we 
are speaking. The latter would require to he placed in the 
compound qf the present tense; tlius, Many useful things have 
been dincovered during the present year, (See the compoond _ 

^ci the present tense. Par. 4.) 

[^The following are some examples in the past perfect te 
k vf rie ajer. I umt lo tee him yeiterdky. 

rtmD' ulir ini buquei el Juevec We trnc the vessels sail onl it 
il. pisado, Tbursday last. 

WiiPrtanciaimii ta eleecion, \VGu»re^i«KDtu.bU«leclran. 






Lao. zzii«] 1MB .um mupimumiKr w tkb mmsas* 101 

* l» the hiBtoffieftl style, tkis feme ic nwit genenUy used, 
for which reason h has by aome, been railed the huiorical poMi 
ttnae: £x. 

Criitobal Colon iascubrid las islas Christopher Colnmbiu dueovertd the 
de Cuba y Santo Domingo en isles of Cuba and St. Domingo 

el afio de 1483, in 14d3. 

La destniccion de Tro3ra aeont§- The destruction of Troy oeewrred 
. cid 1183 aftos &ntes de la era 1183 years before the Christian 

Cristiaaa* era. 



FUTURE TENSE OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

3. His tense indicates that a thinfif will exist or take place 
at a time which is not yet arrived : Ex. 

il teri, elegtdo, He wiU he chosen. 

lr£ k verU mafiana, I shall go and see her to morrow. 

Los virtuosos ierdn preroiados, Tiie virtuous will be rewarded. 

The future tense is sometimes used in Spanish, instead of 
the imperadve : Ex. 

Si le ancontiire, vendri. vmd. 4 If you should meet him, come and 
decirmeW, let me know. 

It Is also sometimes used instead of the present tense, 
when something is affirmed, respecting the certunty of which 
some doubt is entertained : Ex. 

Vtndrd i|aix& para hablarle, He comes probably to qieak to you. 

It Is likewise used instead of the present, when in in* 
quiring into his own condition, the interrogator is almost 
persaaded that there can be none to equal it : Ex. 

4 Habr£ miseria mayor que la mia ? Can there be greater misery than mine'! 



COMFQUND OF THE PRESENT TENSE OF ITIE INDICATIVK 

MODE. 

4. This tense denotes an action that has passed ; but at a 
period of which the present time ftirms a part : Ex. 

Le he eserito tres veces desde que I have toTitten to him three times 
eatoy en Madrid, since I am in Madrid. 

In this instance the act of writing is passed, but the period 
in which the writing took place, still exists, which period is 
that of the writer's stay in Madrid. 

This tense is generally applied to express a past occurrence, 
provided it has taken phu;e in the present ce.ut\ir^ ^ %%^^ ^t»t^ 



103 V»9 AKD BMFIiOVMBIir OP THB TBK8BS. [lXG. SXII. 

inoath, week or ds;, or in an]' period of which die time to 
which we ere spealcing fmrms a part (see tfao |«st perfm 
ten»B, Par. 2) ! Ex. ^" 



but 



g: 



ilii durante el presente aiglo. 



'ing the whole of Ihii Heeb 
r woilu of merit havt Im 
lien during Ihe pteseat age. 



•ipeabing of an author that existed many centuries aj 
lilt whose writings are still extant, we may also employ tl 
tense ; but if neither the author nor the worlt are any longs 
ill esistence we mufil, in referring to either, employ the 
lerfeci tense. 



w 



5. This tense denotes the occurrence of one circumstance 
prior to the taking place of another: But like the siinpl 
past, thia tense is divided into tlie imperfect and tlie petfcet 
itud in order to know when to employ the Verb in one 
\>'hen in the other, observe the following : When the o 
I'ence represented by the compound of the past tense i 
iilnglish, denotes what is the chief object of the speaker | 
mention, the Verb describing the occurrence, must be pnt| 
the compound of the imperfect past tente, in Rpanieh : but 1 
tlie occurrence represented liy the cumpound of the pi 
tense in Eogllsh, merely indicates the date or period of boI 
circuuiHtance, incidental to the occurrence of some other e 
cnmstance, then the Verb in Spanish, must be placed in t 
comjiound of the perfect past tense: Ex. 

inles que se ca- I had stea him before he i 



lit 



In the first example, we observe that the seeing, is what lb 
^|)eake^'3 principal object was to mention, while his referril 
til the lime of seeing, is merely incidental ; therefore the a| 
of leeing, muat in Spanish be placed in the compound qf t) 
imperfect pait tense ; namely, haMii fiisio. In llie second di 
ample, the arrival is not what the speaker's principal objq 
was to mention ; it ib a circumstance merely denoting ti 
period of the reading of the letter, which act ia the main til 
ject of the speaker's discourse ; therefore the arricM^, tnM 
in S/mnJib be put in the compound of the patt perfect taim 



!!.] 



I AND BMPI.OVMBNT OP 1 



10« 



nniely, kube Ikjpido. This is a distinction in tlie Spanialii 
ImgOBge, to which particular attention is required : and ob*< 
serve also, tliat the compound of the past perfect lerue v 
alwa/s preceded by some such eonjunctlous, or adverbs oC 
tine, as the following, namely, liespues que, after ; iuego que,, 
as soon as ; cuando, when ; no bien, scarcely. 

The following are some exatuples in the compound of th«' 
past teuse of the indicative mode. 



cribir, &o(e> 
d & Medina, 



Hatna acabudo de 

que i\ llegaai, 

.Mahomet habia Au 



Bonaparte habia tornado k Mails, 
aclcs que la. armada Frauctsa 
laeie aerrotada par el Almi- 
lUite N«laan, 

Va habia uida la noticia cuanda 
vmd. Ilegd, 

Dttpyta quJ hiibieron eipetido ^ 
l^rquino Sfptimo, Konia fne 
gnberaada poi doa diniulea, 

VuvtdB OcCavio hubo conquiatudtt 



I had finiihed ■ 



Ling, before Ml' 



Buonaparte hud tahtn Malta, 
fore the French fleet was i 
strojed by Admiral NeUon. 

I had alfiads btard the news »i 



AfUr they had eipelled Tarquin Ihe 
Sevenlh, Home was governed bir 

Whta Oclaviushad cmqiu^eiMex- 
andrja, Anthony and Cleopaln 
put itiemielvea lo death. 

/ had icarcely finiihtd writing, wbeii 



COMPOUND OF THE FUTUllK TENSE OF THE INDICATIVE 
MODE. 

6. This tense denotes that an action will have been bccoid- 
plished at, or before the time of another future event; Ex. 
Manina4 lai □UQve/Kibienuuf/s- To-morrow at nine o'clock uv thalL 

gado & SsEovia, havi arrived al Segovia. 

Habri ncrilo mis cartas, intes I shall have wriltiamjletKnhttoii 



que den Us r 



the cloek strikes four. 



at 



TENSE.S OF THK SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

^_ ■ In tills mode we have to consider three tenses, namely^ 
the present, the uitperfect, and the/Wurc; with their oom- 
{tuunds, namely, tlie compound qf' the present, the compound 
of the imperfect, and the compound qf the future. 

8. Witli regard to the propriety of designating the tenses 
ibjunctive by the present, imperfect, and future, it is 



104 UIB J,SD BUPLOVHItNT OP TBS TBMEBB. [tl 

not the intention here of mftking it a matter of diHCURBton. ., 
Btme huwerer tlif y must have ; nod rs the Royal Acada 
of Madrid, and bIso moHi writers of Spaiiish Grammare 
appropriated thoxe names to ihem, tliey have ahu been n 
in this work, in order not to embnrrBss the learner with'n 
coined ones: It Is however the use, not the n 
tensea, that demands the learner's attention ; and therefore || 
need only be added here, that a Verb in Bny tense of the m 
junctive iDode, denotes a subordination to some action ( 
slate of being expressed by the antecedent Verb, and that all 
VerbH that expresi Jcar, Joy, surprite, admiration, lUtirt, 
hope, ttneertainly, command, prohibitiim, or such lik«, reqnire 
that ibe Verb which they govern, or in other words the su' 
ordinate Verb, should be placed in the eubjunctive mod 
In what tense of this mode the subordinate Verb should 1 
placed, is a matter that will be treated on (as noticed before 
in Lee. 26, Par. 10. 

ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF JRK I'ERMINA'ilOWS ItA, . 

I AND SE, OF niE IMPERFECT TENSE OF THE SUBJl'N^ 

fc.'TIVE MODE, 

r ^. We have now to notice another matter of the highc 
mportance, connected with the subjunctive mode lu Spanla^; 
which is, that a Verb in the wiperfcci tense of this mode, 
always ends in one or other of the terminations ra, ria or te; 
and It is a matter of great difficulty to explain by precept, 
when to employ the one, and when the other of these termi- 
nations, inasmuch as they are not only not equivalent in their 
signification collectivelyi but they often vary in their mean- 
ing individually : it is nevertheless; hoped, that due attentioo 
to the following observations, will, in a great measure, enaWi" 
the student to surmount one of the greatest obstacles pecuUi 
to the Spanish language. 

I. 

a Verb in the imperfect of the subjunctive, is m 
fceeded by a conditional Conjunction, either of the termU 
or rtn, may be employed : Ex. 

Eitiaiio /upr.r or aria que lo Hi- It wonid be slrange that he sbedl 



an.] DSB AND BHrLOTKSNT ttF TBB TBNSBS. IDS' 

*A|n fliese esaiapleB, it is likewise observed, th&t the termi- 
nMton le, \s employed in the second member of the sentence, 
which ia generally the case, when the first member beghia 
withoot B conditional Conjunction. 






II. 



n the Verb in the imperfect of the subjunctive, is pre- 
4 by s conditions) Conjunction, such as if, aino, aHrvpte, 
itc, if, but, althong^h, Sec., or by &n Interjection expressive 
of derire, the termination ra or k is employed ; and ria is 
geaerally used with the Verb in the second member uf the 
sentence: Es. 



Si tuvjers or lu 

pnria ?ibiot, 
Aunqae mlweran a 

aUiDDloBhablaria, 
OjaU vinitra at vimn 






If : 



Would 10 God he 



buy 



Hould CI 



It results from the foregoing examples, that the ti 
rn, accommodates itself to serve in the place of either ria or 
se; but that llie two latter, always differ in their Bignification ; 
We may therefore with equal propriety say, 

Quise que lo Aicwrn. or tjuiBe 1 wiihed him to do il, ai' thai li« 

que to kicitsf, might or could do it. 

forfrfa KT roejor, or Pudiirn ser 11 might be belter. 



But n 






; say, 2u/se que lo liarin. 



r Pttdiest it 



III. 
When a Verb in the imperfect of the subjunctive, governed 
by the Conjunction que (that), is preceded by a Verb in auy 
of the past tenses of the indicative mode, signifying to tpeak, 
lo think, ur lo promise, either of the three terminations may 
be employed ; observing nevertheless that when we wish to 
express by the Verb in the subjunctive, either a power or an 
ebtigution, we may make use of ra or te ; but if it be our in- 
tention to express a will or inclination, we mast use ria ; Ex. 



Dijo qut ' 



Ko ftiuaba qut vtndrk 
Pnnatiy our m« pagar, 



Jfe said (hat you should come-, b 

were lo come immediately. 
Mb had told me that I might K 



100 uti Aim BMPC4nr]KBitT o» tHi iwiifli. [lHO. xtn. 

IV. 

If the V«rb in tlM put tense of the liMlkKtWe mede^ de- 
notes a wish or desire^ the Verb fOFM'aed, efeNNild be fiat in 
the imperfect of the sabjuDctive With the terminatioQ ra or 
^: but not ria : Ex. 

Quiso que yo fuese or /tier* con 41, He wished thai I should, migbt, or 

woold go with .himj or, )ie 
wil^Md Qi€ to go with htm. 

D«Mah«& que «initi^aMM, or tii* Thiy wen desinwis ihtt weshoek), 
nmtmo$, mi|^ or would come } #ri thsj 

wished us to come. 

V. 

The same terminations are employed, when the Verb in the 
imperfect subjunctive, is governed by the ConjunotioD para 
que (in order that), or by any other Conjanetion of the like 
import, whatever Verb it may be preceded by in any of the 
past tenses of the indicative mode : Bx. 

Me lo hacia repetir todos los dias, He made me repeat it every dav, 
para que lo retuviera, or retu' in order that I might, or should 

viete en la memoria, retain it in my memory. 

Le Uam^ temprano, para que ^- I called him early, that he might 
viera or tuviese tiempo de apron- have time to get ready, 

tarse, 

Se lo he dicho, para que tuviera, 1 told it to him, in order that he 
or tuviese cuidado, should or might take care. 

■ 

VI. 

The termination ria^ is employed when the Verb in tiie 
imperfect subjunctive is preceded by an Adverb of doubt^ ex- 
pressed or understood : Ex. 

C2ui2tfiMrfv«na,yvmd.nolohabra Perhaps he has, or may have re- 
sabido, turned, and you may not have 

known it* 
No \o compraria, per carecer de Probably he has not bought it, or may 
medios, not have bought it, for want of 

means. 

VII. 

When the words were /, and had /, are used instead of 
^ / were^ and if I had^ they require the termination ra or 
je, in the translation : Ex. 

Had I, or if 1 had good books, I Si tuviera, or tmvUH buenos libros, 

would read them, los leeria. 

H^oro I to know it, #ri/'/«cr< to Silo supierm, Of tupine^ 

kaow it, 



hM^ X»I.] Vtl AVD RMFLOTMVMT OF THB TKNUBll. 107 

VHI. 

When Ihe WMr4 Vfere^ is vsed in the pDuse of W9uid bt^ it 
requires the termination ria in the translation : Ex. 

I know it wen w wanld be my S4 que serta mi deber el haeerio. 
duty to do it, 

10. Observation, When the words may, should^ mighty and 
would^ are not employed in English as signs of the subjnnc- 
tire, but are used as principal Verbs, having a distinct mean- 
ing of their own, they are translated into Spanish by Verbs 
corresponding to their signification : — Thus may^ and its de- 
rivadre fnighty denote possibUiiy or Rherty; should jdenotes 
duty or obligation ; and would expresses an inclination qf the 
mind. Should and would have the same analogy to shall and 
tat7/, as might has to may, 

Mcy and mighty are translated by poder; should, by debet; 
and tffould by querer : Ex. 

I may ^ when I like, Puede ir cuando quiero. 

He mi^At have purchased the book Podia haber comprado el libro con 

with his own money » su propio dinero. 

You should have gone, Debia vmd. haber ido. 

She would not go, £Ua no quiso ir. 

It may not be improper to notice here, that can and its' 
deriTatire could^ are also translated by poder, as they also 
denote power; but it is a species of power different from that 
expressed by may and might; inasmuch as the latter express 
a kind of morcd power, or permission ; whereas the former 
denote a physical and absolute power : Ex. 

At present I can only walk three En la actualidad solo puedo cami- 
miles an hour, though at one nar tres millas por hora, cuando 

time I c«ic/<( walk five, en otro tiempo podia camiaar 

ciaco. 



OF PARTICIPLES. 

11. Participles are so called, from their partaking of the 
nature of Verbs, Adjectives, and Nouns : they are originallv a 
part of the Verb. There are both in English and in Spanish 
two Participles, the one generally distinguished by the names 
active or present ; the other by passive or past. We will first 
see how Participles are employed as forming part of the 
Verb. 

12. The Participle active is that part of a Verb that de- 



Ids ijwm Ano murunuwm ov tbi tiifSM. [lmo. xzii. 

notes action, or stite of being ; and la generally preceded by 
tome otber Verb, to denote the ^me of actton or beings Ex. 

Elstiy esuba, ha estado, or tilask He is, wa^ lias been* «r ariU be 

escribiendo, writing. 

Sometimes tbe Participle active is nsed without the gofeni- 
ing Verb ; bat the nature of the sentence will denote the tiaie 
of action or being expressed by the Participle : Ex. 

Mandandole el midicoi^ue it qne- Tbe^ doctor ardming him to keep 
dase en casa, no qiiuo salir, within dooT8» htwmUd not go oat 

13. When in English the Participle active has reforence to 
a Noun or Pronoun, which is n&t the nomlnatire case, the 
Participle is rendered in Spanish by a Verb in some tense -of 
the indicative mode : Ex. 

I gave it to the eUrk acting as 8e lo di al dgptndietat que kaeiM dt 
agent, apoderado. 

But should the English Participle active refer to a Noun or 
Pronoun which is the nominative case, it is translated into 
Spanish by a Participle active also : Ex. 

I, acting as agent, wrote to him Haciendo yo de ajj^oderadot le es- 
on the subject, cxihi sobre el asunto. 

14. When in English, the Participle active expresses any 
kind of tMtioHf and is preceded by ihe Verb to 6e, it is trans- 
lated by a Verb in the same mode and tense as that in which 
the Verb to he is placed : Ex. 

We ate going to embark to-day, Nos vamo$ 4 embaroar hoy. 

If you Aonld be coming this way Si viniere vmd. por aquf mafiaoa. . . 

. to-morrow, . 

18. The infinitive in Spanish is most generally employed 
instead of the Participle active , as used in English, after 
Verbs that signify the different manners of perception ; such 
as to seCf to hear^ &c. : Ex. 

I taw them comings Los vi venir, 

I hear them speaking, Los oigo hablar. 

t 

19. When in English the Participle active is precede by a 
Preposition, it is most generally translated by the infinitive, 
Aid sometiines by a Noun : Ex. 

1 had the pleasure ^ skih^ her, Tuve el gusto de ttrla. 

she devotes much of her tune lo Se dedica mucho al dib^jo. 

drawing, 

•. M honing such a discoune, Al oir tal discnrso. 

He. was three months without Estuvo tres meses tin sfcnftirmt. 

writing to me. 

/ come firm walking, Veuso d< paiMr. 



LEC. XXII. j UBS AND BMPLOTMBNT OP TAB TE^SBS. 109 

FriUD tbis rule, howeTer, niBy be generally excepted, those 
KCtive Piirticiples which are preceded by the Prejtositions in 
and bj ; in which cases the Participle is used in Spanish 
without the Preposition : Ex. 

I Itemble in iieditaiing on Ihe Tiemblo midilunifii < 



1 



SO. When, liowe<rer, the employment of the Participle 
actiTe is likely to produce anQbig^ity, it is preferable to re- 
solve it into some teusc of the Verb from which it is derived : 
for instance, in the example. 

Lot linuis jnndu k paiear eila We saw them going lo walk ttiii 

the seoee is ambi^ous in both Languages ; for it is not 
deai-ly demunstrated by the Participle active, who was going 
to walk, tee or thiy ; it would tberefore be preferable to say, 

Los vimos cuandD lAnn i pasear. We saw ihem when (hey inert going 

Loi Yimoi tuando ifunwi a pasear We saw iham when ice vicrt guing 
e«ta maSina, to HaU tbii morning. 

Observe, that active Participles In Spaui^h, derived from 
Verba of the first conjugation, always end in ando; an, ha* 
blando, speaking : those of tlie second and third conjugations 
end iu iendo; as, tcndendo, fearing; sitfriendo, suffering, 

21. The Participle paai, as relates to Verbs, is that part of 
the Verb, which, joined to the auxiliary habcr, to have, forms 
tlie compound tenses ; and when joined to the Verb ser, to be, 
it forma the passive voice (nes the conjugation of passive 
VerfaS) and observation on the passive voice, I^c. 24, Par. 
Sand?): Ex. 

Hecaminailo, habiamashablado, I liave walked, we hadipoken. 
Sov HmadD nr arnada, serfin uen- 1 am loved, Iheir will be iold, 
didoa or vendiilais, 

32. Post Participles derived from Verbs of the Brst con- 
jugation, always end in ado; as, hablailo, spoken. Those of 
the second and third conjugations end in ido ; as, temida, 
feared ; sufrido, suffered. 

23. When the past Participle is used with any part of tho 
Verb haber, it is indec/inabte ; but used with the Verb ser, to 
form the passive voice, it agrees in gender and number witb 
the nominative of ser : see the examples in last paragraph 
but one. 



1 10 VMM Jtfim mmrhotumm of tbb .tsmsbs. [ii«e«. xm. 

24. We hare now to consider liow P^ntieiplee ore e ap iey ed 
in their capacity as Nouns and jidfectivin; wM first of tiia 

Participle active, 

25. When in English the Partidple active is. pnscedadby 
an Article, a possessive or a demonstratiTe Pronoan, or by toy 
word which may cause it to assume the character of a Noan, 
or when used by itself in that capacity, it is rendered in 
Spanish by a Noun or an infinitive : Ex. 

Th4 rotring of the wild beastly £1 brammr de Ifti fiens. 

The motive of hi* coming, £1 metiTo de t« ««jvicU. 

That kind of ^peaking, Ese modo do hahlar. 

Reading instnicts, £1 leer, or la Ue^u^ iastniyc. 

Walking is condacive to health, £1 eaminar ea bneiio para fa aalid. 

26. There is a kind of Participle acdoe in Spanish, 
employed in the capacity of verbal AdjectiTcs, and sometimes 
as Nouns. Those derived from Verbs of the irst eonhigatioB 
end in antc^ as amante ; those of the second and tblrd con- 
jugations end in iente^ as ohedientej vhiente : they agree b 
number with the Noon to which they refer : Ex. 

Un marido amante, A loving hiuhand, 

£1 hombre ohediente. The <^edient man. 

Los hombres vivientes. Living men. 

Un amante, A lover, 

Los creyentet. The believers, 

Los oyenteSi The hearers, 

27* There remains now to consider the Participle past in 
its capacity of an Adjective. It is so used when it does not 
denote action, but a state of being descriptive of, or ohanc- 
terizing some Noun, and agrees with it in Spanish in number 
and gender : Ex. 

£1 soldado vencido. The conquered soldier. 

Los soldados vencidos. The conquered soldiers. 

Una muger easada, A married woman. 

Mugeres casadas, Married women. 

28. The Participle past is frequently employed together 
vrith the Verb estar, to be ; in which ease it likewise assames 
the character of an Adjective : Ex. 

' ' £1 est& cansado, He is tired. 

Nosotros estamos perdidos, "We are test, 

m 
I t 

29. The Partidiple past in Spanish is frequently used in an 
absolute manner, in which case one of the Participles active, 
hahiendOf siendo^ or estando^ is suppressed* The Participle 
past no used must agree in number and gender with thoiNom 



txc.-xxnir[ or TBB coitJiroaTiDir op'VBrM. lit ' 

forming the subject of discourse ; which Noun the Pardoiple 
pmst geoerally precedes ; Ex. 

Hecha esta retolucioa, no volvj Hanhig node AaTesoiutioB, I never 

mas i verla, retnrDcd Is aee het. 

Conclmdo el dueurm, me tolrf 4 When ihf diKjuric wu ctmctitdtd. 



30. We Bometimcs, though seldom, see the Verli icner, to 
have, employed an an auxiliary Verb, like liabcr, to hare : in 
which case, the Participle paat used with it, ii indedinuble : 
Ex. 

7V»fi>«eritD repelidaSTeces 6 mt I have writlen ID m; brolher re- 

hermano aibre «1 aiunto, peaiedly on thb subject. 

Teniarnoi hablaila ai Geacral, We fW ipokn to llie General. 

But it muHt he carefully observed, that if tlicre (le a. Noun 
or Pronoun in the sentence governed by Icncr, the Participle 
past partakes of the nature of an Adjective, and often agreeH 
in number and gender with the Noun or Pronoun to whiiih it 
refers : Ex. 

Tieni escrita una carta, He has KTilUn a Utter. 

Ttngo aprendidai ties rtghu, I have Ihree ruUi Uarnl. 

It would be rerotnmendftble, however, to the learner, not 
to make too free a use of this kind of constniction, until he 
i^Mome familiar with tbe genius of the Spanish Language. 



I 



LECTURE XXI I r. 
OP THE CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 



. Phbtious to the conjugations of regular Verbs, tbe 
student will be presented witb those of the auxiliary Verbs 
haber and ier, to have, and to he ; as it is necessary that they 
should he first learned, from their peculiar office in assisting 
ia the conjugation of other Verbs. The Verb itner has also 
been conjugated next to habcr, as they are both expressed by 
the same Verb in English ; and cstar has been coujugated next 
to Mr, for the same reason. Their signification and manner 
of employment are explained after their conia^^aVTOii*. 



112 



oy TBI coyjucuTiov of vbrbs. luio* xxuv 



CONJUGATION OF THE AUXIUARY VERB HABER, TO HAVE. 

infinitive Mode. 

Hab^r, to have. 



Yohc, 
id has, 
61 ha. 



Singular, 

I have, 
thou hast, 
he has. 



Yo habla» 
til habfas, 
61 habfa. 



Yo hiibe, 
til hublste, 
H hiibo» 



Yo habr6, 
til habm> 
61 habrft, 



Indicadve Mode. 

Ptural. 

No86tros h^inos or hab6mo8, We hav& 
vos6tro8 hab6is» you have, 

ellos ban, they have* 



Past Imperfect TenU, 



I had. 
thou hadst 
he had. 



Nos6tros habiamoBt 
vos6tros habiais, 
ellos habfan. 



Pott Perfect Tente, 



I had. 
thou hadst. 
he had. 



Nos6tro8 hubfmos, 
vo86tros hubisteis, 
ellos hubi6roii, 



We had. 
you had. 
they bad. 



We had. 
you had. 
they had. 



Future Tense, 



I shall or will have, 
thou shalt have, 
he shall have. 



Nos6troshabi6iiios, We shall have. 
vo«6tios habr6is, you shall have, 
ellos habr&n, they shall have. 



Yo haya, 
t6 h&yas, 
61 hdya. 



SabjuDCtive Mode. 



Present Tente, 

I may have, 
thou mavest have, 
he may have. 



Tente, 

Nos^Stros hayfimos. We may have. 
vos6tro8 hay&is, you may have. 
eUos b&yan, they may have. 



Imperfect Tetiee* 

Singular, 

Yo hubi6ra> habria, hubi6se» I should, might, or would have, 
til hubi6ras, habrlas, hubi6se8, thou shoukUt, mightest, &c. 
61 hubi6ra, habria, hubi6se, he should, might, or would have. 

Plural, 

Nttt6tros httbi6ramos, habrfamos, hubi68emos, We should, &c.'bave. 
vos6tros hubi6rais» habriais, hnbi^^eis, you should, £cc« have* 
ellos hubi6ran, habrfan, hubi68en, they should, &c. have. 



Si yo hubi6re, 
si til hubi6re8, 
si 61 hubi6ie. 



Future Tense, 

Singular, 

If I should have, 
if thou shouldst have, 
if he should have. 



zxni.] 



lis 



PImrmL 

Si iKNitow Mii^remos, ' If we dMmld lave, 
n vos^tros hdn6raii» if yon ihovld luiTe. 

ai eUce hnbitea. tfttef alMNiUliaTe. 



~ - HaUdo, H«L 



Note. — ^The compoond tenses of tiK farefoiiiK Veib are omitted, haber 
being no lOn^r used in tke capacity of an active VerU 

In the.cQiViii^tioos of all tli^ foUowing Y aba, tlie pcnonal Fronouv in 
9piaaiUnireomiUi»^'asiBinoft caaestMy aienatieqB^ See Lee 15, 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB TENEB, TO HAVE. 

lllUliUf*6 Mosc* 



Ten6r, 



To have. iHaMrteaide, 



Te have |iad« 



T^ago, 

ti^nes, 

ti^ne, 

fen^mos, 

ten^, 

ti^nen. 



PreteniTi 



I have, 
thephait. 
jbehai. 
we have. 
Mve. 
have. 



thsy 



PaU lwfmf§9f Ttm* 

Tenfa^ Ihfid. 

tenfas, thottliadst. 

tenfa, heluid* 

teniamosy we-ha4« 

teniais, yoa had. 

tenlan, they had. 



T6ve, 

tuvfste, 

tiivo, 

tnvimos, 

tnvfsteis, 

tavi6ron. 



Past Perfect Taut. 



Jhed. 
thoobadst. 
heha^. 
welMd. 
yon had. 
they had* 



Mode. 

Ccmffu n ^ififihe Present, 
Hetenfdq, I have had. 



hastenidob 
hatenid^^ 
h^mos tenfdo, 
hab^tenidoy 
hastenido. 



thoa hast had. 
he has had. 
we have had. 
yon have had. 
they have had. 



Compaim49ftke Past Jwaerfeet. 
HaM^t^ddp* Ihad&ad. 
bamas tenld^ ' thoa hadst had. 



habfa tenldo, 
hablainoa tenidoy 
hahfausteni^, 
habfan tenido. 

Compound (^ the 
Hiibe tenido^ 
hnbiste tenido, 
h4bo tenfdo, 
huMmps tenljdo, 
hdbkteis tenfdo, 
hnbi^n tenfdo, 



he had had. 
we had had. 
yon had had. 
they had had. 

Past Perfect. 
I had had. 
thoa hadst had. 
he had had. 
we had had. 
yoa had had. 
they had had. 



Future Tense. 
Tendr^, I shall or will have, 
tendris, thoa shalt or wilt have. 
tendr4, he shall or will have, 
teodr^moa, we sh^ll or wiULhave. 
tendr^, yoa shall or Win have. 
teodHUi, they abflU or will have. 



Compound of the Future, 
Habr6 tenido, I shall have had. 
habMs tenido, thoa shalt, &c. 
habHt tenido, he shall, &c. 
habr^mos teoido, we shall, &c. 
habr^ tenidf, 'joa shalL 4l<c« 
habiin taiAdib, ^i ^^Ukx 

1. Z 



114 



OF nn oox miATimr OP mraai 



[ 



Snbjudefire Mode. 



T6nga, 

tongas, 

t6nga, 

teng&mos, 

teng&is. 



Prettm TtKM. 

Itaiay have, 
thott iMTeflt-luite. 
he may naTe. 
wemayJiaTe. 
yon may hare. 
they may have. 



(kfrnmauL if thB Pruem. 
H&ya DeDido, Tmay have had. 
h&ymteiiMo, • tlrav mayest, &e« 
h4ya tenfdo, he may, &c* 
hay^mos temdo» we may« itt* 
hayi&is tenfdo; you may, &c. 
h&yan tenldo, they may, &c. 



Tavi^ra, 

tUYi^ras, 

tuvi^ra, 

tuvi^ramos, 

tuvi^rais, 

tuvi^ran, 



Imperfeti T^tm* ■ 

tendrfa, tavi^, I thonld, mi^^t or would have, 

tendrfas, tutitees, then ahouldst, mightest, &c. 

tendrfa, tnvi^, he should, might, &c. 

tendriamos, tuvi^mos, we should, mi^ht, &c. 

tendrfais, tuvi^seis, you should, mi|;ht, &c. 

tendrfan, tuvi^sen, they should, might, &c. 



Compound of the Impeifeet Tense, 
Hubi^ra, habrfa, hubite ten^, I should, might or would have 



hubi6ras, habrfas, huU^ses tenfdo, thou shouldst, &c. 
hubi^ra, habrfa, hubi^ae tenldo, he should, mij^ht, &c 
hubi^ramos, habdamos, hubi^semos tenfdo, we should, mifj^ht, &c. 
hubi^rais, habriais, hubi^sos teufdo, you should, might, &c. 
hubi6ran, habrfao, hubi68en tenfdo, they should, might, &c. 



[had. 



St tuYi^re, 
si tuvi^res, 
si tuvi^re, 
si tttvi^iemoi, 
si tuvi^reis, 
si tuvi^ren^ 



Future Tense, 

If I shoidd have, 
if thou shouldst have, 
if he should have, 
if we should have, 
ifyou should have, 
if they should have. 



Compound of the Future, 

Si hubi^re tenido. If I should have had. 

si httbi^res tenfdo, if thou shouldst have had. 

si hubi^re tenfdo, if lie should have had. 

si hubi^remos tenfdo, if we should have had. 

si hubi^reis tenfdo, if you should have had. 

si hubi^ren tenfdo, if they should have had. 

Imperatiye Mode. 

Ten t(i. Have thou, 

t^nga 41, let him have, 

tenr&mos nos6irot, let us have, 
tened voi^tros, have you. 
t^ngan ellos, let them have. 

Participle Active, Teni^ndo, Having. 

Compound ditto, Habi^odo tenfdo. Having had. 
ParticipU Pott, Tenfdo, Had. 

OBSERVATION. 

When the Verb to hate is nsed In EngHfth, id the capacity 
of an auxiliary Verb, it is translated haher ; but when em- 



LMe^vatt.2 op-mn ctainmjnm»4n) 



U6 



ployed as an active Verb^ diwii^inf posiesihn, it must be 
translated iener* We therefore say. Hie camprado un libro^ 
fyr^ I hwoe bought a .loofc ; \nht* we mxift say, lingo unUbrOf 
for, I have m book : hi the irit instance, to have^ is used as 
an auxiliary to the Verb lo 6tfy; bnt in the second, it is 
employed as an active Verb, denoting. die possesiion of the 
book. 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB SER, TO BE. 

InfinitiTe Mode* 

SimpUt I Compound. 



Seri 



To be. 



^al>^ 



tntpound' 
stia, T 



To hftve been. 



Indicatire Mode. 



Pnwit TVrm. 



Soy, 
ereSy 
esy 



Era, 
^ras, 
£ra, 



Fuf, 
fufste. 



Ser#, 
seiis, 
ser&, 



I am. 

tlumart. 

beU. 



S6mos» 

aoia* 

son, 



We axe. 
yoaaie. 
they 



I was. 
thou wast, 
he 



feramos, 



^rais, 
^ran. 



Poft Perfect Trnw. 

I was* Fiifnios, 

thou wast. fufsteis, 

he was. fa^ron, 

Jtcturtf Tense. 

I shali 0r will be. 
thoa shalt be. 
he shall be. 



We were, 
yon were, 
they were. 



We were, 
yott were, 
they were. 



Stt^ttos, We shall or will be. 
serais, yon shall be. 
ser&n, they shall be. 



Compoond Tenses of the In^eatf re Mode. 

Compound of the Present, 
Hesido, &:c I have been, &c. 

Compound qfthe Past Inmetfeet, 
Habfa sfdo, &c. I had been, &c. 

Compound ^ the Pm$t Perfect. 
H6be sido, &e* I had been, &c. 

Compound of the Future. ' 
Habf6 sfdo, &c. I shall have been, &c. 



wHb, 
ste. 



Subjunctive Mod^. 

Present Tenee, 

Inlkaybt. 
thott-m^est be. 
hemayoe. 



Se4ino8, W« may be. 
se4is, yon may be. 






116 #f qm ooiwvftmttN ov-'munk fJun^iiBx. 

Fste, seria, fii6M^ I shiml^ py^t or woid^.lM^ 

fa^ns, serfa^, tahm, thoa skgwidjM, migliteit^ iponldsttc. 

fnin, aerfa, fttte* lM!ibomld>iBi]|^arwi«ldbt. 

fa^r^nfft* ttriuviM, fti^iniBOi, we dh^^iMd* nu^ffet qr wottld Im« 

ftt^ia, lerlais, faiwm, 70a ihoiua, mi^ht or woiild be. 

Mnn, wttihh, fa£nB , they duraUU mskt or would be. 



Futwe Tense* 

Si fu^re. If I shcmld be. 
si fu^res, if thou sbomUbit be. 
si fu6re, if he should be» 



Si iaStfmt^K If F® should be. 
si Mreie, if yon riiould be. 

ei Af^mn, if they should be. 



Compound Tenses of the Sabjaoctive Mode. 

Compewid (^ the Pme^tU 
H&ya sfdo» &c. I may 'have been, &c. 

Comp&mtd qftke fnnperfeet. 
Hubi^ra iido, &c. -| 

Habiia«ido» &c. > I ahouldfiiMi^t, or tweiUbave bees* &c. 
Httbite side, &c. ^ 

Ctm^ffmA 4f. tkt Fmhure. 
Si httbi^re sfdo, &iB. If I should have been, &c. 

Imperative Mode. 

S^ tfi, Be thott. 

86a €lf 4et him be. 

sedmos nos6tros» let us be. 

sed yos6tro8, be you. 

s^an ellosy let them be. 

Participle Active* Si^d4>9 Being. 

Caw^und ditto, Habi^odo sldo, having been. 

PitrHeipIc P^et. Sldo, been. 



CONJUGATION OF THE V£B3 MTM, TO BE. 

jhiftoitiye Mod^. 

Simple^ I Compommd. 

£star» Toibe, I Habirestido, To have bees. 

Indicative ItXode. 



Prftent Tente* 



EBt6y, I am. 

est&s, thou art. 

est&, he is. 



Est&moe, We are. 

est&is, 70a are. 

cat&n, they are. 



Ett6ba, I was. 

eettei, thaawast. 



Pmet Impeifeet Tetue* 

Estibimos, We were. 

astiUbais; yon were, 

he was. ( tttyMn, they were. 



L£C. xxin»] 


OF THB COXJCttATIOH Of TBAB8. llj 




P«K Pttftet Taut. 






Iwa..! 

tiMniwitt. 

liewas. 


Ettavinoe, 
efWfiuetty 
cftvi^eraif 


We were, 
they were. 


• 


FmtunTemM* 




esutim. 


I ikan M-wfll be 
thoashiltbe. 
he shall be. 


bboteos, Weihan«r wfll be. 
estarfis, jDathaUbe. 
esUrin, theyriuUlbc. 



Compomid Tenses of the In^&eaAjt Mode. 

riWMwrf tf the Pment, 
He est&do, occ I htfe been, &c. 

G0M|Mima ^ flM PMtt IwftfJ€Ct» 

HablaetUdo,&c. IhadbcOt&e. 

CoMwim^ isf t Atf Past PttfeeL 
H6be esUulo, ^. IhadbeeB,&c. 

Camgpamid tfthe Future, 
Habr6 estido, &c. I ■hmll have been, &c. 

SatgunetiTe Mode. 

PmoaTciue. 

Est^, I may be. 

estiks, thoa mayest be. 

est^, be may be. 



We may be. 
etl^ you may be. 



ttthit they may be. 

Imperfeet Tentt* 

Estavi^, estaria, . estuvi^se, I shoild* might «r would be. 
estnriiras, estaifas, ettnTiftes, thoeihoaldit, mightett, &c. 
estoTi^a, eitaila, citvTite, heihoald»iujsht«rwouldbe. 
estmri^ramos, estarfamoe, estimtemot, we aboidd, mi|;ht or would be. 
estaTi^rais, ettarfais, esturi^ieis, yon should, mi^t or woald be. 
estuvi^ran, estarfan, estavi^sen; they should, might or would be. 



Future Tenee. 



Siestttvi^, Ifl should be* 
si estnvi^res, if thou shouldst be. 
si estuvi^, if he should be. 



Si estuTi^iemos, If we should be. 
SI estttvi^reb, if you should be. 
St est n v i feren, if they should be. 



Compoond Tenses cf the SahjonetiTe Mode. 

Compeuud ef the Preeemt* 
H4ya est4do, &c. I may have been, &c. 

Cempaund ef the Imperfeet. 

Hubi^im est&do, &c« ^ 

Habria est4do, &c. f I should, might or would have been, &c. 

Hubite est&do, &c. ^ 

Cempound of the Future, 
8i bubi^fe catMo, itc If I should havebeeiLv&c. 



118 OF TRB CONJUGATION OV TBEBI. [lNO. XXm. 

ImperatiTe Mode. 

E6t4 td. Be thou. 

est6 €1, let him be. 

est^mos nos^tros, let us be. 

est4d ▼os6tros, be you. 

est^n elkW) let them be. 

PsrticipU Active* £st4ndO| Being. 

Couqkmad ditto, Habi6n£> ea^do. Having been, 

Partieiple Past, £st6do, ' Been. 



2. When the Verh to havt^ preoedi^t an infinitiTe, it is 
rendered tener que : Ex. 

J ^ve to (io at present, . XbnfVtffiA&aMr ahora. 

We shall have to go to-morrow, Ttndrema$ que tr manana. 

And when io be^ precedes an infinitiTey it is translated kaber 
de: Ex. 

She U to $ing this evening, Ella ha de cantor esta noche. 

We are to be the witnesset» Noaotioe hmot deter \o8 testigos. 

d« When in English the Verb to he, precedes the Adjec- 
tives, htrngrvj thirsty^ warm, coldy dtepy^ and such Kke, the 
Verb to hCy is translated tener^ and the Adjective is rendered 
by a corresponding Nonn in Spanish : Ex. 

I am hungry, Tengo hambre. 

He is thint|r» Tiene sed. 

They are utarm* Tienen calos. 

We are cq14« Te^emos ing^ 

I am. sleepy* Teqgo sueSo. 



OBSERVATIONS ON 5EB AND :ESTAn, 

4. Ill the foregoing conjugations of these two VcrbSj both 
are translated by the same Verb in Englisha namely, tohe ; 
yet by no means can they be indiscriminately used in Spanish, 
since they differ materially from each other in signification. 
It is therefore essentially necessary, that the learner be ac- 
quunted with their peculiar meaning and use ; a matter that 
frequently embarrasses beginners, and which has justly been 
considered one of tiie greatest difficulties peculiar to the 
Spanish Language ; but which it is hoped that doe altent^oo 
to the following remarks, will enable the student to surmount. 

5. When we wish to express the natural or bikereiU 
quality, eaaoMtial to any thing ; also the qualitios of the mind. 



LKG. XSIII-] OF TUB CONJUGATION or ViSBBB. 1 

aod the natural beauties and defects of the body, we must 
employ ser: Ex, 

La piedra « dura, Stona it baid. 

Ln uieve e$ blaoca, Snaw it white. 

ElJos «m hnmildes. The; are bumble. 

£1 s docto, He i: learued. 



But to denote any accidental ciTciimslancc, locality, I 
emotions of the mind, or wlieti we »\>e\k of the stale of on 
health, we must use cstar : Ex. 

El lino ja «ltf BBrio. The wine is already <ouj. 

EsliI cojo de una caida, He ii lame from a fall. 

El tEloi tili parade. The walcli is slopped. 

Elian en Madrid, They an in IMadiid. 

Estari aquf manana, I ahall be here to-motron. 

EtlS mny iiisle. She it very sad. 

Ex^Di alegies, Let na bt merry, 

Eitiiv buenn, 1 um well. 

Esl/malo, He i. ill. 

6. In the following example, the learner will observe the 
striking differetjce in the meaning of these twu Verbs. 

Eate ei «1 hIt^o que nld iDdispueslo, This ii the child tt>al ii unwell. 

Here we see that the«ssen(ia'bi!in^of the diild, ia expreseed 
by Her; but the accidental circwniiance of its being unuiell, is 
denoted by esiiir. 

In speaking of a fruit, the peculiar nature of which i» so 
we must sny, Eaia frula Be agria, Thin fruit ii sour ; but by 
cbanging the Verb ser into esiar, it would denote tlint the 
frnit became sour, by some accidental cirenmstance ; and not 
that it belonged to any species o! fruit uf a naturally sour 
kind. 

7. We must employ the Verb sfi', also, to ex|)re8s posses- 
sion, and also to denote what a thing is intended for : Ex. 

La hacienda o auya, pero el dinero The property i< his, but the laonej 

Loa libras tm para esludiar, Booka are to study by. 

Esla carta M para imd. This lelter is for you. 

8. Notwithstanding the foregoing retnnrks, there arc 
stances in which we may use either «r or eaiar : Ex. 

I am of I he same opinion. 
H« )i the mayor oF Seville. 

Hovever, on a close investigation of these two examples, 
we shall see, in the first, that with the Verb ler, an unalterable 
state of opinion is denoted ; but with esiar, caiual OQinlan 
only is espresfleiJ. And in the secoiid cxsm^Xft, BA «» torrt- 



190 ooMUQATioir or ftseuLis tbkbs. [ii«c. xxit. 

gidor^ signifies that he has filled the office of mayorship for a 

coosiderahle Ume, or that the office is deemed pemumaU to 

him ; but El est£ de corregidar^ means that he is now the 

mayor, or that he is acting om mayor, 

9. Some Adjectives also yary tiieir meaning, according as 

tiiey are employed with «er or ntar i Ex. 

Ser bueno— £ttor bneno. To he good— To he well. 

Ser vivo — Eitasr vivo. To be lively— To be aUve. 

iSlerdespierto— £s(arde8pierto» To be vigilant— To 6e awake. 

Ser mau>— Estar malo» To he wieked— ^To he unwell. 



LECTURE XXIV. 

CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 

1. In Lee. 21, Par. 8, the nature of regular Verbs has 
been explained. The learner has now to observe, that the 
infinitive of all Spanish Verbs« ends in one or other of the fol- 
lowing terminations, namely, ar^ cr^ ir; as kablar^ to speak; 
iemer^ to fear ; n^frirf to sijfer. 

All Spanish Verbs are of the first conjugadon, when lAdr 
infinitives end in ar;^^oi the second^ when they end in er,^— 
and of the thirds when they end in tV. All regular Verbs of 
the first conjugation, vary their endings, so as to correspond 
with those exhibited in the following conjugation of the Verb 
kablar : All those of the second conjugation, correspond wiA 
the terminations of temer ; and all those of the thirds cor- 
respond with those of 4t(/rir. 

FIRST CONJUGATION, HABLAR, TO SPEAK. 

Infinitive Mode. 

Simple, I Compound, 

Habliir» To speak. | Hab^r hablido. To have spoken. 



Indicative Mode* 

Pre»ent Tense, 

H&blo, 1 speak. 

h4bla8« thou speakest. 

Ii4bla» he q>eaks. 



Habl4mo6, We speak. 

habUis, you speak. 



h4bian. they speakt 

Pott Imperfect Tenu, 

Habl&ba, Iqtoke. I Hablftbamos, IVe spoke. 

haUihai, then mhest, habl4btts» yon spoie. 

habliha, heipoie. ( VMbUybm, thertpokef 



juw«XHr.J ammtetumtn-n bbsvi 



Itl 



__ >l^i ' I spoke. 
hMlfi^f thou' nnffMK* 
habl6, he spole. 




Habl&mos, Wt spoka. 
bablftsteis, yo« j^keu 
babl&roi^. . , they. wpukA, 



Hablar^, I sl^aU or will spesJu 
habl&ras, thoa^aHorwUt apeak, 
hablard, he shaU or. will speak. 



Haklar^Biog, We ihaU or will speak, 
hablav^is, you .dull or will apeakv 
halitefav they shall or will speak. 



Coi^oiuid Tenses of tbe Indicalive Mode. 

Conqgmud of thM.Breient, 
He babl&do, &c. I have spoken, &c. 

Compound of the Imperfect, 
Habkjhabl&dOi»J&ii :I I^d spokeft, &c. 

Compound of the Perfect, • 
H6be hablMo, &G^« . , :;^harit^eke», &c. 

Compound of the Future, 
Habr6 hablado, &c ishall «rwill hare spoken, &c. 



fkdjiUH^ve Mode. 



tttble, Imayq>eak^ 

b0>EeB, thoumayestiqpeak. 

Iitlile, hemayspeiAr 



Present Toafie* 

HabUmoSy 

habl^is, 

h&blen," 



We may speak, 
yoa may speak, 
tbey may speaks 



1 1. 1 ■ 



Imperfect TonM^ . 

hablaHa* &abl&M> ' I sboald, ought or would speak. 

hablarfaaa babl&i^s* thou sbouUlt^ mightest, &c. 

hablarfa» ' faabl&se,, he shonldt might nrr would speak. 
ItiMftiaaraa, hablarfamoi^habltomoB, we shovldyrmighaor would speak, 
babl&rais, hablarfais, habldseis, ^ou sbould> might or would speak. 
Iiabl&ran, hablarfan, habl^en, they should, might or would, &c.. 



IWiKia, 
lieUtoai 



AKoMlbnie, 



3i habl&re. If 1 8hould.speak. 
n hab16res, if thou shouldst qieak* 
ri habl&ie, if he should speeuL. 



Si habl&remos. If we lAmuld speak, 
si habl^rcis, if you should speaki 
si habl&ren, if they should speak* 



Compoiind Tenses of the 'SuDJuncthe. 

Centpotkiid of tntf rttieht, 
H&ya habl&do, &c., 1 may have spoken, &c. 

Coimmhd of the JmpetjM, 
HuW^ habUdo, &c» ¥ *: " . ^ 

Habrfa hablido, &c.* f-iilhoald, might vr'wetild have spoken, &c. 
Hubite habl&dio, &c l;« : 



9iln>ifagJiiiM<ifK<rt 



*tn. • 



^ihe 
If 



1S2 



emmtPBAfWK ^m RsovLAft tbsmu [bmcmiT. 



ImperatiTe Mode. 



H6bla Xd, 
hfibk k\, 

habl^os nos6tros, 
habl^ vos6tr(w, 
h&blen eUos, 



Speak thou, 
let him speak, 
let us speak, 
speak you. 
let them speak. 



Fartiei^U Active, 
CofRfKmnd ditto. 
Participle Past. 



HabUndoi Speaking. 

Habi^ndo habl&do. Having spoken. 
Habl&do, Spoken. 



SECOND CONJUGATION TEMER, TO FEAR. 

Infinitiye Mode. 



Simple, 
Tem^r, To fear. 



Compound. 
Hab^rtem(do» To have feared.- 



Indicative Mode. 



T6mo, 
t^mes, 
t^me^ 



Temla, 
temias» 
temia. 



Temi, 

temfste, 

temi6y 



Present Tense, 



I fear, 
thou fearest. 
he fears. 



Tem6mos, 

tem^is, 

t6men, 



Past Imperfect Tense, 



I feared, 
thou fearedst. 
he feared* 



TemfamoB, 

tem(ais, 

temfan. 



Past Perfect Tense, 



I feared, 
thou fearedst. 
he feared. 



Temfmosy 
temisteisy 
temi6ion. 



We fear, 
you fear, 
theyiear. 



We feared.- 
you feared, 
they feared. 



We fearedn^ 
you feared. ~ 
they feared. 



Temer6, I shall or will fear, 
temeriis, thou thalt or wilt fear. 
iemer&> he shall or will fear. 



Future Tense, 

Temer^mos, We shall or will fear. 

temer6is, you shall or will fear. 

temer&Q, they shall or will fear.^ 



Compound Tenses of the Indicative Mode. 

Compound of the Present. 
He temido, &c. I have feared, &c. 

Compound of the Imperfect. 
Habia temfdo, &c. I bad feared, &c. 

Compound of the Perfect, 
Hiibe temfdo, &c. I had feared, &c. 

Connound of the Future, 
Hift>r6 temldOy &c. I shall h«ve feared, kc. 



MO*. XXI?,] OOIWV6ATIOM CMP MMV^Si, ¥B«B»« 193 

Sabjunctiye Mode. 



Pretent Tense, 

T6ma, I may fear, 

t^mas, thou mayest fear. 

t6ma, he may fear. 



Tem&mos, We may fear, 
tem&is, yoa may fear. 



t^man, they may fear. 






Imperfect TstiM. 

Temi6ra, temeria, temi^se, I should, might or would fear» 
temi6ras, temerias, temi^ses, thou shouldst, &c. fear. 
temi6ra, temeria, temi^se, he should, mi{i;ht or would fear, 
temi^ramos, temeriamos, temi^semos, we should, mi^ht or would fear, 
temi^rais, temerfais, temi6seis, you should, mif^ht or would fear, 
temi^ran, temerfan, temi^sen, they should, might or would fear. 

Future Tense. 



Si temi^re, If I should fear. 

«i temi^res, if thou shouldst fear. 

sk temi6re, if he should fear. 



Si temi^remos. If we should fear, 
sitemi^reisy if you should fear, 
si temi^ren, if they should fear. 



Compound Tenses of the Sabjunctive Mode. 

Comptmnd of the Pretent. 
Hiya temido, &c. I may have feared, &c. 

Compound of the Imperfe^. 
Hubi^ra temido, &c. } 

llabrfa temfdo, &c. ? I should, might or would have feared, kc. 
Hubi^se temido, &c. ^ 

Com/pound of the Future, 
Sf hubi^ temido, &c. If I should have feared. 

Imperatiye Mode. 

T^e tti. Fear thou. 

t6ma kl, let him fear. 

tem&moiinos6troB, let us fear- 

tem^d vo6<)tro8, fear you. 

t^an ellos, let them fear. 

Partieiple Active, Temi^ndo, Fearing. 

Compound ditto, Habi^ndo temido. Having feared. 

Parke^le Past, Temido, Feared. 



THIRD CONJUGATION SUFRIR, TO SUFFER. 

Infinitive Mode. 



Simple. 
Sufrlr, To suffer. 



Compound. 
Hab^ sufrf do, To have suffered . 



Indicative Mode. 

Present Tense, 



S6fro, I suffer, 

spires. thou suffefeit. 



Sufrlmos, We suffer. 

suMt, you suffer. 



lu 



0#im«A«IOK ^g REBVlkUL VIMM*. [liMUXXIf. 



Sufrla, 
sufrfas, 
sufrfa. 



Sufri, 

sufriste, 

sufri6. 



Sufnr^ 



I suffered, 
thou sufferedst. 
hesnfiered* 



I suffered, 
thou sufferedst. 
he suffered. 



Pait Jmperjnct Titue, 

Sufrfamos, 

sufriaisy 

sufrlan. 

Past Perfect Tense. 

SufrimoSf 

sufrlsteis, 

' sufri6roB, 



IslMllfrwiUtuffier. 
sufriv6s» tbMi sbalt or wilt — ff er. 
sufrir4» be ikall fr will rafter. 



JFWar^ Tense* 

fiufrtr^BMMr 

sufrir6isy 

sufrir&iH 



We suffered, 
you suffered, 
they suffered. 



We suffered, 
you suffered, 
they suffered. 



We afatUnr wiU sdBs. 
yoCi shail or will suffer. 
theysbaM «r will suffer. 



Compoand Tenses of the Indicative Mode. 

Cmnpommd 0/ the Present* 
He sufrido, &c. X haivetufierei^ &c. 

Compound of the Imverfeet. 
Hahia'Sufirfdo»&c. I nad suffered, &c. 

Compound of the Perfect, 
Hiibe sufrido, &c. I had suffered, &c. 

Compvund of the Future, 
Habr6 sufrfde, kc. , I sbftU have suffered, &c. 



SolyinictiFe Mode. 



S6fra, 

siifras, 

siifra, 



I nay suffev. 

thou mayest suffer. 

he may suffer. 



Present Tense, 

Sufr^mos, 

sufr&is, 

s(ifran, 



We may anffer. 
you may suffer, 
they may suffer. 



imperfect Tense. 

Sufri6ra, sufrirfa, safrifee, I should, might or would suffer, 
sufri^ras, sufrirfasr fisfri^ses, thou shonldat, raightmt»&c. suffer. 
8ufri6ra, sufriria, jmfri6se, he should, m^^ or would suffer. 
sufn6ramos, sufririaaos, sufri^emos, we should* miffat or wovld suffer. 
sufri6rais, sufrirlais, sufri^seis, you should, mi^ht or would suffer, 
safri^ran, sufririan, sufri^sen, . they should, might or would sufi^* 

Putters Tense. 



Si sufri6re, If I should suffer, 
si sufri6res, if thou shouldst suffer, 
si sufri^re, if he should suffer. 



Si sufri6remos. If we should suffer, 
si sufri^reisk if jou should suffer, 
si 8u(n6ren, if Uiey should suffer* 



Compound Tenses of the Subjunctiye Mode. 

Compound of the Present, 
H4ya sufrido, &c. I may have suffered, &c. 



Hubi^ra sufrfdo, &c. 
Habrfa sufrido 
Hubi^ae sufrfdo 



0, &c. ) 

o, &c. y 



Compound of th« Jm^erfsct, 



I should, might or would have suffered, &c. 



Coamound of the Future, 
Si hibi6re safriiir, &c. If I shottld have suffered, &c. 



LBC. ZZIT.] C0WO6ATION OP BBeVliAft TSHM, 



IW 



ImpendTe Mode. 



S6fire t6y 

sofrimos iio66tros, 
snfiid YOsdtroB, 
s6fran ellos. 



Sufier thou, 
let him suffsr. 
let OS suffer, 
suffer yon. 
let them suffer. 



Pmrtie^U Active, SuMendo, Suffering. 

■Campamnd ditto, Uabi^ndo snlrfdo. Having suffered. • 

PariidfltPatt, SuMdo, Sufiered. 

2. The foUowiDg synopsis will exhibit at one view, all the 
inflections in the regular Verbs. 

The infimtives of Spanish Verbs, are diidded into the root 
«Dd the termination ; as hahl-ar^ tem-ert st^'ir : in which the 
roots are, hably tern, sufr, and the terminations, ar, er, tr. 
The roots of regidar Verbs are preserved without alteration, 
tfarooghont the whole conjugation ; except a few, which, in 
order to preserve the primitive sonnd of certain letters, 
findergo a slight alteration, as will be presently noticed ; 
but which are not on that account considered irregular : the 
iteration being merely orthographica]. 

3. The student, by way of exercise, may apply the roots 
of some of the Verbs in the adjoining list (which are all 
^regular) to the respective terminations in the following table, 
by which means, he may very soon become fiimiliar with the 
conjugation of regular Verbs. 



Aeabar, 

alabar, 

ahaadonar, 

atar, 

cortar, 

ganar, 

librar, 

molestar, 

pintar, 

quemar« 



To finish. 
to praise. 
to abandon. 
to bind, 
to cut. 
to gain, 
to free, 
to molest. 
Co paint, 
to burn. 



acom^ter* to 

beber, to 

comer, to 

deber, to 

esconder, to 
emprendeTfto 

ofender, to 

poseer, to 

prometer, to 

vender, to 



attack. 

drink. 

eaL 

owe. 

conceal. 

undertake. 

offend. 

possess. 

promise. 

sell. 



acudir, 

abrir, 

combatir, 

eludir,^ 

esgrimir, 

imprimir, 

partir, 

permitir, 

suprimir, 

unir. 



toasast. 
to open, 
to combat, 
to elude, 
to fence, 
to print, 
to depart, 
to permit, 
to suppress, 
to unite. 



A COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE TERMINATIONS IN 

REGULAR VERBS. 



Infinitive Mode. 



Ist. Conjugation, 
2d. ditto. 
•M. ditto. 



Habl- 4r. 
Tern- 6r. 
Safr- \t. 



IM CMUrVtATKNT €» RBSULAX ^MJW^ [LM* mf 







Indieadve Mode 


i« 










Prnent Tente, 








Ut. Conj. 

2d. 

3d. 


Siifr- 


as a 
es e 
ea e 


6mos 
^moa 
imoa 


ia 


an. 
^&« 
en. 


2.' 
3. 


Habl- 

Tem- 

Sufr- 


Pott Imperfect Tente. 

fiba ^«a 4ba ibamos 
ia fas (a (amoa 
la ias (a lamos 


fais 


fifau. 

teu 

fan. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Habl- 
Tem- 
Sufr- 


Past Perfect Tmte 

€ &8te 6 
i fste 16 
i iste 16 


• 

6mos. 

Imos 

imos 


fsteis 
isteis 


i^viii. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Uabl- 
Tem- 
Safr- 


ar6 ar6a ari 


af6iiMMi 
er6inoB 
iMmos 


ar^ia 
er^is 
ir^is 


artii* 






Sa1>janctive Mode. 










Pretent Terue, 








1. 
2. 
3. 


H6bl- 
Siifr- 


e es e 
a as a 
a as a 

Imperfect Tense* 


^mos 
4nM)S 
4iiios 


4is 
&is 


en. 
6n. 
an. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Habl- 

Tem- 

Sufir- 


€ &ra 4ras 4ra 
\ aria arias aria 
' &se ^S 686 
C i6ra i6ras i^ra 
\ eria erlas eria * 
(i6se i^ses i6se 
T i^ra i^ras i6ra 
\ iria irias iria 
' i^se i^ses i^e 

Future Tense* 


4ramo8 

ariamos 

isemos 

i^ramos 

eriaiDbs 

i^semos 

i^ramos 

irfamos 

i^semos 


4rai8 

arfaia 

&seis 

i^rais 

eriais 

i6seis 

ii§rais 

iriais 

i^is 


&ran. 

arian. 

6sen. 

i4raa* 

eriaa. 

i^raa. 
iriaib 

IcSttI* 


1. ' 

2. 

3. 


Habl- 

Tem- 

Sufr- 


&te 6res ^e 
.6re i^res i6re 
'ere i^res i6re 


iiemos 

i^remos 

i^remos 


ireis 

i^reis 

i6reis 


&ran« 

i6ren. 

i^en. 






Imperative Mode. 






1. 
2. 
3. 


H&bl- 
T6m. 
S(ifr- 


a e 
e a 
e a 


^mos 
imos 
&mos 


id 


en. 
an. 
am 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Participle Active, 

Habl-6ndo. 
Tern- i^do. 
Siifr- i^do. 


Participle Past. 

Habl.4do. 
Tern- Ido. 
Sufir- ido. 





LBO. ZXIV,} COIUOaATtOIl OF meVLECTITB TUIBS. 197 

4. It has been noticed in Par. S of this lecture, that there 
are * few regular Verba that undergo a slight orthographical 
■Iteration ; which is made in order tu preserve the hard or 
toft sound throughout the whole conjugation of the Verb, 
which certaio conBonants have in the iniiniti?e, sod are liable 
to change their primitive sound when followed by certain 
vowels. The alterations that take place are the following : 

C changes into qa, when in the infinitive it has the sound 
oft; ae, arroncdr, arninquimos , urrdniiueii, Sfc, ' 

G is followed by u, when in the infinitive it has the hard 
sound ; as, veagdr, wnguemoa, venguen, Ifc. 

G changes into^', when in the infinitive it has the guttural 
sound ; as, coger, c6jo, cojiin, ifc. 

Git drop the u whenever o or a immediately follows; as, 
rslinguir, eitiago, esliaga, Ifc. 

Qu change into c when the sound of the hard c is required 
to be preserved ; as, delini/uir, deiiaeo, dcllncan, ifc. 

Note. — Verbs of the seconil conjugation having their roots 
terminating in a vowel, would in some tenses, according to 
the regular conjugation of Verbs, change the e of their ter- 
niinatjon into i ; thus from leer to read ; leio he read ; Idira 
I might read, &c, : but it is preferable in such cases, and by 
tai more general, to adopt a y instead of an i ; thus, Uj/o, le- 
yera, &c. This observation extends even to the regular 
tenses of irregular Verbs. 

CONJUGATION OF RF.FLECnVE VERBS, 

5. In I^c. 21, Par. 4, the meaning of refiective Verbs is 
explained. In Spanish they are conjugated with the Pro- 
oouna of the objective case, me, le, se, in the singular nnm- 
ber, and nos, os, se, in the plural. These Verbs may be em- 
ployed also with or without the personal Pronouns of the 
noDUDative case, as the occasion may require. 



Infinitive Mode. 



I Io*a mjielf. | Nos amaiuw. We lore ouneliei. 

Ihou lovcst Ihjaelf. | os amliij, -joo lo»e louiKltch. 
be loves him^^jr. | <^e im^a. l.'beiWie'^^nut^wh. 



128 



ooMJveATioir or rbvlbctiyb tbrbi. [lbc. zxnr. 



Me am&ba, 
te amfibaS) 
se amiba. 



Poft Imperfect Tente, 

I loved myself. L oos am&bamos, we loved ounelves. 

thoa lovedst thTself. | os am&bais, you loved TonneWes. 
lie loved himself. | se am^ban, they loved themselves. 



Meamf6, 
te amistef 
se am6, 



Poet Perfect Tetue, 

I loved myself | nos amimos, we loved ourselves, 

thou lovedst thyself. I os amisteis, you loved yourselves. 
he loved himself. | se am&ron, they loved themselves. 



Future Terue, 



Me amar6, 1 shall or will love myself, 
te amar6s, thou shalt love thyself, 
se amari, he shall love himself. 



nos amar^mos, we shall love, &c. 
OS amar^is, you shsdl love, &c. 
se amar&n, they shall love, &c, 



Compound Tenses of the Indicadve Mode. 

Compound of the Pretertt, 
Me he am&do, &c. I have loved myself, &c. 

Compound of ttte Imperfect. 
Me habla am&do, &c. I had loved myself, &e. 

Compound of the Perfect* 
Me hdbe am4do, &c. I had loved myself, &c« 

Compound of the Future* 
Me habr^ am6do, &c« I shall have loved myself, &c. 



Subjunctiye Mode. 

Present Tense* 



Me &me, I may love myselfl 

te 6mes, thou mayest love thyself. 

se &me, he may love himself. 



Nos am^mos, we may love, &c. 
OS am^is, you may love, &c. 
se &men, they may love, &c. 



Me am6ra, amaria, 
te am&ras, amarias, 
-se am&ra, amaria, 
nos am4ramos, amariamos, 
•OS am&rais, amarfais, 
■se amiran, amarian, 



Imperfect Tense* 

am&se, I should, might or would love myseli. 
amuses, thou shouldst, &c. love thyself, 
am^se, he should, &c. love himself, 
am^semos, we should, &c. love ourselves, 
amftseis, you should, &c. love yourselves. 
am4sen, they should, &c. love themselves 



Si me am4re, 
si te am&res, 
si se am&re, 
si nos am^emos, 
;si OS am&reis, 
si se am&ren. 



Future Tense* 

If I should love myself, 
if thou shouldst love thyself, 
if he should love himself, 
if we should love ourselves, 
if you should love yourselves, 
if they should love themselves. 



LSC ZXIV.] QWfVQATlOM Q9 VAUBlflL ¥BRBi. ISO 

Compound Tenses of the SuljunctiTe Mode. 

Compound of the Present* 
Me hay& am6do« &c. I may have loved my8elf» &c. 

Compound of the Imperfect, 

Me habi^ra am6do, &c. ) 

Me habrla am6do, &c. \ I should, might or would have loved myself, &c. 

Me hubite amftdo, &c. 3 

Compound cf the Future, 
Si me hubi^ am4do, &c. If I should have toved myself, &c. 

Is^Mratiye Mode. 

Amate t6. Love thou thyself., 

ftmese 3, let him love himself. 

am^moDos vtatUtM, let us love ourselves. 

am6os vos^tros, Iovp. you yourselves, 

am^nse ellos, let them h>ve themselves. 

Pmtieiple Active, Ani&ndose, Loving oneself. 

Compound ditto, Habi6ndose am&do, Having loved oneself. 
Participle Pent, Am6do, Loved. 

CONJUGATION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 

6» Id- Lee. 81, Par.. 5» the. meaning of fiaiisWe Verbs ia eiV. 
plahiei. They may be conjugated with or without the Pro- 
nouns of the nominative case. And obHenre, that the Par- 
ticiple passive must agree in gender and number with the 
nominatiye of the Verb. 



CONJUGATION OF THE PASSIVB VERB 
SER AMADO, TO BE LOVED. 

Infinitive Mode. 

Svnple, I ■ Compowtdm 

Ser amfido, To be loved. ) Hab6r sldo am^Aoy To have been loved. 

Indicadve Mode. 



Soy amado, I am loved. 

6res am&do, " thou art loved. 



Pretent Tense, 

S6mo8 amMoe, we are loved, 

sois am&dos, you are loved, 

son am&dos, they are loved. 



es am&do, he is loved* 

Past Imperfect Tense, 

"Am am&do, I was loved. i iSramos am^dos, we were loved* 

^ras am4do, thou wast loved. J ^rais am4dos, you were lovecU 

^ra amftdo, be was loved. J 6ran amidos, ihiei were loved. 



19D 



CNkMUGATIOlf OF PASSIYB ITSRBS. [liIC Zllf. 



Faf ainido. 
fuiste amMOy 
ia€ am&do* 



Pan Perfect Tente, 



I was loved, 
thou watt loved, 
he was loved. 



Fufmos am6do6. We were loved, 
fiifsteis am&doe, you were loved, 
iii^ron am^dos, Uiey were loved. 



Future Terue, 



Ser6 amlulo, I shall or will be loved, 
ser^samido, thou shalt be loved. 
ser& amido, he shall be loved. 



Ser^mosam&dos, We shall beloved. 
ser6is amidos, yon shall beloved, 
serin amidos, theyshallbeloved. 



Compound Tenses of the IndicatiYe Mode. 

Compound of the Pre$ent. 
He sido am4do, &c I have been loved, &c. 

Compound of the Imperfect, 
Habia sido am&do, &c. I had been loved, &c. 

Compound of the Perfut* 
H6be sfdo am&do, &c. I had been loved, &c. 

Compound of the Future, 
Habr^ sldo am&do, &c. I shall have been loved, &c. 



Subjunetiye Mode. 

Pretent Tente, 



S6a amido, 
s6a8 amido, 
s^am&do, 



I may be loved, 
thou mayest be loved, 
he may be loved. 



Se&mos am&dos. We maybe loved, 
se&is amides, you may be loved, 
sian am&dos, they may be loved. 



Fu6ra, 

fu^ras, 

fuira, 

iu^ramos, 

fu6rais, 

Ai^ran, 



Imperfect Teme, 

serfa, fu^se amido, I should, might or would be loved, 

serias, fusses amidOi thou sbouldst, mightest, &c. 

serfs, fn^se amido, he should, might, &c. 

serfamos, fu^semos amidos, we should, mi^ht, &c. 

seriais, fuiseis amidos, you should, mi^^bt, &c. 

serian, fii^sen amidos, they should, might, &c. 

Future Tense, 

Si fu6re amido. If I should be loved. 

n fu^res amido, if thou shouldst be loved, 

si fu6re amido, if he should be loved, 

si fu^remos amidos, if we should be loved, 

si fu^reis amidos, if you should be loved, 

si fu6ren amidos, if they should be loved. 

Compound Tenses of the Subjunctive Mode. 

Compound of the Present, 
Hiya sfdo amido, &c. I may have been loved, &c. 



Compound of the Imperfect, 

Hubi^ra sfdo amido, &c. 1 

Habrf a sfdo amido, &c. ? I should, might or would have been loved; &c. 

H8M^8ldaiBiido,&c.> 



tJVGATIQK OF PAESIVB TBRBa. 



uiidDfiht Future. 

If I should hiive been loved, ^■ 



Si Id am&do, Be Ihou [oved. 

(«a i[ ambda, let biro be lored. 

lelimDi Doadlriu amidoB, let us bs luved. 

led losiiuoa tun&doi. be you loved. 

i^an ello3 Boi^dos, let Ihem be loved. 



131 1 

m 



, Sine. Am4do, 

iMiciptePauf.'f, J Feni.Sing.'Amida'' 

I Pliu. Am&das, 






> Loved. 



^^^ OBSERVATION ON THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

7- A reflective Verb in the third person {sinifulftr or plural), 
ID any of tlie tenses, is often empioyed in Spanish, where the 
meaning intended to be conveyed by it is pmnve : for iOBtance, 
Ten men were employed, is frequently translated, Se empledron 
diez hombres, instead of, Diez hombres fueron etiipleados : and, 
TTie neceaari/ precautions have been taken, might be trana~ 
lated, 5e han tornado las preertHciones tueesarias, hb well as, 
Lot precauciones vecaarias han xido lomadas. Nevertheless, 
the learner should be very cautious haw lie employs the «- 
flcelive voice in place of the paiaive, for fear of rendering his 
lentences ambiguoUK. We see that the first example. Seem- 
plearon dice hombrcs, might he either taken for. Ten men were 
employed, or. Ten men employed themsehet. In the second 
exanipte, however, no ambiguity can arise from employing 
the Verb in either manner, since, as it is impossible for the 
precautions to take themselves, we must understand that tbe 
sense intended to be conveyed, is, that the precautions wcrt 

8. The Pronoun le, with the third person singular of the 
Mine Toice, is employed in Spanish in all vague and general 
reports : as. 



192 «C€nfTf71lTI0K OP ?B1IB». [kIC* 1II¥. 

OBSERVATION ON THE ACCENTUATION OF VERBS. 

9. In Lee. 3, Par. €» k was notioeil tluift Verbs luii?e a pe- 
culiar accentuation of their own. Id all the foregoin|^ con- 
jugations of Verbs, an accent has been placed over the syflable 
requiring the stress of voice, in order to assist the learner. 
But Verbs are not always found written with the accent for 
this purpose. The following rules, which are applieable to 
all regular Verbs, will point out where the stress is requred 
in them. Many of the Irregular Verbs also are aectoted in libe 
same manner ; but as no general rule can be given for the 
accentuation of tfiese, the student moat be governed hj the 
accent laid on the irregular Verbs in the following lecture. 



INDICITIVB WODB. 

Fresmt Tense. -—In this tense the stress is laid on the last syllable hvt 
one, in all tiie persons, .except the 2d person plural, which is acute on the 

last. 

Imperfect Tetue. — Here all the persons are acute on the last syllable 
but one^ except the Ist person pluiai, which has the stress on the last syl- 
lable but two. 

Perfect Tense. — llie 1st and 3d persons singular are acute in this teote 
on the last syllable, and all the rest on the last but (me. 

Future Tense* — llie last syllable of this tense is acute in every j>erson> 
except the 1st person plural, which has the stress on the last but one. 

SUBJUNCTIVB MODS. 

Present Tense, — The same syllables are acute in this tense as in the 
present indicative. 

Imperfeet and Future Tenses.-^ These two tenses have the same syllable 
acute, as those iii the imperfect indicative. 

IMPBRATIVB MODB. 

fiere the 2d .person plural is acute on the last syllable, and the rest are 
so on the last biit one. 

The Infinitive is always acute on the litst syllable, and the Partieiplet on 
the last but one. 

RBMARK. 

Should the accent fall upon a syllable having the dipfathoBg ie, or to, 
the latter of the two vowels has the stress.; as, vemdi^ndo, uuid. 

If the accented syllable contains a combination of the vowels ia or iat, 
the stress falls on the first vowel ; as, vendia, temiais. 

"When the syllable contains tkediphthong ei, the stress falls on the <; 
mt tcmprar^, v§ndtir6ist 

The stress is continued on the same vowel, or syllable, even when 
or more pronominal cases are added to the verb ; as from evnflrma, 
firmate : from v^nde, vindese, v^deseb, 

Tht foregoing observations point out what partievdar syllable ef 4bi 
Veilb requircs'm stress of the voice *, but itisiiot'eTeTytyllaUeea wftsch 



bSC. XZY.] CONJUGATION OF IRBBCIUJ^B TXRBS. 



138 



the stress falls, that is written with the accent. The sign of the accent is 
only employed as follows : 

Indicative Mode, Imperf, Tense. On the 1st and 2d persons plural. 

Perfect Tense, Ist and 3d sin^;., and 2d plur. 

Future Tense. every person in this tense. 

Si(fr|«nc|t(;e Mode. Imperf. ^ Future. the Ist and 2d persons plural. 



LECTURE XXV. 

IRREGULAR VERBS AND THEIR CONJUGATIONS. 

1. In Lee. 21, Par. 9« the nature of irregular Verbs has 
been explained. The irregularity is sometimes found to be 
in the root of the Verb ; at others, in the termination, and 
occasionally in both. In the following conjugations of irre- 
gular Verbs, those modes, tenses and persons only, that have 
any irregularity in them, are exhibited ; the rest being 
omitted, in order that the learner may, at one view, observe 
where the irregularity lies. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 

ACERTAR, To guess, to hit a mark, to ascertain. 

The irregularity in this Verb is in the root, and admits an t, before the e, 
in ike three persons singular, and 3d person plural of the present of the 
indicative and present of the sul^unctiye, and the 2d and3d persons singu- 
lar and 3d person plaral of the imperative. 



Indicative Present. 
Aci^ito, aci^rtas, aci^rta, 

Subjunctive Present, 
Aci^rte, aci^rtes, aci^rte, — 

Imperative, 
aci^rta, aci^rte, 



aci^rtan. 
aci6rte&* 
aci^rten. 



Acrecentar,To increase, 
adestrar, to guide, 
alentar, to encourage, 
apacentar, to graze. 
afiretar, to press, 
arrendar, to rent. 
aieBtar, to register, 
ateetar, to fill. 



List of Verbs conjugated like Acertar 
aterrar, 

atravesar. 



aventar, 
calentar, 
cegar, 
cerrar. 



to destroy, to 
terrify. 

to pierce, to 
cross. 

to fan. 

to warm. 

to blind. 

to shut. 



comenzar, 

concertar, 

confesar, 

despertar, 

despernar, 



.desiercai, 



to commence, 
to concert, 
to confess, 
to awake, 
to take off 

legs. 
to\MSCkuSsu 



134 



CONJUGATION OF IRRBGOLAR YBItBS. [LBd. XXV. 



empezar, to begin. 
eDcerrar, to enclose, 
encomendar, to recom 

mend, 
enmendar, to mend, 
ensangrentar, to cover 
with blood, 
enterrar, to bury, 
errar ♦, to err. 
escarmentar, to be tu 
tored by experience, 
fregar, to rub. 

gobemar, to govern. 



shoe horses. 

to freeze. 

to damn. 

to winter. 

to manifest. 

to mention. 

to take a col- 
lation. 

to deny. 

to snow. 

to think. 

to ibld» to 
plait. 

And all their compwinds. 



herrar, to 

helar, 

infemar, 

invernar, 

maniiestarty 

mentar, 

merendar, 

negar, 
nevar, 
pensar, 
plegar^ 



quebrar, to break, 
recomendar, to recom- 
mend. 



regar, 
reveotar, 
segar, 
sembrar. 



to water, 
to burst, 
to reap, 
to sow. 



sentar, to B%, to pkase. 
serrar, to saw. 

sosegar, to tranquillize, 
temblar, to tremble. 
tentar, to texapL 
tropezar, to stumble. 



ACOSTAR, To lie down. 

This Verb changes the o of the root into ue, in the same modes, tenses, 
and persons, as those in which the Verb acertar, admits an t before the «. 



Indicative Presents 
Acu6sto> acu^stas, acu^sta* ' — 

Suhjunctive PretenU 
Acu^ste,, acu6stes, acu6stej — 

Imperative, 
acu6sta, acu^ste, — 



actt^tan. 
acttisten. 
acu^tea. 



List of Verbs conjugated like Acostar. 



Acordar, 

agorar, 

aimorzar, 

amolar, 

apostar, 

aprobar, 

asolar, 

asoldar, 

colar, to 

colgar, 

comprobar, 

consolar, 

contar, 

costar, 



to agree. 
to augur, 
to breakfast, 
to grind, 
to bet. 
to approve, 
to destroy, 
to furnish 

money, 
strain liquor, 
to hang, 
to prove, 
to comfort, 
to reckon, to 

relate, 
to cost. 



descollar, 

deg^Uar, 

desoUar, 

emporcar, 

encontrar* 

encordar, 

enrodar, 

engrosar, 

forzar, 

holgar, 

hollar, 

mostrar, 

poblar, 

probar, 



to surpass in 

height. 

to decapitate. 

to skin. 

to dlrty« 

to meet. 

to strinc. 

to break on 

the wheel. 

to grow stout. 

to force. 

to be lazy. 

to trample. 

to show. 

to people. 

to prove. 



regoldar, 

renovar, 

rescontar, 

reaotlar, 

revolcarse, 

rodar, 

soldar, 

soltar^, 

sonar, 

sonar, 

tostar, 

trocar^ 

tronar, 

volar, 

volcar, 



to belch, 
to renew, 
to balance 
an account, 
to breathe, 
to wallow, 
to roll, 
to solder, 
to let loose, 
to soumd. 
to dream, 
to toast, 
to exchange, 
to thunder, 
to fly. 
to overset. 



And all their compounds. 



* In th's Verb a y, substitutes the t, which goes before the e, in the 
irregular tenses. 

t Manifestar has both a regular and an irregular past PartictpLe, the 
latter is manifi^sto^ 

t This Verb has both a regular and an irregular past Participle r the 



I.SC X»r.] COiMV«ATION OB IRUMQIilAI, TBE«S« 



135 



JNDilB, To walk, to go. 

IruHeative Perfect. 
Andiive, anduvlste, and6vo» anduflmosy. andavisteis, andavi^ron. 

StUffHnetkfe Imperfect* 

ABd«vi^|^andavi6ras,aiidiiYidra, anduvi^ramos, anduYi^rais, anduYi^ran. 
Anduvi^se, anduvi^ses, anduvite, andimtemosy anduviteta, anduYi^n. 

Future, 
AndaYi^re, anduvi^res, anduvi^re* anduYi^reiiMM, anduYi^is, anduvieren. 

ESTAR, To be« 
(See this Verb coigugated at full, page 116.) 






Di^ra, 
Didae, 



dfste. 



di^rasy 
cti^ses. 



Pi6re, di^iesy 



DAR, To giYe«. 
Indiemtive Preient, 



di6. 



Perfect. 

dittos. 



Subjunctive Imperfect. 

di6ra, ^^ramos, 

di^, di^semos. 

Future, 
di^ie, ditemoft. 



dlsteis, di^roD. 



di^rais, 
di^seis. 



di^ran. 
di^n. 



di^is, di^ren. 



SUGAR, To play* 

Tills Verb admits an e after the u, in those modes, tenses, and persons, 
tiiat are inegular in the Verbs acertwr and oowtar. 

Indkative Pretent* 
Jo^go, jn^gas, jn6ga, ju^gan. 

Subjunctive Pretent, 
Jn^gne, js^nes, ju^gtie, jueguen. 



ju6ga. 



Ifnperatite, 
ju6gue. 



jueguen. 



lEREGULAB VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION. 

ABORRECER, To hate. 

The irregularity in this Verb, and in all those terminating in acer, ecer, 
and coer, consists in admitting a z before the c in the root, whenever the 
latter is followed by a or 0. 



136 



«OIIJU«Atie^ -09 4RJ^E^VhA9r ▼BMHI^ C|iB€. IX?. 



In^'ative J^uent, 



Aborrezcoy 



;/■• J . 



Snijuntthe Pretent, ' 
Aborr^zca^ aborr^xcas, aboxr^jsca* aborr^zdinMie* alKirrezc^, aborMtcas* 

IlltpiT0tlV6» 

aborr6zca» aborrezc4mo$,' ' -- — abeir^zctn. 



The Verb HACER, to do, to make, and its compounds, are exceptions 
to this mle, as will be seen in the following conjugation : 













H&go, 




Perfect. 




'•~— 


Hfce, 


hidste. 


hfzoy hicimos. 
Future, 


hicfsteis. 


hici^nm. 


Har6, 


har&s. 


har&, har^mo8» 


har^is. 


har&n. 



Subjunctive Presentm 

H4ga, h&gas, h&ga, hag&mos, haggis, h%an. 

Imperfect. 

Hici6ra, hici^ras, hici^ra, bici^ramos, hici6rais, hici^ran. 
Hici^se, hici^ses, hici^se, hici^semos^ hici^is, hid^sen. 

Future, 
Hici^re, hici^res. Incite/- - hicitemos, hiciteis, hiei^ren. 

Imperative, 
haz, h&ga, hag&mos, h^an. 

PmiicipU Past. H^cho. . 

All the compounds of this Verb are coiqugated in the same manner. 



Of those Verbs ending in ocer, we must also except COCER, to boil, to 
bake, to cook ; etcocer, to smart, to irritate ; and recocer, to reboil ; which 
notwithstanding their irregularity of changing the o into u«, they do not admit 
a z before the c ; but change the e into z, before o and u, as exhibited in 
the following conjugation. 

Indicative Present, 
Cu^zo, cu^ces, cu6ce, cu^cen. 

Sul^unctive Present, 
Cu6za, cu6zas, cu^za, coz^mos, coz4is, cu^zan. 

Intferative, ■ 
cu6ce, cu6za, coz&mos, cu^zan. 

This Verb has a regular and an irregular past Participle, the latter is 
cdcho. 



hmc* zxy.] cM>iijiKuiTio]f 09 iR»ioirtam tbem. 



137 



Lift of Vtrbi ea^fugatei Wa Aborbicer. 



Abastecer, 

acaecer, 

adolecer, 

adormecer, 

•gradecer, 

amanecer, 

anoeheccTj 

apetecer, 

canecer, 

^carecer, 

conocer, 

conTalecer, 

tafecer, 

empobrecer, 

encallecer, 

^calvecer. 



eacraeleoer, 

^ndveceiTf 

enflaquecer, 

•encrandecer, 

enloqaeoer, 

^nnegrecer, 

ennoDlecer, 

enrarecer, 

cnricniecer, 

eofloberbeoer, 

enleraecer. 



to fonush, toproTide. 

to happen. 

to become infirm. 

to become ileepy. 

to be thankfU. 

to dawn. 

to now dark. 

to long for. 

to become srey- 

headed, 
to be deficient, 
to know. 

to be convalescent. 
to(;row. 
to impoverith. 
to render callous, 
to become bald, 
to enhance, 
to render cmel. 
to grow hard, 
to grow weak, 
to enlarge, 
to become mad. 
to blacken, 
to ennoble, 
torarify. 
to enrich, 
to grow prond. 
to move to pity. 



entollecer, 

entnmecer, 

entristecer, 

envegecer, 

enrerdecer. 



esdareoer, 

establecer, 

lallecer, 

favorecer, 

fenecer, 

fortalecer, 

niamecer, 

hnmedecer, 

merecer, 

nacer, 

obedecer. 



paoer, 

padecer, 

parecer, 

perecer, 

pertenecer, 

placer, 

prevalecer, 

remanecer, 

restablecer. 



to become a cripple. 

to swell. 

to sadden.' 

to cow old. 

to oecome green. 

to scoff. 

to illuminate. 

to establish. 

to fail, to die. 

to favour. 

to finish. 

to fortify. 

to furnish. 

to moisten. 

todesenre. 

to be bom. 

to obey. 

to darken. 

to offer. 

to graze. 

to suffer. 

to appear. 

to perish. 

to belong. 

to please. 

to prevail. 

to remain. 

to re^establisb. 



And all their compounds. 



ABSORVER, To absorb. 

lliis Verb changes the of the root into tie. in the same modes, tenses 
and persons as the Verb aeottar does ; but from its being of a differtot 
termination, its irregularities are here exhibited. 



Absu^rvo, absn^nres, 
Abau^nra, absn^rvas, 
absn^ve. 



Indicative PretenU 
absn^rva, — 

Sabfvnetive Pretent. 
absn^rva, — 

Imperative, 
absu^rya, — 



absu^rven. 



absQ^Tvan. 



absu^rvan. 



Abearver has a regular and an irregular past Participle, the latter is 
abt&rto. 

List of Verbt corrugated Uke Absorver. 



DisoWer,* to dissolve. 

doler, to grieve, to be in pain. 

Uover, to rain. 



moler, tonrind. oler, to smell, 

mofder, to bite. torcer, to twist, 

mover, to move. I volver*, to return. 

And all their con^nmnds. 



* The past Participles of diiffJMr, and volver, ai« dini€Uo, %XLd\M.4i\»\ 
the rest of this }iMt have regular past Par^ciplea. 



138 



COVJMATfOllf CMP IRRSeittAA' TftfcM* [hM. XtV. 



ASCENDER, To ucend. 

This Verb takes an t, before the e of the root, in the same modes, tenses 
and persons as does the Verb aeertarf bnt its con}Q|^tion is here exhibited 
from its being of a different termination. 

Indicative PretenU 
Asci^ndo, asci^ndes, aaci^nde, 



Asci^nda, 



Atender, 

cemer, 

defender. 



Sul^uttetive PremU* 
asd^ndas, asdlnda, — 



asci^nde. 



Imperative, 
asci^da. 



IaU of Verht eot^%igated Uke Asceno£B. 



to attend, 
to sift, 
to defend. 



encender, to kindle, 
heder, to stinks 

hendM", to split. 

And all their compounds. 



perder, 
tender, 
▼erter. 



asci^ndei. 

asci^ndan. 
asci^ndan. 



to lose, 
to spread, 
to spell. 



CABER, To be contained, or to be capable of containing. 

Indieativi PretgnU 



Qu^po, 
Cupe, 
Cabr^, 
Qu6pa, 



cuplsteis, cnpi^ron. 
cabr4is^ cabr&n. 
quep4is, qn^n. 



Perfect, 
cuplste, c6po, cuplmos. 

Future. 
cabr6s, cabri, cabr^mosi 

Svigunetive Preeant, 
qu^pas, qu^pa, quep&mos. 

Imperfect* 

Cupi^ra, cnpi^ras, cupi^ra, cupi^ramos, cupi^rais, cupi^ran. 
CaSria, cabrfas, cabrfa, cabrfamos, cabrfais, cabrian. 
Cupi^se, cupi6ses, cnpi^se, cnpi^semos, cupi^seis, cnpi^n. 

Future, 
Cupi^e, cnpi6res, cnpi^re, cvpi^remos, cupi6reis, cupi^reo. 

Imperative. 
qu6pay quep^os, qu^pan. 



CAERt To fall. 

This Verb admits yg after the a in the root, when the termination begins 
. .with a or 0. 

Indicaltive PretmU, 



ooHfiiftjffioii «r immamwhut tbkm. 



196 



CkjW^ ckjgu. 



dkTSftt cmyg&moi. 



c4yga. 



cayg&ia. 



caygimos. 



c4ygaB. 
caygan. 



Observe that in the regular teoaes of this Vorb, it is preferable to change 
the i that precedes another vowel, intoy : thus instead ai end, eai&rt, i^e. 
say eoffd, eayire, &e. See the note after Par. 4, Lee. 24. Dseser, to decay, 
and reeaer, to fall oack, are coajngated like caer. 



HABER, To have. 
See this Verb conjogated at full, page 112. 



PuMo, 

P6de, 
Podr^, 

Po^da, 

Pudi^ra, 

Podrla, 

Podite, 

Pudi^, pndi^res, 



PODER, To be able. 

Indicative Present, 
pn^des, Dtt^e, pu^en. 

Perftct. 

pudfste, piidoy pndlnuMv pudlsteis, pudi^ron. 

Futurt* . 
podrfts, podr&, podr^mos, podreis, podr^n. 

Sul(funetwe Prettnt, 

pu^as, pu^a, pu^an. 

Imperfect, 

pndi^ras, padi^, pndi^ramos, pudi^rais, pudi^ran. 
podrfas, podrfa, podrlamoa, podrfals, podrfan. 
pndi^ses, pudi^, pudi^semos, pudi^seis, pudi^sen. 

Future. 

pudi6re, pndi^remos, pudi^rei^, pudieren. 

(No Imperative,) 

Participle Active, Pndi^ndo. 



P6ngo, 
PGse, 

Pondr^, 
P6nga, 



PONER, To put, to place. 



Indicative Present, 



Perfect, 
puslste, p^, pnsfmos. 

Future, 
pondrdSf pondr4, pondr^mos, 

Sm^unetive Present, 
pdogas, p^nga, ponj^&moa,^ 



puslsteis, pusi^roD. 



pondi^is, pondrin. 



^U%V[\&t ^'&i|3KQk« 



140 



coNJireATicm of irmmqwam. rmtm, [i*bc. ixt. 



Imperfect, 

pQii^ra, puai^rasy piui^, pusi^raiiios, puai^rais, pnsi^ran. 

Pdndria, pondrlas, pondrfa, pondriamos, pondrfais, pondifan. 

-^ " pusi^se, ptud^semos, pusiteis, pusi^en. 

Future, 

pusi^re, posi^remos, piisi6rei9, pusi^reD. 



Posi^, posi^sesy 
Pasi^re, pusi^res. 



P<m, 



Imperative, 
p6iiga, poBg&mo6» 



p6iigaii. 



Participle Past, Pa6sto. 

The compounds of Poner, are conjugated in the same manner. 



QUERER, To wish, to be willing, to love. 







Indicative Preeent, 






Qui6ro, 


qui^res. 


qui^re, 




qui^ren. 


Qufse, 


quisiste, 


Perfect, 
qu(so, quislmos. 
Future, 


quislsteisy 


quisi^roD. 


Querr^, 


querr&s, 


querra, querr^mos, 


querr^is, 


querran. 


i^ui^ra, 


qui^ras, 


Subjunctive Present, 
qui6ra, quer&mos. 


quei&is. 


qui^ran. 


Quisi^ra, 
Querria, 
Quisi^se, 


quisi^ras, 

querrfasi 

quisi^ses. 


Imperfect, 

quisi^ra, quisi^ramos, 
querria, querdamos, 
quisi^se, quisi^semos» 

Future, 


quisi^rais, 

queniais, 

quisi^is. 


quisi^ran. 
quenian. 
quisi^n. 


Quisi^re, 


qoisi^res. 


quisi^re, quisi^remos. 


quisi^reis. 


quisi6reD> 




qui^re, 


Imperative. 
qui^ra, 

SABER, To know. 
Indicative Present, 


- 


qui^ran. 


S6, 










S6pe, 


supiste. 


Perfect, 
sdpo, suplmos, 
Future, 


supisteis. 


supi^D. 


Sabr^, 


sabr&s, 


sabr&, sabr^mos, 


sabr6is, 


sabr&Q. 


S^pa, 


s6pas, 


SuJifunctive Present, 
s^pa, sep&mos» 


sepiis, 


s6pan. 


Supi^ra, 
Sabrfa, 


supi^ras, 

sabrfas, 

supi^ses. 


Imperfect, 

supi^ra, supi6ramos, 
sabHa, sabrfamos, 
supi^y supi^semos. 


supi^rais, 

sabriais, 

snpUseis, 


supi^ran. 

sabrlan. 

supi^sen. 







141 



3iq[M^re, snpi^res, sopited 



«^, 



supi^icis, stsUntu 



SER, Tobe. 
See this Teib foigiiiiffd at foil. Page 11& 



TENER, To have. 

See also this Verb coiqugated at fiill. Page 113. 
conjugated in same manner. 



Its componnds are 





• 


THAER, To biiBg, to letdi 


u . 








Indiemtive PraaU. 






Tr4ygo, 










■ 




Perftet. 






Tr6ge, 


tragfete. 


trkjo, traglmos. 


traglsteis. 


trag^ron. 


Trtiyga, 


tr&ygas. 


ti&yga, traygiraoa. 
Imperfect, 


trayg&is. 


tr&ygan. 


Thig^ra, 


trag^ras. 


trag^ra* tragkamos. 


trag^rais. 


trag^ran. 


Trag^se, 


trag^ses. 


tragte, trag^mos, 
Fviure, 


trag^seis. 


trag^D. 


Trag6re» 


trageresy 


Jwtperaiivem * 
tr&yga, trayg&mos. 


tragi^eiSy 


trag^n. 
trftygan. 



Partieipte Active, Tray^ndo. 
Its compounds are conjugated in the same manner. 



VALER, To be worth. 
Indicative Present, 



V&lgo, 




FtUure, 






YaMi^, 


▼aldr&i, 


valdrd, valdr6moSy 


valdr^. 


valdrin. 






Subfutnetioe Present* 






V&lga. 


viilgasy 


v&]ga, valgimos, 
Jfnperfect, 


valg&is, 


v&lgan. 


Valdrfa, 


▼aldrfas. 


valdrfa, ' Taldrfamos, 
Imperatvoe, 


valdrfais, 


valdrfan. 






t6I^, valg&mo^. 





v&IgUk. 


Equhakr, to be equiieakot, ia.conjusaied in 


A\l« «SMHtWIXAKi(% . 



143 



COHJITQATION OV IRRB6ULAI, TlltVS. [lSC. ZXY. 



V4o, 
Veia, 



V^a, 



VER, To see. 



Indicative Pretent. 



Imperfect* 
vefas, vela, Tefamos, veiais. 

It has ialso a regular imperfect tense, as, via, vku, S^e, 



v^as, 



Subfunctive Present* 
v6a, ve&mos, 

Imperativem 
v6a, ve&mos, 



ve&is. 



Its compounds are conjugated in the same manner. 



vefan. 



▼6aB. 
v^an. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 

ASIR, To seize. 

This Verb admits a g after the s in the root, when the termination 
begins with a or o. 



Asgo, 
Asga, 



^gas, 



Indicative Present. 



Stbbfunetive Present* 

asga, aag&mos. 

Imperative. 
4sga, asg6mo8. 



asg4is. 



^an. 
4sgan< 



DECIR, To say, to tell. 



Digo,' dices. 



Dlge, 
Dir^, 



Diga, 



diglste, 
dir^. 



dlgas. 



Dig^ra, dig^ras. 
Dim, dirlas, 
Dig^se, dig^seis, 



Indicative Present. 






dice, 




dlcen. 


Perfect. 
dljo, diglmos, 


diglsteis. 


dig^ron. 


Future. 






dirk, dir^os, 


dir6is, 


dir^n. 


Subjunctive Present, 
dlga, digimos. 


dig&is. 


dlgan. 


Imperfect. 

dig6ra, dig^ramos, 
dirla, dirlamos, 
dig^, dig^iemoBi 


dig^rais, 

dirlais, 

dig^seis, 


dig^ran. 

dirlan. 

dig^sea. 



LSC XXV.] CONJUGATION OF IRREGULAR YBRBd. 143 

Future. 
Dig^re, dig^res, dig^re, dig^remos, dig^reis, dig^ren. 

Imperative, 

dl, dfga, dfgamos, dlgan. 

Participle Past* Dfcho. 

Contradeeir, to contradict, and predecir, to predict, are conjugated like 
tUeir, except that the second person singular of the imperative is contradiee 
and predice. 

Bendecir, to bless, and maldecir, to curse, are also conjugated like decir, 
except that the future of the indicative, and the imperfect subjunctive of 
the termination ria are regular, and that the second person singular of the 
impMsrative is bendicet maldice. These two Verbs have each a regular and 
an irregular past Participle ; the latter is bendito and maldito, and par- 
take of the nature of Adjectives. 

DORMIR, To sleep. 



Indicative Present. 
Du6rmo, du^rmes, du6rme, — 


— du^rmen. 


Perfect, 
diirmi6, — 


— durmi^ron. 



Subjunctive Pretent. 
Du^rma, du^rmas, du6rma, durm&mos, durm&is, du^rman. 

Imperfect. 

Durmi^ra, durmi^ras, durmi^ra, durmi^ramos, durmi^rais, durmi^ran. 
Durmj^se, durmiises, durmi68e, durmi^semos, durmi6seis, durmi^sen. 

Future, 
Durmi^re, durmi^res, durmi^re, durmi^renu^, durmi6reis, durmi^ren. 

Imperative. . 
du^rme, du6rma, durm^os, du6rmaa» 

Participle Active, Durmi^ndo. 

Morir, to die, is conjugated like dormir, except that its past Participle 
is mu6rio. 

INSTRUIR, To instruct. 

When the root of Verbs of the third conjugation ends in tt, (as in instru- 
ir), this vowel takes a y after it, before those terminations beginning with 
e, a, or o. 

Indicative Present. 

Instrfiyo, instriiyes, Instriiye, instriiyen. 

Subjunctive Present. 
Instriiya, instriiyas, instrdya, instruy&mos, instruy^s, instriiyan. 

Imperative, 
instrfiye, instriiya, instruy&mos, instriiyan. 

Note, — In ihfi tenses of this Verb, which are regular, most writers change 
the i of the termination into y ; thus, instruyd, instruySra, &c., instead of 
MftnMdk instrui6ra* But this change is not consideTea «Jk iRe%^axvt,^% 



144 



CO|i#VGATION OP IRREGULAR VB&BS. [liEC. XXT. 



List of Verbt corrugated like Instrvir. 



Ar^iiir, to 
atnbuir, to 
coDcluir*, to 
constituir, to 
constniir, to 
contribmr,to 
destniir, to 



argue. 

attribute. 

conclude. 

constitute. 

construe. 

contribute. 

destroy. 



desminuir, 

destribuir, 

6uiri 

huir, 

imbuiri 

incluirt, 

instituir, 



to diminisb. 
to distribute, 
to flow, 
to fly. 
to imbue, 
to include, 
to institute. 



luir, to wear by friction, 
obstruir, to obstruct, 
prostituir, to prostitute, 
recluir, to cloister, 
restituir, to restore, 
retribuir, to compensate, 
substituir, to substitute. 



And all their compounds. 



IR, To go. 



This Verb is one of the most irregular ones in the Spanish Language.' It 
is also remarkable for having the perfect tense of the indicative, and the 
terminations ra and se of the imperfect subjunctive, conjugated precisely 
like those of the Verb ser. 







Indicative Present, 






Voy, 


vas, 


va, v4mos, 


vais. 


van. 


Iba. 


fbas. 


Imperfect, 
Iba, (bamos, 


fbais, 


fban. 


Fuf, 


fulste, 


Perfect, 

fu6, fiiimos. 

Future, 


fulsteis. 


fu^ron. 


Ir6, 


ir&s, 


irk,' ir^mos, 


ir€is. 


ir4n. 


V6ya, 


vkyzs, 


Sibbjunctive Present, 
v&ya, vay6mo8, 


vayiis, 


v&yan. 


Fu^ra, 

Irfa. 

Fu6se, 


fu^ras, 

irias, 
fusses. 


Imperfect* 

fudra, fii^ramos, 
irfa, irfamos, 
fu^se, fu6semos. 

Future, 


fu^is, 

irfais, 

fu6seis. 


fu6ran. 

irian. 

fii^sen. 


Fu6re, 


fu^res. 


fu6re, fu^remos, 

Participle Active, Y6ndo. 
Partie^le Past, Ido. 


fii^reis. 


fu^en. 



LUCIR, To shine. 

• This Verb has the same irreg[ularity as the Verb ahorrecer ; but its con- 
jugation is here exhibited from its being of a different termination. 



* This Verb has a regular and an irregular past Participle : the latter 
is concluso. 

% t This Verb has also, in addition to its regular past Participle, a rega* 
Jar one, which is incliuo. 



IiBG. XXV.] CONJUGATION Of ^jRABeULAR TBABS. 145 

Indicativ4 Pretent* 



L6zco 



Subjunctive Pretent, 
Liizca, 16zcas, liizca, luzc&roos, luzc4ts, Idzcan. 

Jtnperattve. 
Ifizca, luzc&mos, ■ Idzcan. 

Its compounds are conjugated in the same manner. 

Verbs ending in ducir, as CONDUCIR, to conduct, in addition to the 
irregularities in lucir have also the following : ' 

IndicaHvB PerfgcU 

Cond6ge» condugiste, condiijo, conduglmos, conduglsteis, condug6ron 

Subjunctive Imperfect. 

Condug^ra, condug6ras, condug^a, condug^ramos, condug6rai8,condug6ran 
Condug^se, condug^ses, condug^e, condug^raos, condug^seisjcondog^sen 

Future, 
Condug6re, condug^res, condug6ferCondug6remo8, condug^reis, condug^reti 

The following are Conjugated like Conducib. 



Deducir, to deduct, 
inducir, to induce, 
introducir, to introduce. 



prodttcir, to produce, 
reducir, to reduce, 
traducir, to translate. 



OIR, To hear. 

The irregularities in this Verb, are like those in the Verb caer^ they are 
nerertheless here exhibited from its being of a different termination. 

, Indicative Present, 

Oygo - — 

Subjunctive Present, 

Oyga, 6ygas, 6yga, eygtowB, oygiis, 6ygan. 

Imperative. 
6ye, 6yga, oyg&mos, ■ 6ygan. 

Entreoir, to hear imperfectly, is conjugated in the same manner. 

PEDIR, To ask, to beg. 

Indicative Present, 

Pido, pides, pide, plden. 

Perfect* 
■ ■ piii6, . .1 ■" ■ I pidi^icni^ 

O 



146 



cosjcreATioN op irregular ybrbs. [lb€« xxr. 



Pida, 



Pidi^ra, 
Pidi6se, 



Pidi^re, 



Subjunctive Present, 

pldas, p(da, pid&mos, pidiis, pldan. 

. Impitfect, 

pidi^ras, pidi^ra, pidi^ramos, pidi6rais, pidi^ran. 
pidi^ses, pidi^se, pidi^semos, pidi6seis, pidi^n. 

Future, 

pidi^res, pidi^re, pidi^remos, pidi^reis, pidi^ren. 

Imperative, 

pfde, pfda, piddmos, ' pfdan. 

Participle Active, Pidi^ndo. 



Ceiiir, to girdle, to bind, 

colegir, to collect, 

competir, to rival, 

concebir, to conceive, 

constrenir, to constrain, 

derretir, to melt. 

desleir, to dilute. 



Li$l of Verbs conjugated like "Pehih, 

engreirse, to adorn one- 
self, 
freir*, to fry. 
gemir, to groan, 
uenir, to knead, 
medir, to measure, 
re^ir, to rule. 



elegir, to elect. I reir, to laugh. 

And all their compounds. 



rendir, to subject, to 

render, 

renir, to quarrel, to 

repetir, to repeat, [scold, 

seguir, to follow, 

servir, to serve, 

tenir, to dye. 

vestir, to dress. 



P6dro, 
Pudri, 

Piidra, 

Pudri6ra, 
Pudri^se, 

Fudri^re, 



pddres, 
pudrfste, 

p^idras, 



piidre. 



PODRIR, To rot. 

Indicative Present, 

piidre, piidren. 

Perfect* 
pudrlo, pudrimos, pudrisleis, pudri^ron. 



Subjunctive Present, 

p^dra, pvdr&mos, pudrib, piidran. 

Imperfect, 

pudri^ras, pudri^ra, pudri^ramos. pudri6rais, pudri^ran. 
pudri^ses, pudri6se, pudri6semos, pudrieseis, pudri^n. 

Future. 

pudri6res, pudri6re, pudri6remos, pudri^reis, pudri^ren. 

Imperative, 

piidra, pudrimos, p6dran. 



Participle Active, Pudri^ndo. 



SALIR, To go out. 



This Verb has the same irregularities as vaUr, except the second person 
singular of the imperative ; and it is here exhibited from its being ofa dif- 
ferent termination. 



• The Participle past of /mr is/n'to. 



LBO. ZXV.] GOKJOOATION OF lAAMULAm TBBBf. 



U7 



S41go, 



Indicative Pretent* 



Saldr^, saldr^s, 
S41ga, 



Future, 
saldrd, saldr^mosy 



saldr^y 8aldr4n. 
salg4is, salgan. 



Subjunctive Pretent- 
s&lga, salg&mosy 

Imperfect, 
Saldrfa, saldiias, saldrfa, saldrlamos, saldriais, taldrfao. 

Imperativem 
s&lga» nalgkmM, 



sal, 



fAlgaiir 



Its compound sobresalir, to excel, is coiqugAted in the same manner. 



nteten* 



SENTIR, To feel, to regret, to perceive. 

Indicative Present, 
Si^nto, si^ntes, si^nte, 

Perfect, 
- ' ■ — sinti<i, ^— -— sinti^Ton. 

Subjunctive Present. 

Si^nta, si^ntas, si^nta, fint4mos, sintais, tiintan. 

Imperfect, 

Sittti^ra, sinti^ras, sinti^ra, tinti^ramos, sinti^is, sinti^n. 
Sinti^, anti^es, sinti^, nnti^mos, sinti^seii, sinti^n. 

Future, 
sinti6re, sinti^remos, sintidreis, sinti^ren. 



Sinti^re, sinti^res. 



Participle Active, Sinti^ndo. 



Adfaerir, to adhere, 
advertir, to warn, 
arrgientirse, to repent, 
conferir, to confer, 
controvertir, to contro- 
vert. 



List of Verbs cfn^ugated like Sentxb 

convertir, to convert, hervir, to boil, 

deferir, to defer, to invertir*, to invert, 

dela^. ingerirt, to ingraft, 

diferir, to differ. mentir, to lie. 
digerir, to digest, 
herir, to wound. 



referir, to refer, 
requerir, to require. 



And all their compounds. 



V6ngo, 



vi^nes. 



VENIR, To come. 

Indicative Present, 
vi6ne, 



vienen. 



* Invertir has a regular and an irregular Participle past, the latter is 
inoirso. 

t Inj^erir has also a regular and an irregular Participle past, the 
latter IS inif^rto. 



148 



tbilJVBJLTlbiS OF IRREGVIiift 'HiKKS. ][lB€^ 1^. 



Perfect, 
Vine, viniste, ^ino, vinimos, vinfsteis, YUii^roB. 

Fmturt. 
Vendr^, vendris, vendii, vendr^mos, vendr^s, Yeiidriai* 



V^Dga, Y^Dgas, 



Vini^ra, 
Vendrfa, 
Vini^, 



Vini6re, 



Suhfuneiive PretenU 

▼^nga, vengamos, Teng^is, Y^ngan. 

Jfnperfeet* 

Yini^ras. Yini^ra, Yini^ramos, Yini^rais, Yini^ian. 
Yendrlas, Yendrfa, vendriamos, Yendriais, Yendriaa. 
Yini^set/ Yini^, Yini^moa, Yini^aeis, Yini^sen. 

Future* 
Yini^res, Yini^re, Yini^remos, Yini^reis, Yini^ren. 



Yen, 



Imperative* 
Y^nga, Ycogimos, 



Y^ngan. 



Participle Active, Vhii^ndo. 

All it8 compounds are conjugated in the same manner. 



2. Participles past that do not terminate in ado^ or in 
ido, are irregular : such are the following and their com* 
pounds. 



Infinitive, 

Abrir, 

absoWer, 

cubrir. 

decir, 

disoWer, 

escribir, 

hacer, 

morir, 

poner, 

resolver, 

Yer, 

voWer, 



to open. 

to absolve. 

to coYer. 

to say, to tell. 

to dissoWe. 

to write. 

to do, to make. 

to die, 

to put, to place. 

to resolve. 

to see, to look. 

to return. 



Participle Past. 

Abierto, 

absuelto, 

cubierto» 

dicho, 

disuelto, 

escrito, 

hecbo, 

mufcrto, 

puesto, 

resuelto, 

visto, 

Yuelto, 



opened. 

absolved. 

covered. 

said, told. 

dissolved. 

written. 

done, made. 

dead. 

put, placed. 

resolved. 

seen, looked. 

returned. 



3. The following is a list of regular and irregular Verbs 
that have two Participles past, the one regular, the other 
irregular : the former is employed with the Verb haber, to 
form the compound tenses ; the latter partakes of the nature 
of an Adjective, and is not employed to form the compound 
tenses of Verbs ; except, however, preso, prescrito, provisto, 
and roto, which are sometimes seen used with haber, instead 
of prendido, prescribido^ proveido^ and rompido. 



LJM;. XZV.] COXJUGATIOM OW IMPBB80MAI. TSEB8. 



149 



InJSnitvm, 

AhiUr 

bendedr 

oompeler 

ooncliiir 

confiindir 

ooiiTeiicer 

conTertir 

de^rtar 

elegir 

escloir 

espeler 

espresar 

estmgnir 

fijar 

harttr 

inclmr 

incorrir 

insertar 

iiiTertir 

iogerir 

jnntar 

maldecir 

manifestar 

marchitar 

omitir 

oprimir 

perfeccionar 

prender 

prescribir 

proTeer 

xeclnir 

romper 

soltar 

suprimir 



lUg. Patt Part, Irr. Patt Part, 



to surfeit, 
toUess, 
to compel, 
to condude, 
to confound, 
to convince, 
to convert, 
to awake, 
to elect, 
to dry, 
to exclude, 
to expel, 
to exi>re88, 
to extinguish, 
to fix, 
to satiate, 
to include, 
to incur, 

to insert, 
to invert, 

toinj^raft, 

to join, 

to curse, 

to manifest, 

to wither, 

to omit, 

to oppress, 

top^ect, 

to seize, 

to prescribe, 

to provide, 

to shut up, 

to break, 

to let loose, 

to suppress, 



ahitado 

bendecido 

compelido 

concluido 

confundido 

convencido 

convertido 

despertado 

elc^do 

ei^us[ado 

eschudo 

eapelido 

espresado 

estinguido 

^ado 

hartado 

incluido 

incurrido 

jnsertado 

uiTertido 

ingerido 

juntado 

maldecido 

manifestado 

marchitado 

omitido 

oprimido 

perfeccionado 

prendido 

prescribido 

proveido 

reduido 

rompido 

soltado 

snprimido 



ahito 

bendito 

compulso 

concluso 

confuso 

convicto 

converso 

deq>ierto 

electo 

eiquto 

escluso 

espulso 

esi>roso 

estioto 

fijo 

harto 

incluso 

incurso 

inserto 

inverso 

ingerto 

junto 

maldito 

manifiesto 

marchito 

omiso 

opreso 

perfecto 

preso 

prescrito 

provisto 

recluso 

roto 

sudto 

supreso 



surfeited. 

blessed. 

compelled. 

concluded. 

confused. 

convinced. 

converted. 

awaked. 

elected. 

dried. 

excluded. 

expelled. 

expressed. 

extinguished. 

fixed. 

satiated. 

included. 

incurred. 

inserted. 

inverted. 

iuf^rafted. 

jomed. 

cursed. 

manifested. 

withered. 

omitted. 

oppressed. 

perfected. 

seized. 

prescribed. 

provided. 

shut up. 

broken. 

let loose. 

suppressed. 



CONJUGATION OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

4. In Lee. 21, Par. ID, the meaning of impersonal Verbs 
is explained : we will now proceed to their conjugations and 
employment. 



HABER, To be. 

The Verb habtr, used impersonally, is employed the same in both num- 
bers ; and like all impersonal Verbs, it is used only in the third person of 
«very tense, as seen as follows : 

Infinitive. 
Haber, To be. 

Iftdicative Preient, 
Hay> There is, or there are. 

Imperfect. 
Habfa, There was, or there wei«« 

o3 



150 COKIUGATIOK OF IMPBRBONlti TSttBS. [lIC. XXT. 

Perftct, 
H(ibo, There was» or there were* 

Fttlufv* 
HabHi, There wiH be. 

iSu^functtM Present, 
HkjtL, There may be. 
Imp0r/#ct. 
Hubi)§ra, habrfa, hubi^se. There should, might, or would be. 

Future, 
Hubi^re, If there should be. 

Imperative* 
H&ya, Let there be. 

EXAMPLES. 

Hau UQ bombre que !e espeia, There is a man waiting for you. 

Hahia muchos, There were many. 

Habrd gran cantidad, There will be a gireat quantity. 

Jamas ha habido cosa mas her- There never has been any thing more 
mosa, beautiful. 

AMANECER, To dawn, and ANOCHECER, To become night, are 
irregular in their conjugations like aborrecer : the following are a few ex- 
amples on them. 

Amanece ahora muy temprano. Day breaks very early now. 

Amaneeid (esta manana) lloviendOi It rained (this tnoming) at day 

breakm 
Anochece muy tarde^ It grows dark very late. 

Presto anochecerd mas temprano. It will soon be nt^At Earlier. 

The Verbs amanecer and anochecer are sometimes used with the three 
persons, and denote the situation or condition of the nominative at the 
time expressed by the Verb : Ex. 

Amaneci en Madrid, y anoeheei I was at Madrid it the daum o/ (^ay, 

en Toledo, and at Toledo by night. 

Amaneeid de mal humor. He aaoke this morning in a bad hu- 

mour. 

GRANIZAR, To hail; LLOVIZNAR, Todrirzle; and RELAMPA- 
GUEAR, To lighten, are regular in their conjugations. 

HELAR, To freeze, and NEVAR, To snow, are irregular like acertar. 

LLOVER, To rain, and TRONAR, To thunder, are irregfdar likie absm- 
ver: Examples. 

Graniza ahora, y quiz4 helard It hails now, and probably it may 

luego, freeze presently. 

Ha lloviznado un poco, It has drizzled a little. 

Ayer trend y relampagueo repeti- It thundered and lightened yesterday 

das voces, repeatedly. 

Habia nevado mucho. It had snowed much. 

No puedo ir porque Uueve, I cannot gobeeause it rains. 



LBC. XXr.} COlfiUOATtON OF DHVBCTITB TEUBS. 151 

5. There are some Verbs which do not belong to the class 
of impersonal Verbs, but which are sometimes employed as 
such : Ex. 

Es tarde* strd preciso hr, It is late, it wili btf necessary to go. 

£5 menester €[ae se haga hoy. It must be done to day. 

Hace buen tiempo, hace frio, It it fine weather, tt is cold. 

Basta que Tmd. 10 diga. It it suMcient that you say so. 

Conviene haoerlo. It ought to be done. 

Sucedid confonne lo pensaba, It happened as I thoueht. 

Parece que no vendra. It appeart that he will not come. 

6. When in English the Pronoun t/, followed by any part 
of the Verb to 6e, comes before a Noun or Pronoun, tAie Verb 
always remains in the third person singular, whatever may 
be the number or person of the Noun or Pronoun that follows 
it; as, Itislvfho; It was they that; It was the men that. 
Care must be taken however in tht translation, tQ make the 
Verb agree in number and person with the Noun or Pronoun 
that follows it : Ex. 

It is I who say so, Soy yo que lo digo. 

It was they that did it, Eran eltos los que lo hicieron. 

It was the men that came, Fueron los hombres los que vinieron. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

7. In Lee. 21, Par. II, the meaning of defective Visrbs is 
defined. The defective Verbs commonly in use in Spanish^ 
are Placer^ to pleaHe ; Solery to be wont ; and Yaaer^ to lie. 

PLACER is used only in the following tenses and persons. 

Indicative Presetft, 
Pl&ce, It pleases. 

Imperfect, 
Placfa, It pleased. 

Perfect, 
Pliigo, It pleased. 

Sutffunctive Present, 
Fl^gue, It may please. 

Imperfect. 
Plugai^ra or plugui^se, It should, might or would please. 

Future, 
Flugui^re, If it should please. 

Imperative. 
Plague, May it please. 



13A or TERBS USBD KBSJkTITSLT, &C. [lEC. XXV. 



Mttcho me ^imet. It p(«an me much. 

PUgue k Dios que TCBca, God gmu that he may come. 

Pimgukrm k Dus q[ae jamas ao ITimU to God that thoa hadst never 



SOLER b vsed only ia the two foUowing tenses. 

IndUmthe Prt$emi. Imtperftet* 

Sq61o, I am wont. SoUa« I was wont, 

sa^es, thoQ art wont. soUa% thou wast wont, 

soele, he is wont. solfa, he was wont, 

sol^mos, we are wont. soKamos, we were wont. 

soI6is, yon are wont. aoUais, you were wont. 

sn61en, they are wont. aolian, they were wont. 

Of YACER, only the third person singular and plural, of the present 
and imperfect of the indicatiTe, are now in use, and generally in epitaphs, 
or figuratiTely : Ex. 

Aquf yace or yacen. Here lieth or lie. 

Aqui yacia or yacian. Here lay. 



OF VERBS USED NEGATIVELY. 

8. In Spanish the negadye no, inyariably precedes the Verb, 
or its auxiliary, and should there be a Pronoun of the datiye 
or accusative case before the Verb, the negatire precedes 
both : Ex. 

M o pnedo venir , I cannot come. 

No le veo, I do not see him. 

No le he hablado, I have not spoken to him. 

Two negatives do not destroy each other in Spanish, as 
they do in English ; on the contrary, they add strength to one 
another : Ex. 

No tengo nada que dar k vmd. I have twtking to give yon. 

No lo sabe nadie, Nobody knows it. 

No lo he vhto jamas, I have never seen it. 

These phrases, nevertheless, may with equal propriety, 
though perhaps with less energy, be expressed thus ; Ncuia 
tengo que dar a vmd, ; Nadie lo sabe ; Jamas lo he visto. 



OF VERBS USED INTERROGATIVELY. 

9. With regard to the order of construction preserved in 
interrogative sentences, no precise rule can be given ; it is 



LEC. XXrt.] AGRBBMBNT OF THB TSKB AITP HOiltyATITB. 153 

the modulation of the voice that mostly determines, in speak- 
ings, when the Verb is used intei^rogadTelj ; and in writin|s, 
ikt note of interrogation. However the noninatire, when ex- 
pressed, is generally placed after the Verb (though not alwiyi 
immediately after it, unless it be a Pronoun) in interrogative 
sentences, in the natural order; but this order may, for 
energy or elegance, be inverted. Observe, that the auxiliary 
doy used in English in negative and interrogaUve sentences, is 
not translated in Spanish. 



LECTURE XXVI. 
AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH ITS NOMINATIVE. 

1. In Lee. 21, Par. 21. something has been said respect- 
ing the agreement of the Verb in English with its agent or 
nominative : it remains now to be explained how this agree- 
ment is effected in Spanish ; and first, the Verb agrees with 
its nominative case in number and person ; Ex. 

Yoleo, I read. i EIlos estudian, Theystudjr. 

Ella canta. She sings. | £1 sol luce, The sun shines. 

In the first example, we see the Verb leo is put in the first 
person and singular number, because jfo, its nominative, is of 
that person and number: In the second, the Verb canto ^ 
agrees with its nominative ella in the third person singular ; 
and so on with the rest. 

2. When a Verb has several nominatives connected by the 
copulative Conjunction ^, it agrees in number and person with 
the Pronoun understood, if it follows the subjects : Ex. 

Mi hermano y 61 han salido. My sister and he are gone out. 

T6 y €1 ser^ premiados, lliou and he will be rewarded. 

The Pronouns understood in these examples, will be etlos 
in the first, tod vosotros in the second. 

But when the Verb precedes the subjects, ft is generally 
made to agree in number and person with the nearest : Ex. 

Nonca fu£ tan espuesto sa valor y Never was his ralor and constancy 
constancia, so much exposed. 

Me ha gnstado macho la funela y los I was much pleased with the novel 
poem4s, and poems. 

Me parecieron muy bien escritas las The letters and episode appeared 
cartas y el episooio, to me to \)^ vw^ 'w^^'sm\X'w\.« 



154 GOTBRKMBlfT OF VBRBS. [lIG. XX?I. 

3. If die nomiiiftdfes be connected by any other Conjuu^ 
tion than jr, the Verb, whether it precede or follow the 
nominatifes, is generally made to agree» in number and person* 
with the nearest : Ex. 

No solamente vmd. y 41, sitio yo tambien Not only you and he, hnt I aho 

lo joMa, knew it. 

No solamente yo y 41, sino vmdu tambien Not only I and he, but you also 

\o$abian, knew it. 

4. A Verb having a relative Pronoun for its nominative, 
ag^es with the word, to which the relative refers : Ex. 

Soy 2^0 el que lo dige, ^ It is I who said so. 

Los que lo dieen se enganan. Those that say so are deceived. 



EXERCISE ON THE AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH n'S 

NOMINATIVE. 

Herodotus was the first writer of profane history. Plato was a 
Her6doto escritor profano Platen 

disciple of Socrates. You and he consented to it. We and they were 
discfpulo consentir en 

appointed. Her modesty and her virtues were much extolled. It was 
nombrar. alabar. 

Constantine who ordered that all the heathen temples should be destroyed. 
Constantino mandar gentil templo 

It was the Arabians that introduced the figures of arithmetic into Europe. 
A'rabe introducir figura aritm6tica 

It is we and they who say so. It is those two houses that [are to be sold.] 

lo. estan por vender. 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

5. All active transitive Verbs have the power of governiu|; 
other words ;— The word governed is called the regimen of the 
Verb ;— -The regimen may be either a Noun, a Pronoun, or 
ail Infinitive. 

6. Active transitive Verbs, govern the word to which then* 
energy or meaning is directed, in the accusative case, with 
or without a Preposition as the occasion may require. See 
observations on the employinent of the Preposition d in the 
accusative case, Lee. 9, Par. 16 : Ex. 

Amar 4 Dios, To love God. 

Despreciar la mentira. To despise falsehood. 

7. Many neuter Verbs have not the power of conveying 
their meaning to another object, and have therefore no 



LBC. XXYl.] GOYBRNMBNT OP YBRB8. 155 

gOTernment : such are nacer^ to be born : crecer^ to grow ; 
and all those in which there is no apparent action in their 
meaning. There are, however, some neuter Verbs, that have 
an active signification, and convey their meaning to another 
olject by means of Prepositions : Ex. 

Ir d Madrid, To go to Madrid. 

Venir de Segovia, To come from Segoria. 

Aprender d leer, To learn to read. 

8. Reflective Verbs also govern their regimen in the ac- 
cusative case ; which regimen is the personal Pronoun 
annexed to them : Ex. 

iS^ aman, They love each other. 

Nos amamos, We love one another. 

£st4 vistiendoje. She is dressing herself. 

Note, — If to the reflective Verb there follow a Noun, 
Pronoun, or an infinitive, these are preceded by the Prepo- 
sition de: Ex. 

Se acuerda de su promesa, He remembers his promise. 

Me acordar^ de vmd,, I well remember yoo. 

No se olvide vmd. de venir. Do not forget to come. 

ObservcUion, It may not be amiss to notice here that pas- 
sive Verbs also, require de, before the word by which they 
are followed : Ex. 

Eloisa fu6 amada de Abelardo, Helpise was beloved by Abelard. 
Es aborrecido de todos. He is hated by everybody. 

Sometimes however the Preposition de may be sabstitnted 
by por^ but it must nevertheless be observed, that these two 
Prepositions are not always indiscriminately used with 
passive Verbs : — for if the Verb denote an action of the body, 
par should be employed ; as Fue muerto por un asesino^ He 
was murdered by an assassin. But if the action expressed 
by the Verb denote a will, or an effect of the mind, then 
either de or por may be used ; though the preference appears 
to be given to the former ; as, 

■ « 

Im cbra fu6 eenmrada de or por los The work was censured by the 

eritieos, critics. 

Virginia fii£ amada de Pablo, Virginia was loved by Paul, 

OF PREPOSITIONS EMPLOYED WITH VERBS. 

9. The observations in Lee. 14. Par. 14, respecting the 
Prepositions employed with Adjectives, may be also applied 
to Prepositions used with Verbs ; as the ^pMi\%Vk «gA^^^^ 



156 QOTBBKMBKT OV VBR«S. IfJ^^ ZXfl. 

Langnages differ very matcriilly u regards the ,Pr«y^iHioii 
to be emidoyed : and in order to facilitate a subjecl of aiuh 
importance to the learner, he is here aguo n&rred t» tjie 
list of Verbs, and other words, that govern with PrepontioWi 
in the Appendix, where, by kxiking for the Verb ho,^^ 
require, or one of nearly the same import, he will fiJMl 
annexed to it, the corresponding Preposition. He is alio 
referred to Lee. 28, Par. 18 to 25, for all that is there men- 
tioned respecting the government of Prepositions, which it is 
hoped will materially assist him in surmounting one of tiie 
most difficult obstacles in language. 



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS AS RELATES TO MODlilS AND 

TENSES. 

10. A Verb active transitive may govern another Verb, 
either in the infinitive, the indicative, or the 8ub|UBcdfe 
mode. The Verb that governs is called the governing Verb, 
and that which it governs, is called the Verb governed. Now, 
as the governed Verb is not always put in the same mode and 
tense in the Spanish and English languages, the student's 
attention is called to the following observations, which are 
intended to |)oint out, in several cases, the difference that in 
this respect exists in the two languages. 

I. 

In Spanish the most part of the governed Verbs are generally 
put in the infinitive, when there is but one agent to both 
Verbs : that is, when the Verb governed, expresses some- 
thing relative to the nominative of the governing Verb : fix. 

Yo queria ver a vmd, I wanted to see yoa. ^ 

Ptometieron hacerlo, They promised to do it. 

£1 sabe escribir, He knows how to write. 

II. 

In these examples we see that both languages agree in the 
employment of the infinitive with the governed Verb. Bat if 
each Verb have a different agent, then the governed Verb in 
Spanish, is either put in the indicative, or the subjunctive 
mode, as the occasion may require, and preceded by the con- 
junction que : Ex. 

Deseo que vmd. le escriba, I wish you to write to him. 

Mand6 que (ellos) fuesen, He desired them to go, 

■ Me parece que (ellos) estan malos, They appear to me to be ill. 



I.BC. ZXn.l €U>VERKMB]fT OF TBBBS. 15? 

Here we see that the governed Verb in Spanish, is pot in 
one of the tenses of either the indicative or sabjanctive mode, 
irfiiie in either case it remuns in die infinitive mode in 
Bsf liah* The placing of the governed Verb in Spanish in the 
indieative or subjunctive mode, is not a matter of indifference ; 
but one which mostly depends on the nature of the governing 
Verb, and greatly on taste, and which will be presently 
notioed. 

It is not absolutely necessary that the governed Verb in the 
fsregobg examples in English, should be placed in the in- 
finitive : for we may give their corresponding Spanish phrases 
a literal translation : thus, / wish that you write to him^ He 
dewed that thej/ ihould go. It appears to me that they are ilL 

These rules extend even to intransitive Verbs, the significa- 
tion of which, does not pass over to the governed Verb, without 
the assistance of a Preposition : Ex. 

VttkM dverk rmd,, I ihall come to lee yon. 

Nacemos para nunir. We are bom to die. 

He venido para que Ymd.pueda u, I have come io order that you mi^ht go.. 

Reciprocal Verbs, likewise govern their regimen, as in- 
transitive Verbs do : Ex. 

Me acostumbro k trabajar, I accustom myielf to work. 

Me alegro que lo sepa, I am glad that he should know it. 

It has just been observed, that when the governing Verb 
has a different agent io the Verb governed, the latter is 
placed either in the indicative or subjunctive mode, as the 
oecasioB may rehire : this also occurs sometimes when both 
Verbs have the same agent. The following rules may serve 
to direct the learner in many instances, in what mode and 
tense to employ the governed Verb. 

HI. 

Verbs that denote will, desire, joy, fear, doubt, demand or 
pretension, and such as are of the like import, when in the^ 
present or future tense of the indicative, govern their regimen' 
with the conjunction que, in the present, or compound present 
of the subjunctive : Ex. 

Me alegrari que vmd, se divierta, I hope that you may be entertained. 

Tetno que lo hayan sairido, I fear they may have known it. 

Me admiro que vmd. lo haya dicho, I am surprised at your having said so. 

D^Ko que ▼md. me informe, I v^ish you to inform me. 

Dudo que vmga, I doubt that he mil ccm^. 

El juez fnanda que venga, The judge oidei* Vvm \» twafc* 

IP 



158 GOVBRNMBNT OF TBRBS.' [lBC. XXTI. 

IV. 

If the goTerniDg Verb be in any of the past tenses of the 
indicative, the governed Verb should be in the imperfect 
subjunctive with the terminations, ra or H^ or its compooncl: 
Ex. 

Le vedi que me enviara or envioie algunos I requested him to send me sone 

Iioros. books- • 

DeseahOf or habia deteado que se hvbieten I wished,, or had wished that they 

or hnbieran ido, had gone. 

V. 

If the governing Verb be in the compound future indieatiTe, 
the Verb governed is generally placed in the present subjuse- 
tive, or in the imperfect, with the termination ra or se: £x. 

Quizli le habrd ordenado que venga, or, Perhaps he may have ordered him 
que viniera or vmieu, to come. 

VI. 

A Verb in the indicative mode, that implies saying, thinkmgt 
declaring, manifesting, conceiving or such like, may govern 
another Verb in either of the tenses of the indicative mode, 
or in the imperfect subjunctive, simple or compound » in any 
of the terminations, as the occasion may require, provided the 
nominative of the governing Verb refer also to the Verb 
governed : Ex. 

Digo que lo s^, que lo supe, que lo I say that I know it, knew it, ov 
sabr^, will know it. 

DeclararoH que lo vieron, or que lo They declared that they saw it, or 
habian vistOt had seen it. 

Crei que podria venir, I thought I could come. 

Dige que se lo diria, I said that I would tell it to him. 

Temi que no fuera capaz de hacerlo, I thought I could not be able to do H. 

VII. 

But if the nominative of the governing Verb, should not 
relate to the Verb governed, and the former be in the present 
of the indicative, the Verb governed may be put either in the 
future of the indicative or the present subjunctive, or the 
imperfect of the same mode with the termination ria. 

Imagino or pien$o que le sentenciard, I imagine or think that the case 
or, <|ue se sentencie, or que se sentew will be sentenced or would be 
ciana la causa k mi favor, sentenced in my favour. 



LBC. XXVII.] BTTM0L06T AND 8TKTAX OF ADYBRBS, 159 

VIII. 

And if the g^overniDgf Verb be in any of the past tenses of 
file indicative, the Verb governed is generally put in the 
imperfect subjunctive (in either of the terminations), or its 
compounds : £x. 

Creia, juzgaba que cantara, cantaria, I believed or judged that she would 
or ccmt€ue, or, que htdfiera, hdbria, sing, or would have sung. 
or hvbiese cantado, 

Habiamosjuzgado que no cantara, S^c^ We had judged that she would not 

sing, &LC, 

Sometimes however, for the sake of variety, we may put 
the governed Verb in such cases, in the imperfect indicative : 
as creia que cantaba, — ^And it may not be deemed improper to 
add, that notwithstanding these rules, which are chiefly ex* 
tracted from the Grammar of the Academy, and which in 
many instances may serve as guides to the learner ; he is not 
to suppose that they are applicable in every case that may 
occur in the course of conversation ; nor is it practicable to 
lay down any set of fixed rules to apply to what admits of such 
endless variety of taste : The reading of good works will be 
<^f fur greater assistance to him in such cases, than all the 
mlea that could be given. 



LECTURE XXVII. 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF ADVERBS. 

1. The meaning of this part of speech has been explained 
in Lee. 4, Par. 9. We have now to observe that Adverbs, 
are either simple or compound. Those that constitute but 
one word, are simple, and the compound are formed by the 
addition of one or more syllables to the adverb in its simple 
form ; or they consist of more than one word. Thus 
maSf menoSy (more, less) are simple ; and ademas, asimismo^ 
(besides, in the same manner) are compound. 

2. For the more correct application of Adverbs, Gramma. 
rians have divided them into different classes, according to 
their signification, as seen in the following lists. Those 
Adverbs marked with an asterisk, will be particularly noticed 
in Par. 11 to 16, of this lecture. 



\(S0 vrtiieli06T and 8tktax op abybebs. [lbg. xxm. 



ADVERBS OF PLACE. 



Donde*, 

adonde*, 

de donde, 

aqul*, acA', 

aculld, 

alM», ahi», aU4», 

de aquf, 

deallf, 

dentro, 

ftiera, 

por faera, 

hasta, 



Where. 

whither. 

whence. 

here, hither. 

yonder. 

there. 

hence. 

thence. 

within. 

out. 

without. 

till, even. 



arribay 
abajo, deb^o, 

Sor debajo, 
elante, 
detras, 
aparte, 
cerca, 
junto, 
enfrente, 
encima, por 

encimft, 
lejos. 



above, up. 

below, wkkr. 

underneath. 

before. 

behind. 

aside. 

near. 

next, joining. 

fiacing. 

upon, 
far. 



ADVERBS OF TIME. , 



Ahora, Now. 

ayer, yesterday, 

uites, before. 

muclH> ha, long sinee, 

poco l^a, lately, 

mi^ntras, whilst. 

ent6nce8, then. 

ho^Tj ' to-day. 

nianana, to-morrow, 

luego, presently, soon, 

then, 
nunca*, jamas*, never, 

tarde, late, 

temprano, early, 

siempre, always, 

ya*, already, now. 



amenudo, 

presto, 

cnando, 

pronto, 

antiguament^, 

recientemente, 

despues, 

hasta aqui, 

hastaahora, 

aun, todavia, 

entretanto, 

frecuentemente, 

casi siempre, 

cast nunca, 

rara vez. 



•ften. 

quickly. 

•when. 



fonnerly. 

recently. 

afterwards, since. 

hitherto. 

till now. 

yet. 

meanwhile. 

'frcquenliy. 

almost always. 

never hardly. 

seldom. 



ADVERBS OF QUALITY AND MANNER. 



Bien, buenamente, 

roal, malamente, 

admirablemente, 

asf, 

despacio, 

recio, fuertemente, 

aprisa, 

esactamente, 

alto, 

bajo, 

f&cilmente, 

sabiamente. 



Well. 


justamente, 
liudamente. 


badly. 


admirably. 


abiertamente. 


thus. 


injustamente. 


slowly. 


tcmerartamente. 


strongly, 
hastily. 


enteramente. 


voluntariamente. 


exactly. 


negligentemente. 


loudly. 


directamente, 


lowly. 


quedo. 


easily. 


tambien. 


wisely. 





justlv. 

neatly. 

opmily. 

wrongfully. 

rashly. 

entirely. 

voluntarily. 

negligently. 

directly. 

softly, quietly. 

also. 



ADVERBS OF ORDER. 



Primeramente, Firstly. 

61timamente, lastly, 

sucesivamente, successively, 

finalmente, finally, 

al fin, al cabo, at the end. 

juDtamente, together. 



ordenadamente, orderly, 

totalmente, totally, 

al reves, topsy-turvy. 

Antes, before, 

despues, after. 



LEG, XXYII.] BTTMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF 4I>y£RB9* )6l 



ADVERBS OF QUANTITY AND COMPARISON. 



Poco, 

mucho, 

bastante, 

mas, 

m^aos; 

demasiadOf 

casi. 



little. 

much. 

sufficient. 

more. 

less. 

too much. 

almost. 



tan, 

tanto, 

muy, 

cuanto, 

cerca» 

peor, 

mejor. 



so. 

so much. 

very. 

as much. 

near, almost. 

worse. 

better. 



ADVERBS OF DOUBT. 



Qttizi, acaso, 
por Ventura, 



Si', 

cierto, ^^ 

ciertamente, 

aun. 



Perhaps, 
perchance. 



4ntes, rather, 

probablemente, probably. 



ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION. 



yes. 
truly, 
certainly, 
even. 



verdaderamente, indeed. 



realmente, really, 

indubitablemente, undoubtedly, 

en verdad, in truth, 

de veras, indeed. 



ADVERBS OF NEGATION. 



No, 
tampoco, 



No. 
nor. 



3. la addition to the foregoing adverbs, several adverbial 
expressions mzy be added, of which an infinite ilumber could 
be formed : The follovdng are a few specimens. 



Pasado manana, 
k la tarde, 

de cuando en cuando, 
de aqui en adelante, 
demasiado presto, 

r>co & poco, 
manos Uenas, 
& toda prisa, 
de buena gana, 
de mala gana, 
con intencion, 
k la mano, 
k la Etpaiiola, 
k caballo. 



After to-morrow. 

in the evening. 

now and then. 

henceforth. 

too soon. 

little by little. 

plentifully. 

with all speed. 

willingly. 

unwilfingly. 

on purpose. 

at hand. 

in the Spanish fashion. 

on horseback. 



OF ADVERBS ENDING IN MENTE. 

4. Adverbs terminating in tnentef for the most part denote 
manner; though they sometimes denote qffirmaHon^ order ^ 
and time : Ex. 



Habla elegantemente. 
Me recibiu cortezmente, 
Vendr&n ciertamente« 
Esto debe ir primeramente, 
Ultimamente vendr&n ellos. 



He speaks elegantly. 
He received me courteously; 
They will certainly come. 
This must go first. 
They will come last. ' 

p 3 



108 BTVMOLOOT AHD 6TNTAX OF Ji0¥SRB8. [itlD. XXfU. 

This class of Adverbs is generally formed frsn A^l^etifes, 
by adding mente to the feminine termination of Adjei^ves 
that have two terminations ; and to the common terminadoa 
of those that have but one : Ex. 

from sabio, wise, is formed, tabiamente, wisely. 
earo, dear, caramente, deaify. 

felis, happy, fBUsmmie, haiq>Uy. 

Most of the English Adverbs ending in ly, terminate in mente, in Spanish. 

• 

5. The greater part of these Adverbs in Spanish, may be 
expressed with the Preposition con and a substantive, instead 
of the Adjective with the termination mentc : Thus instead of 
feUzmente^ we may say con felicidad ; instead of sabiamcntef 
con sabiduriay and so forth. 

6. When several Adverbs formed from Adjectives, fbOow 
each other in succession, the terminadon mente^ is preserved 
only with the last : Ex. 

Discurre clarai s6lida, y elegantemente, He argues clearly, solidly and 

elegantly. 

7* Adverbs are sometimes used in the place of Adjectives 
and vice vend. If the word in question has any agreement, 
it is used as an Adjective ; if it has no agreement, it is used 
as an Adverb : Ex. 

Era una nocke mny clara, It was a very clear night. 

In this example, clarai agrees with the Noon nacht^ and is 
therefore an Adjective ; but in the following, it \n an Adoerhf 
because it refers to no Noun, but modifies the Vexb hahhn 
Ex. 

Aquella senora habla muy claro, That lady speaks very clearly. 

The following are some words of this double meaning : — 
Mai, bad, badly ; obscuro, dark, obscurely ; &^o, low, 

lowly ; alto, high, highly ; redo, strong, strongly ; presiOj 

quick, quickly. 
8. There are some Adverbs also, that are used as Nouns : 

Ex. 

£s necesario precaver el mal. It is necessar^r to gnard against the evil. 
La mafiana estk fresca. The morning is cool. 

In these expression^ the words mal, and fnancma, are em- 
ployed as Nouns 3 but as Adverbs in the following : Ex. 

Bespondio mal, He answered wrong. 

Vendr^mos mafiana, We will come to-morrow. 



LBC. XKTII.] BTTMOLOOT AND GTNTAX OF ADVGKBB. 163 

0. As Adverbs that end in mente, sonel^meB denote nonney, 
at othera order, time, i(c, in a like manner do mnnjr other 
Adverbs belnng to more than one class ; for instance, luega 
and despues, are Adverbs of time when we say, Luego vendre, 
1 will come soon ; Ire deapues, 1 will go afterwards : But 
they are Adverbs of placi: and order, in the expresKion, El 
padre iba primern, despues la madre, y luego los hijos. The 
father went first, then the mother, and nest the children. 



SITUATION Of THE ADVERB. 

lE'With regiu-d to the situation of the Adverb in a 
Hidee, no rale can be given, but what would be subject to many 
exceptious. It is a matter that depends much on taste 
oeverthelesB, when no particular emphasis is intended to b 
laid on the Adverb, it in generally placed nfler the Verb 
and for energy or elegance, it is frequently placed b^ore. 

OBSERVATION ON CERTAIN ADVERBS. 

11. Aqui, Acd. These two Adverbs are frequently used 
indiscriminately ; though there is this difference in their 
signification, that aipti means here; and acd, hiihfr ; as Aqiri 
ettd. Here it is ; Venga vmd. acd. Come hither. 

Aqui, is sometimes equivalent to now, and hence; as 
Hasta aqui hemos eivido en paz, We have lived peaceably till 
now, or hitherto. De aqui nacen muchos males, Heuce arise 
many evils. 

He Aqui, signify behold, or here is ; as, He aqui mi bolsa. 
Behold, or here is m; purse. 

12. Ahi, Alii, AM. Ahi generally denotes a place not 
very distant from the speaker ; it also alludes to the place, 
where the person addressed is ; as, Ahi estd mi casa, There is 
my house. Ahi donde estd vmd. There where you are. 

Alii and alld, generally refer to n more distant place than 
ahi ; as, Lc dtje aUi sola, I left him there alone ; Alld eit 
aqaellos paises. There, in those countries. — Alld, is also equi- 
valent to thither ; as Voy alld, I am going thither. 

13. Mas Acd, ifai Alld, These Adverbs of place, &re 
always accompanied by the Preposition de, when followed hy 
another word : — IHas acd, signifies, on this side, animus alld, 
on that aide, or beyond ; as, Mas aed de Madrid, On this 
side of Madrid. Mas alld de los Alpes; On that side, or. 
beyond the Alps. 



164 BTTMOLOeT AMD 8TKTAX OP ADVBKB8. [liBC. XXTII. 

14. DondCf Adonde, The meaning^ of these two Adyerbs is 
not exactly alike, yet they are sometimes confooDded in com- 
mon conversation. Donde signifies where^ but adonde means 
whither, or where to ; as, Donde estd f — Donde vmd. le dgo, 
Where is he? — ^Where you left him. 4 Adonde ha idof 
— Adonde vmd. le mando. Whither is he gone ? — Where you 
sent him to. 

15. Jamas^ Nunca. These two Adverbs may be used in- 
discriminately ; as, Jofnas or nunca vi tal coaa, I never saw 
Kuch a thing. Nunca united to jamas^ adds greater energy 
to the negation ; as, Nunca jamas vi tal cosa^ Never did I see 
such a thing. 

Jamas is often used after the words por siempre^ and para 
tiemprey for ever ; then instead of its negative signification, 
it means eternally ; as. Me acordare de il para dempre jamas, 
1 will remember him idl the days of my life, or for ever. 

16. Ya, This Adverb has a variety of significations, as 
will be observed in the following examples : 



I Ha venido vmd. ya t 
Ya lo s6, 

Vaya vmd. que ya voy yo, 
I Me entiende vmd. ya 7 
Si, ya le entiendo, 

i'Ha acabado vmd. ya de escribir ? 
Ya no me quejo de mi su^rte, 
I Que dicen de mf 1 — Ya lo sabr& 

vmd., 
Ya quiere esto, ya aquello, 

li^iya que vmd. lo manda, 



Are yon come already ? 

I already know it. 

Go you, I will go presently. 

Do you understand me now? 

Yes I do understand you, or, now I 

understand vou. 
Have you finished writing yet ? 
I no longer complain of my flBite. 
What (To they say of me?— You 

will soon know. 
Sometimes he wants this, sometimes 

that. 
I will go, since you desire it. 



EXERCISE ON ADVERBS. 



You should first read books of instruction, and then you may proceed to 

pasar 

those of entertainment. These letters are instructive, and consequently 

entretenimiento. carta instructivo 

I will read them with care. He has very little wit. I am much 

cuidado. 



satisfied. Kind actions seldom lose their reward, 

[de bondad] perder m^rito. 

was already at home. We generally dine at three o'clock. 



He 
He 



has disappointed me frequently4 
faltar 



to-day. 



Write to me soon. 



He came yesterday, but she came 

mas A 

Cesar wrote clearly, concisely, and 
claro, conciso, 



ttBC. XXTIII.] BTTM0L06Y A|7D SYNTAX OF 1»RBP0SITI0NS. 165 

el^antly. Cicero spoke wisely and eloquently. Where are you 

eloeoente. 

soing to ? Where is your brother t He is here. Let him 

come hither. I am going there with him. Put it there [by the side] 

a] lado 

of you. . I have never known him. I never did such a thing. 

I will love her for ever. I have come already* ^ I will go since 

lletar 

there is no remedy, 
remedio. 



LECTURE XXVIII. 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF PREPOSITIONS. 

1. For the definition of this part of speech, see Lee. 4, 
Par. 10. We have now to observe, that Prepositions are of 
two kinds, namely, such as have no meaning but in the com- 
position of other words, as, inmor/a/, abs/ya^, suponer, &c., im- 
mortal, to abstract, to suppose, &c. ; and such as have 
meaning both by themselves and in the composition of other 
words ; as the following. 



d, to, au 
ante, before, 
oon, with. 
contra, against. 
de, of, from. 
d£sde, since, from. 



en, m, 
entre, between. 
hdcia, towards. 
hoita, till, until. 
para, for, for the pur- 
pose of. 



por, by, for^ through. 
segun, according. 
gin, without. 
sobre, upon. 
tras, behind. 



EMPLOYMENT OF PREPOSITIONS. 

2. As Prepositions in Spanish have frequently other mean- 
ings than those given to them in English in the foregoing 
list, it will be necessary to treat on the various significations, 
and use of each separately. 

3. A. This Preposition, besides its general signification 
of to and o^, has other peculiar meanings, as will be seen as 
follows : it it employed before certain Adverbs, and adver- 
bial expressions ; as, Andar d pie, d caballo. To go on foot, 
on horseback. Vestirse d la moda. To dress in the fashion. 
It signifies conformity ; as, A' ley dc Castilla^ Vci qx>\!&^t\ss^ 



166 ETTMOtOOT AND SYNTAX [lBO, UVUI. 

with the kw of Castile. A fe de cabalUrOp On the word of 
a gentleman. Instrumeniality ; as, Se hace d mariiilo^ It if 
done by the hammer. It is sometimeB tMjnivaleDt to the con- 
ditional si, if ; as, A' saber yo eso» Had I known that, or, if 1 
had known that. It sometimes signifies in; as, Al primcipiOi 
al fin. In the beginning, in the end. It is frequently seen 
between two numbers of the same valae, and denotes order ; 
as, Dos d dosy Two by two. It somedpies means within ; as, 
A' tiro de pistoUi, Within pistol shot ; A' veintepasos de a^tiii 
Within twenty paces from this. 

4. Ante means before, or in the presence of; as, Comparecio 
ante el juez. He appeared before the jadge. Paso ante mt, 
He passed before me. It is used to denote prrferencc ; as, 
Nuestro deber es ante todo. Our duty is before every thing. 
When employed in the composition of other words, it de- 
notes priority of time and place ; as, anteayer^ the day before 
yesterday ; antecdmera, antechamber ; anteponer, to prefer, 
to place before. 

5. Con denotes conjunction and assemblage; as, Estd casado 
con la Marquesa, He is married to the Marchioness. When 
preceded by para, it signifies towards; a^, Es muy cortez 
para con todos. He is very courteous towards, or to every body. 
It denotes manner; as, Habla con gracia, He speaks grace- 
fully. It also denotes means, or instrumentality; as, Le hirio 
con una espada. He wounded him with a sword. In compo- 
sition it denotes union; as, concurrencia, an assemblage; 
coftfederacion, a confederation. 

6. Contra, in its most general signification, is against; as, 
Habla contra mi. He speaks against me ; Es contra la lejf, 
It is against the law ; La casa estd contra el oriente. The 
house faces the east. In composition it implies an opposite 
meaning to the word to which it is prefixed ; as, contradecir, 
to contradict ; contrabando, contraband trade. 

7* De, Besides the most general signification of this Pre- 
position of belonging to and separation from, it has several 
other meanings. It denotes the materials of which things are 
made ; as, casa de piedra, a stone house ; caja de oro, a 
gold box. It denotes also the use for which things are de- 
signed ; as, papel de escribir, writing-paper ; cabaUo de cache, 
coach-horse. It expresses different divisions of time; as, 
de dia, by day, or in the day ; de noche, by night, or in the 
night. It describes the proper time for doing any thing ; as, 
Es hora de comer. It is dinner hour ; Es tiempo de scUir, It is 
time to go out. It is sometimes equivalent to through ; as, 
Zo hizo de miedOf He did it through fear. At others, to with; 



as, Lo hiio de hutnit- gana, He did it with a good will. It is 
soDietimeB placed after ejiitkets ; as. El picaro del viuchacho, 
'Hie rognisli boy. It is also uaed after certuin interjecliona 
expressive of complaint; as, \ Infeliz de mi! Ah pour in e I 
i Dadichada de dia .' Unhappy her I 

8. Dade sometimes denotes the beginning of time and 
plaoe ; as, Desde la creacion, ProTn the creation ; Desde Car- 
tagena d Barcelona, From Carthagena tu Barcelona. It is 
frequently followed by certain Adverbs and Conjunctions; 
as, Dtide entoncci acd. From that time tii tliis ; j Desde 
euaAdo f Since when ? Desde que 7>md. vino, Since you came. 

9. £1. This Preposition has rarlous meanings besides its 
general signification of in, and within, such as into, 10, as: 
Examples, La kija de Tdnialo se convirlio en eslaiua. Tan- 
talus's daughter was converted into a statue ; De pueria en 
puerla, Prom door to door; Sirnase admitir esie anillo en 
seHal de itmiilad. Be pleased to accept of this rin^ as a token 
of friendship. £n united to cuanfo f\^\fy te ilk regard ta, as 
Eh cuanlo d mi, With regard to myself; En cuanlo'd lo que 
vmd. dijo. As to, or with re^rd to what you say. 

10. Entre. The general meaning of this Preposition is 
between; as, Entre loa dos. Between the two ; Enlre el padre 
yelhijo. Between the father and son. It likewise signifies 
aniongii ; as, Entre tados. Amongst all. 

tl. Jfaeia, in its general signification, is louiards ; as, 
Voy haciit cam, I am going towards home; Hacia alii vive. 
He lives in that direction. It forms an adverhia] expression 
when preceded hy de; as, Venia de liacia alii. He came from 
that direction. 

12. Hasta signifies till, until, even, to, as many as, and de- 
notes the end of time, place or action ; as, Haua ahnra. Till, 
or nntil now; Hasta cuando. Till when; HaHa el mismo go- 
bemadoT estaba alii, Eren the governor himself was there ; 
Tenia ha»ta mil. He had as many as a thousand ; Vot/ hasta 
Segovia, I am going as far as Segovia ; No vnlvere hasta 
Mayo, 1 shall not return till May ; Hasta la vista. Until we 
meet again. 

13. Por and para. Each of these two Prepositions has its 
peculiar meaning; nevertheless, learners anil even Spaniards 
themselves are sometimes apt to confound them i great care 
is tJierefore necessary in order nut to misapply them. It is 
presumed that the following observations will furnish the 
learner with a correct knowledge of their import. 

Para denotes tile end or matwe for doing a thing, and ia, 
eqairalent to, in order to, or for the purpose qf ; lifti TatwdW 1 



1 



168 STTM0L06T IND 8TNTAZ llMC. XXTllI. 

para aprender^ I itudy in order to learn, or^ for the pfurpOM 
of learning. It denotes the use^ intention^ beneJUf nmAiiffmy 
of a thing ; as. La tinta es para escribir^ Ink is to write 
with ; Eslo es para vmd. , This is for you ; Ei payuicio ev pars 
el. The evil is for him. It expresses the capacity or Inoqw- 
city of a thing ; as, Es hombre para muchot He is able to do 
much ; No es homhre para nada. He is fit for nothing'. It is 
sometimes equivalent to considering ; as. Para set tan j6om 
no lee mal, He does not read badly, considering bis age^ It 
sometimes denotes disposition; as. No estay para Jugar, I SB 
not inclined to play. It points out. the place vMtkcr a thing 
is directed; as, Va para Aimer in j He is going towards Al- 
meria. It sometimes specifies a particular time; as, Ettth 
remos de vuelta para las pascuas, We shall be on our return 
by the holidays. It sometimes denotes the proximity £i ul 
action ; as, £2 hxique estd para ponerse d la tw2a. The feesel 
is about to set sail. Para que mean what for^ and in order 
that ; as, ^ Para que es bueno esto f What is this good for ? 
Para que nofuese alii. In order that he might not go there. 

Par denotes motive, cause, or reason, also the means by 
which a thing is done ; as, Lo Uce por favorecerle, I did it to 
favour him ; Lo hizo por envidia, He did it throngh envy ; 
Agradapor su cortesia. He pleases by his courteous behaviour; 
Lo alcamo por su erudicion. He obtained it by his learning. It 
denotes instrumentality ; as. El libro fite eacrito por H, e. sm- 
preso por su hermano. The book was written by him; and 
printed by his brother. It sometimes signifies, for tks sake 
qf; as, Hagalo vmd. por caridad^ Do it for charity's sake; 
It is sometimes equivalent to through, and by; as, Pose por 
Cadiz, I passed through Cadiz ; Pas6 por mi ventana^ He 
passed by my window. It sometimes means in the place qf; 
as, Obro por el, I act for him. It sometimes denotes distri' 
bution ; as, Tanto por docena, por ciento. So much a dozen, 
percent.' Price; as, Lo vendi par- dos pesos, 1 sold it for 
two dollars. Between two Nouns or infinitives it denotes 
preference; as, Casa por casa, mejor quiero esta que aqudla, 
Of the two houses, I prefer this ; Vivir por vivir, prefiero 
vivir en mi pais. If it be for the sake of living only, I prefer 
to live in my own country. Por sometimes denotes time; 
as, Salgo por una hora, I am going out for an hour. Man' 
ner; as, Li) hace por fuerza. He does it through compulsion. 
It is often employed before other particles, and denotes situa- 
tion ; as, por cima, on the top ; por debajo, underneath ; por 
fuera, without ; por aqui, this way, hereabouts ; por alii, that 
WBjr, tliereabouts. ror with the Verb estar, denotes that a 



t.BD. XXVIII.] OF PHSFOBITIONS. 160 

thbf is not qaite accomplished ; bb. La cata cud par acabar. 
The house is not yet Gnished. It Bometimes has the tsame 
ueiuiiijg with the Verb quedar ; as. Me ijuedan tret renghnei 
por eecribir, 1 hare still three lines to write. Ealar par, de- 
note incUnalion ; as, Estoy por decinelo, 1 have a mind to 
tell it to hlra. 

14. Stgun denotes eonformity; as, Segun ?ni parecer. Ac- 
cording to my opiiiiou ; Lo cuento legun me lo /laa coniado, I 
relat« it as it was related to me ; Segun rso vamira b'len. If 
tiuit be the case we are well off. 

15. Sin denotes privation or want ; as, Esloy todavia »in 
comer, 1 have not dined yet ; Voy sin vmd., I am going with- 
ont you. It also signifies besides ; as, Lfevaba jayaa de dia- 
tttaates, sin oirai idhajas dc oro. She wore diamonds, besides 
Other jewels. It must however be observed here, that there 
is KB ellipsis in the Spanish phrase, to express which fully, 
we should say, tin coalar, or iin mencionaT oiras alhajas, &c. 

16. Sobre denotes superiority, either as regards locality or 
dignity ; as. El sombrero eatd aobre la mesa. The h^t is upon 
the table ; La caridad es lobre todas las virtudes. Charity is 
^ove all virtues; Sobre lodo. Above all. It denotes the 
subject on which a work treats, or on which we are speak- 
ing' ; as, Tratado sobre las matemdticas, A treatise on niathe- 
nal^cH ; Hablo sobre la edueacion de las jovenes. He spoke on 
tiie education of youth. It likewise deDotes fim; ,- im, LLega- 
ron sabre el anocheccr. They arrived about dark. It is equi- 
valent to betides; as, Sobre ser rico, ifc,. Besides being rich, 
&c. It indicates securily ; as, Prestonie cien ducadus sobre 
una prenda. He lent me a hundred ducats on a pledge. 

17. Tras denotes order of things ; as, Fueron Iras el, Tliey 
went after him ; Tras la adoei'sidad viene la foriuna, Fortune 
succeeds adversity. It is also equivalent to besides ; as, Tras 
ler pagado quiere que le premieii. Besides being paid, he 
wishes to be rewarded. 



GOVERNMENT OF PIIEPOSITIONS. 



^^Br Prepositions govern Nouns, Pronouns, and Verbs ; 
'^H^ govern Nouns and Pronouns in every cane except the 
ncroinative : this subject has been fully discu);sed in Lee. H. 

19. With respect to the government of Prepositions as re- 
lates to Verbs, we have to observe that the Prepositiong a, 
con, rfe, en, para, por, tobre, and tras, goy«a tbiC Vest to 



170 BTTMOIi««T AMA SYNTAX [fcBO. ZXVm. 

the infinitiye inode> is the same nauaer as lii^ do Ncmt; 
therefore, the rules which refer to the g^OTemment of Pre* 
positions as relates to Noons, maj also apply to infinitives. 
In addition to whieh, howerer, and to what has just been 
said on the employment of Prepositions, there remains the 
following observations to be made on Prepositions that govern 
Verbs. 

20. A* This Preporidon is sometimes found between two 
Verbs, governing the second in the infinitive, when we idak 
to notice the difference that exists- between the two acdons 
expressed by the Verbs : Ex. 

Va mucbo de decir 4 bacer. There ii a great dsffisiencebelweei 

. saying and doing. 

21. Con. Infinitives that denote maxmtr or mtam^ are 
governed by this Preposition : Ex. 

Nada ee gana cim enfadarse, One derives no benefit from bong 

enraged. 
Con eitudiar se logra el saber. By stnay we obtain knowledge. 

22. Dt. Infinitives are governed by de^ when the ruM or 
ieason proper for doing any thing, is intended to be expressed 
by the Noun whieh precedes them : Ex. 

Es dia de ayanar, It is fast day. 

£s tiempo de sembrar* It ia the seaaoo for sowing. 

23. En, This Prepodtion governs infinitives when they 
do not express motion^ but rest : Ex. 

Se ocapa en leer, He occupies himself in reading. 

Se esmera «n hablar bien, He endeavonrs to speak well. 

24. Para. Infinitives that denote the end for whieh the 
action is done, are governed by this Preposition : Ex. 

' Trabajan para ganar, They work to gaib. 

Pelean para conquistar. They fight to conqner. ^ 

25. Por. Infinitives that denote the reason or motwe of 
the action, are governed by this Preposition : Ex. 

Lo hizopor favorecerme, He did it to oblige me. • 

Muri6 por faltarle la asistencia, . He died for want of assistance. 

It is sometimes used in the place of para when the infini- 
tive denotes the end for which the act is done ; as, Estttdio 
por saber ^ I study to learn. 

26. Sabre and Tras, When these Prepositions are used b 



i«^o;-xzfin.] OF FiuvofiTMiit. 171 

fch«!Hiite of bmidn^ tiwy go?«m the Verb is the iiifiiiM?e s 

Br: 

' 'SdAtv or tru ser rieo, es mny avaio> SSesides being rich, he -is a great 

misen 



PLACE OF PREPOSITIONS. 

37* Prepositions in Spanish mast always precede the word 
wbieh ihey gorem, whererer their situation may be in Eng- 
nsih: Ex. 

I A quien eaciibiC vmd. ? Whom did you write to? or to whom 

did yon write 1 
Eite es el hombre de quien habl&- This is the man whom we spoke of, 
moB, or of whom we spoke. 

28. Prepoeitions are frequently repeated in Spanish before 
erery word dley govern : Ex. 

JPnefon d Francia* d EspaSa, y d They went to France* Spain, and 

Italia, Italy. 

Lehabl6deTnid.y<i«sahemiano, I spoke to him of you and your 

brother. 
He»oa eatado <n Madrid, en Se- We have been in Madrid, Se? ille, 

Tilla, y en Valladolid, and Valladolid. 



EXERCISE ON PREPOSITIONS. 

The hat was carried to the hatter's in a box by my servant. This 
llefar sombrero caja criado. 

cap is for me, and that is for you. He does not write badly for a 

gorro 

begijuier. I shall remain here until the summer. I was 

principiante. permanecer 

travelling towards Madrid. I passed through Segovia. 

camina? pasar 

[He is waiting for] an answer on that subject. The boy that you 

aguarda la respuesta asunto. 

saw between the two men passed by me with hia mother. He is one 

of the deptttiea that spoke against the subject. He comes from the 

diputadoa 

capital. He is out of place since you saw him last. After 

[la 6Hima vez.] 

this time there will come a better one. We will fight till we 

tiempo pMcar 

cemqiier or die. He wears a coat in the French fashion. Our 

llavar casaca 

dmty is before every thing. He goes mach against my ideas. 1 

deibcr 



172 BTTMOLO«t llTD SYNTAX [tillC.'XXfX. 

shall commence firom to-moRow'to oome Tery ieerly* ' in^ shdl lemtiii 
empezar temprano , quedar 

until dark. Why do yon inquire? Whom do you enquire for? 

anochecer. preguntar 

We arrived at our Qoumey's end] towards the evening. I am going 

Jornada 

to walk. By study we gain knowledge. This is very good to 

pasear. alcanzar saber. 

eat. There is much to say on that. He went, as I believei 

merely to please him. Besides being ignorant, he is very 

(inicamente [dar gusto] 

vain. I am going hence to London, and thence to Scotland. We 

Escocia. - 

will leave it for to-morrow. However much he may study, he will 

dejar por 

never know [any thing.] I have given it to the man whom we qM)ke 

nada. 

of yesterday. That is what I referred to. Does he know 

referirse saber 

whom to direct himself to? They have been in Amsterdam, 

dirigirse Amsterdan, 

• 

Brussels, and C!openhagen. They are gone to Granada, Murcia, and 

Bruselas, Copenhague. — _ — 

Navarre. They come from Warsaw and Vienna. She devotes 

Navarra. Varsovia Viena. dedicarse 

herself much to music and drawing. 
m(isica dibHJo. 



LECTURE XXIX. 

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

L For the definition of this part of speech, see Lee. 4, 
Par. 1 1 . Conjunctions are either simple or compound : 
simple Conjunctions consist of one word, and sometimes of 
one letter only ; as, y, «i, ni^ &c., andj (/*, nor^ &c. Com- 
pound Conjunctions are composed of two or more words ; as, 
asi que^ fuera de que, &c., so that, besides, &c. Gramma- 



UFC^ZXIX.J 



Ofi fi0K4rjaHOttQKH, 



173 



ruHM: luMrc generaflj di?Hkid Goojaoctlons into varkxu clasaes 



Ex 

Yor^, 
que. 



COPULATIVB* 

And. 
thtl. 



DlflJUNCTIVE. 

or, either, 
nor, neither. 

moreover, but. 
when. 

though, 
although. 

00 obstante que, nevertheless, al- 
••in embargo, though, yet, how- 
ever, notwith- 
standing. 

Conditional. 

ti, if. 

como, as. 

coo tal que, provided. 



6 or if, 
ni. 



mas,pero, 
cuando, 
MUique, 
bienque, 
dado que. 



nnee. 



} 



Casuativs. 
Porque, 

pues que, J 

Rbstriotivb. 
sino, only, excqit, but. 

CONTIMVATTVB. 

pues, then, since, 

asf que, so that, 
puestoque, # . 

supuestaque,( "'*^* 

Comparative. 



como, 

asL 

asi como. 



as. 
thus, 
just as. 

Conclusive. 



4fin deque, 1^^ 

Sr«^r JinoHertbat. 
por que, ^ 



2. Copulative Conjunctions are those which unite the 
several words or memoers of a sentence together : Ex. 

Yo ]f 6i ir^mos, I and he will go. 

£s cierto que es asf, y 61 lo sabe. It is certain that it is so, and he 

knows it. 

Note, — ^Tbe Conjunction y changes into iy before a word 
beginning with t or hi : Ex. 



Es malo S ingrato, 

Mat6 4 uno ^ hiri6 al otro. 



He is wicked and ungratefn). 
He killed one, and wounded the 
other. 



Que serves to connect the sense of the governing Verb with 
the Verb governed : Ex. 



Dice que ellas venian, 
Quiere que yo vaya, 



He says that they were coming. 
He wishes rikat I should go. 



3. The dbjunctive coigunction 6, denotes an alternative or 
distinction between things : m marks the second or subse- 
quent branch of a negative proposition : Ex. 

£1 libro ^ la carta. The book or the letter. 

No es bueno para mi ni para vmd.. It is neither good for me nor for you. 

Ni IB sometimes used in the first branch in the sense of 
neither; as, 



Yo ni me amo ni te amot 



I neither love myself nor thee. 



174 BTTMOIiOGT IIID STMTilX [l«M« XXIX. 

Note.'^Tht CoDJonetion 6 it changed into tS« wiMn the 
following word begins with o; fts, Uno d o<ro. One or the 
other ; Side d ocho. Seven or eight. 

4. Adversative Conjunctions denote some opposition or 
contradiction in the second proposition, as regards the first : 
Ex. 

Me dijo que vendria, pero or nuu He told me that he would come, 
no vino, but fie did not come. 

Sali6, no obttanU que estaba in- He went out, akhongh he was un- 
dispuesto, well. 

5. Conditional Conjunctions are those which denote some 
condition or necessity : Ex. 

Ir€ eon tal que no Uueva, I will go provided it should not rain. 

Conu) venga vmd. it la bora ci- If, or provided you come at the ap- 
tada le dar^ lo que le prometf, pointed hour, I will give yoa 

what I promised you. 

6. Casuative Conjunctions express the cause or reason of a 

thing: Ex. 

« 

No leo, porque no tengo libros, I do not read, because I have no 

books. 
Lo har^, puet que vmd. me lo I will do it tbice you order it. 
manda, 

7. Restrictive Conjunctions confine the proposition to cer- 
tain limits : Ex. 

No traiga vmd. dno dos, Bring only two. 

Ninguno lo haria sino vmd. None but you would do it. 

8. Continuative Conjunctions point out the eontiDoation of 
a sentence : Ex. 

Ya podemos proceder sin recelo, We may now proceed without fiear, 
$ufmest» que el enemigo se ha since the enemy hu retired. 

retirado. 

9. Comparative Conjunctions denote a relation or parity 
between two objects : Ex. 

Asi como el alma anima al cuer- As the soul ammates the body, so 
po, asi la imitacion da alma k imitation gives life to poetry. 

la poesfa, 

10. Conclusive Conjunctions denote the object, or end, or 
motive of an action : Ex. 

Lo hizo dfin de que conociesen su He did it in order that they should 
determinacion, know his determination. 

Le he dado el libro para que I have given him the book thai he 
aprenda su leccion, might learn his lesson. 



LBC. XXIX.] OF CONJUNCTIONS. 175 

11. BesidM the fore^ing Conjancdons, there may be 
formed n varietj of expreeBinos that answer the same ead as 
Conjauctions ; as, coin n qaiera que, however; facra deque, 
txraides ; amenos tjue, unless, &c. 

12. The English Conjuoction but, preceded by a neguire, 
is (generally translated iino ; Ex. 

Sbe n'L'^ goea out &u( id fine Nunca fiaie tintr ct^aoda hace bueii 
weather, liempo. 

When but is used in the place ofyel, it is translated pero or 
mas: Ex. 

1 did nat walk very fust, tnti or No eaminaba muy de prisa, ptm or 
yd 1 aj^iied in time, jaoi Uegu^ i tiempo. 

Sut is also translated pero or tnai, when it is not preceded 
by a negative: Ex. 

I will go, but I casDot stay loDg, Ire, pero or mm no puedo quedarnit 

13. There are several Conjunctions in English that ir« 
frequently used as suhstitates for other words : tlieae Con- 
junctions are generally rendered in Spanish by the words 
which they stand for, as will appear in the following ex- 
amples. 

^s, meaning wliot, is translated cuando ; as. We saw them 
as we were going out, Los vimof cuando saliamos. 

Bui, meaning when, is lilcewise translated cuando; ns. We 
scarcely went out bui we saw them, Apinas lalimos cuando 
los vimo!. 

But, meaning if ii mere not, is translated sino fuem; as. 
But for me, he might have been Itilled, Si no fuera por mi. It 
habrian matado. 

But, meaning only, is translated *olo, or, no mas que; as, 
1 have but two to finish. Solo me quedaa dos para acabar. 
I go but once a day, No voy niaa que, una vez tU dia. 

But wiat, meaning that does not, or that do not, may be 
translated que no ; as, There is no man but lo/tst likes flattery, 
No hay hombre qne no ame la lisonja. 

l¥helher, maaiiing if, is translated ri; as, S&j whether you 
will come or not, Diga vmd. si quiere venir 6 no. 



GOVERNMENT OF CONJUNCTIONS. 



^^^4, Conjunctions govern Verbs in different modes and 
lenses, as already noticed. The Conjunctions that govern 
the infinitive mode, are generally Ihoac ftiat m* IsSwwti \(^ 



176 imrsAJTBenoNS. [lbc, xix. 

the Preposition de; u, d Jin de, por foka dt, &e. The fol- 
lowing may iroTeni llie indleatiTe mode when they do not ih 
note dot^, hut ezprese the ■ftromtion in a poatioe mumt i 
comOf parque^ pue$ que^ Juera de qne^ &e. But those that gv* 
vera the 8ttli}anoti?e are saeh as denote dombi^ wM, or mp- 
patition ; as, aminos que^ sea que^ d Jht que^ aunguey bia fie, 
no obstante que^ si^ he. 



KX£RCIS£ ON CONJUNCTIONS. 

Gold and silver are precious metals. Neither he nor she can go. 

precioio metal. 

She is virtuous and industrious. The books or works of which you 

obra 

speak. Why did you not come t — Because it was raining. SiDce i 

y Uover. 

there is no remedpri I suppose that I must go. I did so because 

remedio suponer 

1 could not help it. However that may be, he never 

remecnar [como quiera que] 

t:omes but when he likes ; but that [is of no consequence.] Yon 

pocoimporta 

« 

may either take this or that. He never views things bvt 

[on the wrong side.] It is not only better, but cheaper. Yo« 

al revez. barato. 

must go notwithstanding [all that] you have said. I will go, provided 

cuanto 

you^come with me. Since we are men, let us act as such. It ii 

obrar 

wide enough, but too short. Morality consists in the practice of viitse> 
bastante oorto. egeicicio 

thus if we would be moral, we must be virtuous. Nothing but inno- 

cence can give us a pure conscience. Prosperity ii a state full o< 

puro estado 

danger, so that we should content ourselves with the middle state, 
pelilro mediocre 



LECTURE XXX. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

i. In Lee. 4, Par. 12, the nature of Interjections has been 
explained. They arc certain e:Lc\wft».^wB% \s>afc^ to «x\)resii 



I*BC. XXX.] INTERJECTIONS. 177 

tbe nuriovs affectious of the minds or to call the attention. 
Som/? grammarians have divided them into di£ferent classes, 
aeeording to the varioos emotions which they are intended to 
express : but as the same ipteijection very frequently ex- 
presses Afferent affections, tliey cannot with any degree of 
precision be reduced to determined classes. Some of them, 
however, which are more limited in their meaning, have a 
more fixed use. 

Ah, ay, O, are employed indifferently to denote the emo- 
tions of grief ^ joy y indignation ^ jest ^ or admiration : Ex. 

i Av que pena ! Oh sad ! 

i An que dessracia ! Alas, what misfortune ! 

I O desdichado de mi I Alas, unhappy me ! 

i Ay que gozo ! Ha» how delightful ! 

i Ah que alegifa ! Oh what joy T 

i O felices de nosotros ! Oh happy we ! 

i O cieloB ! Oh heavens ! 

2. Or, Aa, Ae, ola, are used to call the attention : he, is 
however sometimes used to denote that we have not under- 
stood what has been said to us, and means, what did you say t 
Ha ! besides being used to call the attention, denotes that 
one has recollected what had been forgotten ; as, Ha! ya mc 
aeuerdoy Oh I now I recollect. Chita / means hush ! silence ! 
Ea and sus are used to excite courage ; as, / £a vamos ! Come ! 
cheer up ! 

3* There are a variety of other terms and expressions that 
may be used as Interjections, such as, / Que lastma ! What a 
pity! /Bkn! well I / Valgame Dios! Good God! i Ay 
JHot! My God ! / Hola, poco d poco I Stop, gently I / i^ue 
verguenza I ^e ! for shame ! / Cuidado I Take care ! / Otra^ 
oira I Encore I / Eteme aqui / Here am 1 1 



H-1 



APPENDIX, 



CONTAINING 

AN ALPHABETICAL LIST OF VERBS 

AND 

OTHER WORDS THAT GOVERN WITH PREPOSITIONS : 
IDIOMS IN CERTAIN VBRBS: 

CitUs tweH (n Ibyanist : 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, 

AND A KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 



AN 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF VERBS 



AND 



OTHER WORDS, THAT ADMIT CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS AFTER THEM. 



Abalanzarse d los peligros, 
abandonane d la suerte, 
abocane eon alguno, 
abochomane de algo, 
abogar por alguno, 
ab(»dar (una nave) d, eon, otra, 
JU>onrecible d las gentes, 
aboneddo de todoi, 
abrasarse en deieos, 
abrine d, con, los amigos, 
abstenerse de la fruta, 
abundar de, en, riquezas, 
aburrido de las desgracias, 
abusar de la amistad, 
acabar de venir, 
acaecer d algono, 
acaecer en tal tiempo, 
acalorarse en, eon, fa disputa, 
acceder d la opinion deotro, 
accesible d todos, 
acertar d, eon, la casa, 
acogerse d sagrado, 
acomodarse d, eon, otro dict&men, 
acompanarse eon otios, 
aconsejaise con, de, sabios, 
acontecer d los incautos, 
acordarse de lo pasado, 
acordarse eon los contrarios, 
acostumbrane d trabajos, 
acre de genio, 
acreditarse de necio» 
acreditarse eon, para eon, alguno, 
acreedor d, de, la confianza, 
actoarse de, en, los negocios, 
acosar (4 aJgono) de algun delito» 
acnsarse de las culpas, 
adelantarse d otros, 



A. 

To rush into danger. 

to abandon oneself to chance. 

to confer with any oae. 

to be irritated at any thing. 

to plead for any one. 

to run (one ship) along-iide another. 

hateful to the people. 

detested by all. 

to be inflamed with desires. 

to open oneself to one's friends. 

to abstain j^om fruit. 

to abound in riches. 

wearied bu misfortunes. 

to abuse mendship. 

to be just come. 

to happen to any one. 

to happen at such a time. 

to grow warm in debate.^ 

to accede to another's opinion. 

accessible to all. 

to hit upon the house. 

to take re^ge in a church. 

to conform to another's opinion. 

to associate with others. 

to consult with learned men. 

to happen to the unwary. 

to remember the past. 

to agree vfith one s opponents. 

to accustom oneself (o labour. 

of a sour temper. 

to prove one's own folly. 

to justify oneself to any one. 

worthy 0/ confidence. 

to be active in business. 

to accuse (any one) o/a crime. 

to accuse oneself 0/ faults. 

to take tYve Vea4 of o^«t&. 



182 



APPBMDIX, 



adherirsc d otro dict^men, 
adolecerde alguna enfennedad, 
afeirarse en, con, su opinion, 
aferrarse (una nave) eon otra, 
aficionaree d, de, alguna cosa, 
afirmarse en lo dicho, 
ageno tie verdad, 
agradable al oaladar, 
agradecido dlos beneficios, 
agraviarse de alguno, 
agraviarse de la sentencia, 
agregarse d otros, 
agrio al gusto, 
agudo de ingenio, 
anitarse de manjaresc 
ahogarse en el mar, 
ahorcajarse en las espaldas, 
ahorrar de razones, 
no ahorrarge con ninguno, 
airarse con alguno, 
ajustarse d la razon, 

austarse con alguno, 
abarse de valiente, 
alargarse d la ciudad, 
ale^rarse de al^o, 
alejarse de su tierra, 
alimentarse de, eon, yerbas, 
alimentarse de esperanzaa, 
alindar con otra heredad, 
allanarse d lo justo, 
alto de cuerpo, 
amable d todos, 
amable de genio, 
amancebarse con lot libros, 
am ante de alguno, 
amafiarse d escribir, 
araoroso con los suyoa, 
ampararse de algo, de alguna Gosa, 
ancho de boca, 
andar con el tiempo* 
andar de capa, 
andar en pleytos, 
andar d gatas,- 
andar por tierra, 
angosto de manga, 
annelar d, por, mayor fortuna, 
anticiparse d otro, 
aovar en la ribera, 
aparar en la mano, 
aparecerse d alguno, 
aparecerse en el camino, 
aparejarse vara el trabajo, 
apartarse de la ocasion, 
apartarse d un lado, 
apasionarse d, de, j^or, alguno, 
apearse de su opinion, 
apechugar con alguna cosa, 
apechugar por los peligros, 
apedrar con las palabras, 
apegarse con alguna cosa, 
ape/ar de la sentencia» 



to adhere to another's opimoo. 
to labour under any disease, 
to persist m one's opinion, 
to moor (one ship) to another, 
to devote oneselrto any thing, 
to affirm what has b^n said, 
foreign to truth, 
pleasant to the tiste. 
grateful /or kindness, 
to be vexed mth anv one. 
to be agicrie?ed Ay the sentence, 
to unite oneself wit A others. 
sour to the taste, 
acute in intellect, witty, 
to surfeit oneself wt'tft food, 
to be drowned m the sea. 
to get upon one's back, 
to be sparing o/ words, 
to spare no one. 
to be angry with any one. 
to conform to reason, 
to agree tritk any one. 
to boast 0/ one's bravery, 
to set off to the city, 
to be rejoiced ai any thing, 
to depart /rom one's country, 
to feed on herbs, 
to feed oneself with hopes. 
to be contiguous to another's esttte. 
to abide by what is just, 
tall in stature, 
amiable to every one. 
' of an amiable dispositipn. 
to be fond 0/ books, 
a lover of some one. 
to be clever at writing, 
affectionate to one's relations, 
to take possession of any thing, 
wide in the mouth, 
to accommodate oneself to the times, 
to wear a cloak, 
to be litigious, 
to go on all fours, 
to be humbled to the ground, 
narrow in the sleeves, 
to sigh /or better fortune, 
to anticipate another, 
to lay eggs on the shore, 
to receive or catch in the hand, 
to appear suddenly before any one. 
to appear suddenly on the road, 
to prepare oneself /or work, 
to neglect the opportunity, 
to retire on one side, 
to be fond of any one. 
to alter one^s opinion, 
to undertake a thing with spirit, 
to brave danger, 
to abuse with words, 
to adhere to any thing* 
\o ^v^^ f ic^i'n^ ^^^ sentence. 



Anmn»n. 



183 



I otro m«dio» 
rse d« armaa, 
ine d, pmrm, la WaUa^ 
)le oi gii8to» 
lo diiWfr, todos, 
se d2« MS pobret, 
•e <£ los estudios, 
Tse <2e la hacieiida» 
d correr, 
Ane4 Yeiiir, 
une jwr alguna cosa, 
se en ailgiiDa fac«ltad» 
lo d» ciruiano, 
io fMtra el ofido, 
rse i si* 

piane tf alflmno, 
harse en la Tirtodt 
harae cte la ooasioii, 
ra el empleo, 
> <2« medios, 
rse 0n la dispata, 
ideseos, 
en quimeras, 
de pacieocift, 
uie eon algo, 
e ^ frio, 
«e if las \eiti, 
arse iC silgona cdM, 
er <i, eon, contra el fliiiro* 
drse <2e stis cnlpas, 
sed todo« 
d tier ra, 
le tf la pared, 
larse en casa, 
te (a]go)d sf ttismo, 
e d pelear, 
le eon la capa, 
r d, eon, los peligros, 
's calor, 
r d otro empleo, 

nedesn contrario, 
1 otro dict&men, 
■se eon letrad68, 
los enfermos, 
n tal casa, 
« d, con, otro, 
« d, por, la yeiltana, 
dgntos, 
por alguna oosa, 

MffUStO, 

m laspalabras, 
i mayor fortuna, 
: una sola cosa, 
sarse d/c, por, algo, 
d la conversacton, 
) d lo seguro, 
!Ofi SOS mayores, 
:, eon, la casa, 
e «n los caminos. 



to have recourse to other mftans. 
to provide oneself with arms, 
to prepare /or battle. 

Sleasant to the taste, 
esired by all. 
to pity the poor, 
to apply oneself to study, 
to possess oneself of the property, 
to bet on a race, 
to make haste to come, 
to make haste about any thing, 
to be versed in any science, 
approved as a suir|^nk 
adapted to the office, 
to appropriate to oneself, 
to approach any one. 
to improve in virtoe* 
to avail oneself of the opportunity, 
fit for the employment, 
exhausted of means, 
to grow calm in the dispute, 
to burn with desires, 
to be heated in disputes, 
to arm oneself tottfc patience, 
to muffle oneself up in any thing, 
to be numbed with cold, 
to conform oneself to the laws, 
to relish any thing, 
to assault the wall, 
to repent 0/ one's sins or faults, 
to be enteiprising in every thing, 
to arrive at land, 
to lean against the wall, 
to keep within doors, 
to arrogate (<any thing) to oneself, 
to rush into oattle. 
to wrap oneself up in a cloak, 
to face danger, 
to be scorched by heat, 
to be promoted to another employ* 

ment. 
to secure oneself from one's adversary* 
to assent to another's opinion, 
to seek counsel of the learned, 
to assist the sick, 
to attend at such a house, 
to associate oneself with another, 
to look out at the window, 
to roar vehemdntlv. 
to torment oneself oftout any thing, 
rough to the taste, 
rude in speech, 
to aspire to better fortune, 
to bind oneself to one thing, 
to be friffhtened at any thing, 
to attend to the conversation, 
to keep on the safe side, 
attentive to one's saperiors. 
to find out the house, 
to stick fast in the TQad% 
to draw to onts^i* 



184 



iFpnmix. 



atrevene d cotti grtndet, 
atrerene epn todM, 
atribair d otro, 

atribalane «r, con, los trabajos, 
utropellaree eon las acciones, 
atuianc en la conversaekm, 
atufanc jxtr poco, 
aunarae com otro, 
aiisenUne dt Madrid, 
avecindarse en algun pueblo, 

aveninc een todos, 
aventajarse d otros, 
avergonzarse d pedir, 
avergoDzarse de algo, 
aviarse de ropa, 
avocar (alguba cosa) d tf, 
avocane con alguno. 



Balancear d tal parte, 
balancear en la duda, 
balar jxtr dinero, 
banarse en agua, 
barar en tierra, 
barbear can la pared, 
bastardear de su naturaleza, 
bastardear en sus acciones, 
batallar con los eneknigos, 
bajar d la caeva, 
ba^ar <2e la torre, 
bajar hacia el valle, 
bajo de cuerpo, 
ben^fico d, para, la salud, 
bianco de cutis, 
bUndo de corteza, 
blasfemar'dc la virtud, 
blasonar de valiente, 
bordar (algo) de, con, plata, 
bdrdar (algo) at tambor, 

bordar de pasados, 
bostezar de hambre, 
boto de punta, 
boyante en la fortuoa, 
bramar de corage, 
brear d chasco, 
bregar con alguno, 
brindar con re^Ios, 
brindar d la sadud de alguno, 
bueno de, para, comer, 
bufar de ira, 

bullir en, vor, todas partes, 
burlarse ae algo, 



Caber de pies, 
caber en la mano, 

caer a, haeia, tal parte. 



to venture en great things. 

to brave ever j one. 

to attribute to mnother. 

to be aflSicted by mislbrtnoes. 

to be hurried m one's actioBs. 

to be peevish in convenatioo. 

to be affronted at trifles. 

to unite oneself wItJk another. 

to absent ooaelf /hwi Madrid. 

to take up one s residenoe in aay 

town, 
to agree wiik every one. 
to gain advantage ener others, 
to be ashamed if askiuff* 
to be ashamed of anj tning. 
to provide oneself vitik clothes, 
to remove a law-suit, 
to confer wiik any one. 

B. 

To incline to such a side, 
to waver. 

to thirst after money, 
to bathe oneself in' water, 
to run aground. 

to reach the wall with the chin* 
to degenerate /rom one's nature, 
to degenerate in one's anions, 
to fight agavnA the enemy, 
to descend into the cave* 
to descend /rom the tower, 
to descend totcardi the valley, 
low in stature, 
beneficial to the health, 
o/a fair complexion, 
o/a soft exterior, 
to blaspheme ageantt virtue, 
to boast 0/ bravery, 
to embroider (any thinjg^ in silver, 
to embroider (any thing) in tam- 
bour, 
to interweave, 
to gape with hunger, 
blunt in the point, 
fortunate. 

to roar with passion, 
to plague with tricks. 
to contend with any one. 
to offer presents, 
to drink to another's health, 
good to eat. 
to swell with anger. ^ 
to be stirring on sdl sides, 
to jest at any thing. 

C. 

to have room to stand. 

to be capable of being contained in 

the hand, 
to full on va<^ %. nAit. 



AFPBIII^IX. 



185 



caer de lo alto» to fall from on bigfa. 

caer en titiira, en coeaCk, en error, en to fall on the ground, to comprebend. 



tal tiempo, en lo que se (fice* 

eaier por paieuay 
caer tobre lot enemigos, 
calarse (ie agva^ 
crientane 4 la lumlm, 
callar rla ferdad) d otro» 
cellar m> par, miedo. 



to fall into error, to fall on such 
a time, to understand what is said. 

to happen about Easter. 

to fall upon the enemy. 

to be wet through with water. 

to warm oneself at the fire. 

to conceal (the truth) /rom another. 

to be silent from fear. 



par. 



calummar(6algiino;<f0,por;ii)jii8fO| to accuse (any one) falsely of being 

unjust. 
to manage any person, 
to exchange (any thing) for an- 
other, 
to travel to Seville, 
to travel on foot, 
to walk along the mountain, 
to be tired with labour, 
to be weary of pretending, 
to be tired on the road, 
capable of holding 100 arrobat (or 

quarters), 
fit /or the employment, 
to cai>itulate with the enemy. 
to insist on one's opinions, 
to couple or match (one person or 
thing) with another, 
catequizar (& alj^no) para algtina to suborn (any one) /or any thing. 

cosa, 
causar (perjuicio) d algimo, to cause (prejudice) to any one. 

cautivar (k algnno) eon, por, benefi- to overcome (any one) hy kindness. 

cios, 
cavar (la imaginacion) en algtitfo, to fix (the attention) on any one. 
cavar(conlaimaginaiei(A) malgima to fix (the attention) on any thing, 
coaa, 

be 



calaane 4 akuno, 

cambiar (alguna cosa) eon, 

ofra, 
caminar 4. jfarm, Sevilla^ 
caminar d p\€, 
caminar por el monte, 
caniaarse de, eon, el trabajo, 
oansarse de pretender, 
cansarse en el camino, 
capaz dt cien arrobas, 



capaz de, para, el eOi^Ieo, 
ci^itular eon el enemigo, 
cargarse de razon, 
casar (una persona, 6 cosa) eon otra, 



cazcalear de una parte d otra, 

coder d otro k la autoridad, 
ceder en beneficio de alguno, 
censurar alguna cosa de mala, 
cenirse d lo posible, 
chancearse oon alguno, 
chapuzar algo en el agua, 
chico de cuerpo, 
chocar d alguno, 
chocar con otro, 
clamar d Dios, 
damar por dinero, 
clamorear vor los muertos, 
cortar (la tacultad) d alguno, 
cobrar (dinero) de los deudores, 
coleg^r de, por, los antecedentes, 
coligarse con alguno, 
columpiarse en el ayre, 
combatir con, contra, el enemigo, 
combinar (una cosa) con otra, 
comenzar d decir^ 
comerse de envidia, 
compatible eon la justicia, 
compensar (una cosa) con otra, 



to be running from one place to 

another, 
to yield to another the authority, 
to resign in favour of any one. 
to censure any thing as wicked, 
to keep within bounds, 
to joke with any one. 
to plunge any thing into water, 
small in stature. 
to provoke any one. 
to strike against another, 
to invoke God. 
to ask for money, 
to toll for the dead, 
to restrict any one. 
to receive (money ) from debtors, 
to infer /rum precedents, 
to form an alliance with any one. 
to swing in the air. 
to fight against the enemy, 
to combine (one thing) with another, 
to begin to speak, 
to pine with envy, 
accordant with justice, 
to compensate (^oTi<&^\n%^^ ^3CkSS^^« 



It4i ^rr iSBix. 

cviiitWiir •ufi dlguuo, to vie uUk any ooe. 

vwiupl4C«nMr. Um, tn, «I|{una com, to take a delight in aay thing. 

cviu|Hiiior^ cvit ItM d«udores« to compoand with debCon. 

v'v'ii|Min«rsr J* bucno y malo* to be compoied af good and bod. 



v-%niipi4i v^Uo) a<. iM. veodedor, to pnrchue ^aomething) fnm Ihf 

teller. 
t-viii|iir>iciiMl>lv al cuttfadhniento* comprehensible to the n 
^'viiii'iMliar v^Uv) tii» iuntruBientoi, to prove (aay thing) 6y , 
v'«»iii|*iuiiivtui w ci»H alguoo* to compromiie Kin nny «««• 

vAHii|iioim*ivi V* «H juticus Arbitrott to coa^>fOlnise hu arbttntion. 
v-vHiiiiiKMr ^ lu£ ) 4 alguna parte, to introduce (light) to any part. 
«timuitu Ml I. una) ivn otro. to commnnicate (one) with anoditf- 

vMiKA'iiu V -(Uuu4 c«Khi) i/« tal modo, to conceive (any thing) m nch a 

manner. 
« \>mx*l»ii i iIku^ tfn el auiino, to conceive (aomethiiig) m thowad. 

vMii^vbii V UII4 eu^a) pvr buena. to conceive (a thing) ma good. 

vvhohUm V iI^^*^ a giro. to concede (any thing) to aaolhcr. 

v«>iu-vi»iuiti V J AlguDo)dr, |Mir, sabioj to regard (any one) w wise. 
V vti« vi i4i V (I'u i>M4 ) iim utra. to concert (a thing) with anothen 

oMu-\>i«i.iv.^^U ctfpia) cvK cl original* to make (the copy) agree tiith dK 

original. 
c«Mt«-uiMi u Alinun Ku» to conduce to some end. 

vvn«-Mi I II .1 .iliiuttd pjrte. to meet at some place. 

vMiKuiin .>•!« «»iiv». to concur m'U others. 

vv.i« III III ^iiiuchtM) tn utt dictamen, to concur (many) ia an opinion. 
v%Hi*ivti.ii ^.i uuvf > a ^alcriu. to condemn (one) to the ^Ueys. 

sVM«icii4i V'l Utto^ tfH Ia» costas. to condemn (one) in the coats. 

.M.i«U-<«vviidvi .1 lv» ittVfiHi. to condescend to entreaties. 

%\iti>.vj«t vuavt c%m U iiMtAUciJia to consent to the petition. 

v«uuti>Kii^- .III 1^ irabigo*. to be grieved 6y troubles. 

«vMi«jiu'n y .('av ^ .« ul parte. toconduct (any thin^) to such a placa. 

.\Huiuvu vu*M vvjM^ut bivu d« otio, to condace (any tbing) to another^ 

good. 
.v.iitiSuUiNtf %va ltf» cvnlrdrios* to converse with one's advenaries. 

.otiivOwtuiM^ .V4I 4l^uuu. to confederate with any one. 

.«>iiivt*i ^^\iii.i vNMM^ fcVM tfiu. to compare (one thing) with another* 

.>>.MVtti yiiii iivgw'i^^ vv/i. «mOy» los to delibenOe (on business) witfc one's 

*"'»i«»*. friends. 

'«*«-VAit: v:l d^iiW .It jutfe« to confess the crime to the judge. 

s«>iui«iiM7 4 I>u^, to confess to God. 

• **i''V*rti %v »*»«• A^uiK^. to confess Co any one. 

. .'iiuwt. M' .iV *u^ vul^Mx. to confess one's faults. 

,«*.i4M..Mi ^uii4 vva.0 a uuA pcisoua, to entrust (a thing) to any person. 
«Hi.Mi ... 4(.. (i|^u;i^. to contido I'm any one. 

■ %H«.i:i.%. y , iSj^iu^. ^ ,^ ut |>4rtv. to confine (any one) to such a place. 

.v,»iiiui. , v>,^si.ia* V*. Kiuucia. v^oain) to border oh France. 

. *s».i: .M.4I M' .* »u uicLtuK'u. to be confirmed in one's opinion. 

»•.•»'. .«a. M? . .-*, ^i uom^v. to conform oneself to times, 

v.. %»,.*4» . v... *t, .unusou. conformable to his opinion. 

.%» u.,.. I- ,., i.^^u ,^», jj, confront with any one. 

*'*' '**•*• '*■ ^ "*'•»* * ^'* « ' '"^'N ot: X. to compare (one thing) with another. 

v.. i»..oi:^: .^ .,, ^^„^, ^. ^^,^ ^ ^ confounded at what one sees. 

'■■ ^•*»''-^- ■• Mi^ u;viv»*. to b< undecided in one's judgment. 

o..^* av,*. ... ^^„ ,^,^ j^ j^ congenial to any one. 

"*'*■*** • *■ ^ " •' '• *»• to iugraliato oneself into another's fa- 

vour. 

^^■r.-v.»»..i.^' ... .s^,u,^. i^ congratulate oneself wUh one's 

own people, 

v.... ..u.*.w ., * Avv^vi.^ t.»cou^rjitulate oneself »po.i anything. 

. .,x....^. ^4.^^^. . 'V. . v.M-iji*. W conjecture (^anything) /rom signs. 

* ^*1»*' 'M^.AxN^Jk, '^"^^^^^^^Vju&T thing) /or another" 



AtnUDVL 



187 



coDDiular (un voto) fti otra com, 

consigrarae £ Dio«, 
conseotir en ilgo, 
coniolftne eon toi parientety 
conspirtr eonira aiguDo, 
conspinr en vn intento, 
GODitar (el todo) de partett 
constar por eacrito, 
consoltar d algaoo para vn cmpleo, 

cooaoltar eon letrados, 
conamnado en una facultad, 
contaminane con loa viciosos« 
oontamporixar con alguno, 
contender com, alguno, 
contender iobn alrana coaa> 
contenerse en am oDligacion« 
con t esta r d la preganta, 
contraer (also) d nn amnto, 
contrapesar (una cosa) eon otm, . 

oontraponer (una cosa) d otra» 
contrapuntane con algnno, 
contrapanttrae d§ palabras, 
contra vcnir d la ley. 
contribiiir d tal coaa, 
contribuir coh dinero« 
oonvalear de la enferroedad, 
conveocerse dtla raron, 
convenir am otro, 
oonvenir^A alguna cosa, 
cottversar eon alguno, 
cooversar en naterias de estado, 
convertir (la hacienda) en dinero, 
convertirae d Dies, 
oonvidar (4 algano) d comer, 
confidar (6 aignno) eon dinero, 
conridarae d ws trabqos, 
convoear d junta, 
oo-operar (con otro) d alguna cosa, 

corrersa de vetgnenza, 
correspooder d los beneficios, 
corresponderse eon los ami^, 
cotejar (la oopia) eon el original, 

crecer en virtodes, 
crecido de cuerpo, 
creer en Dies, 
creeiae de algnna cosa, 
cnchanelear en todo, 
cuidar de aigo, de alguno, 
culpar (4 uno) de omiso, 

complir con alguno, 

cumplir con su obligacion, 
conrse de alcuaa enfermedad, 
cnrarse en saJud, 
cnrtirse ml a jre, 
curtido del sol. 



to commute (one wish) into another 
thing. 

to consecrate oneself to God. 
^to agree to something. 

to console oneself with one's relations. 

to conspire againtt any one. 

to enter into a conspirac^r* 

(the whole) to be comprised in parts. 

to appear in writing. 

to apply to any one for an employ- 
ment. 

to consult with the learned. 

skilled in any faculty. 

to be contaminated hy the vicious. 

to temporize with any one. 

to contend with any one. 

to contend about any thing. 

to hold to one's contract. 

to answer to the question. 

to apply (something) to a subject. 

to counterpoise (one thing) with an- 
other. 

to put (one thing) against another. 

to wrangle with another. 

to wrangle with words. 

to trans{;res8 against the law. 

to contnbute to such a thing, 

to contribute money. 

to recover ^rom illness. 

to be convinced of what is right. 

to agree with another. 

to agree upon something. 

to converse with any one. 

to converse on state affairs. 

to convert (the property) tnta money. 

to be converted to God. 

to invite (any one) to dine. 

to offer (money) to any one. 

to offer one's services in any work. 

to convene an assembly. 

to co-operate (with another) in any 
thins. 

to blush from shame. 

to be grateful for kindnesses. 

to correspond with friends. 

to compare (the copy) with the ori- 
ginal. 

to increase in virtues. 

grown in stature. 

to believe in God. 

to be convinced of any thing. 

to intermeddle in every thing. 

to take care of any thing— o/ any body. 

to blame (any one) for being negli- 
gent. 

to discharge one's duty lowarde any 
one. 

to comply wUh one's duty. 

to be cured of any disorder. 

to recover one's health. 

to be browned by the air. 

tanned by th« a^n. 



1«8 



APFBKDIXi 



Dar (also) d alguno, 
dar (d alguDo) de palos, 
dar de bianco, 
dar en maoias, 
dar par visto, 
darse d estudiar, 
darse al diantre, 
dane por vencido, 
deber (dinero) a alguoo, 
decir (algo) d otro, 
decir (bien) con una cosa, 

decir (bien) de alguno, 
declararse d alguno, 
declararsepor un partido, 
declinar d, hdeia, tal parte, 
declinar en bajesa, 
dedicar (tiempo^ al estudio, 
dedicarse d la virtud, 
defender (4 uno) de sus contiarios. 



D. 

To give (something) to zny bodj« 

to beat (any one) %irith a stick. 

to hit the mark. 

to be given to extravaganciea* 

to suppose any thing seen. 

to apply oneself to study. 

to despair. 

to surrender. 

to owe (money) to any one. 

to tell (something) to another. 

one thing to agree (well) with an- 

other, 
to speak (well) of any one. 
to declare oneself io any body, 
to decide in/avotir of any party, 
to lean on such a side, 
to incline to meanness, 
to devote (time) to study, 
to dedicate oneself to virtue. ^ 
to defend (any body) from hU adver- 

saries. 



deferir (al parecer) de otro, ^ to adopt another's opinion, 

defraudar (algo) de la autorldad de to detract (something) /rom aaotiier'i 



otro, 

degenerar de su nacimiento, 
delante de alguno, 
delatarse al juez« 
deleytarse con la vista, 
deleytarse eii oir, 
deliberar tobre tal cosa, 
dentro de casa, 
depender de alguno, 
deponer (4 alguno) de su empleo. 

depositar (algo) en alguna parte, 
derivar de otra autoriuad, 
derren^ar de alguna cosa, 
desabnrse con alguno, 
desabrocharse con alguno, 
desagradecido d algun beneficio. 



authority, 
to degenerate /rom one's birth, 
before any body, 
to accuse oneself fo a judge, 
to be delighted at seeing, 
to be delighted at hearing^, 
to deliberate on such a thing, 
within doors, 
to depend upon any one. 
to remove (any one) /rom his empkj- 

ment. 
to deposit (any thing) in any plac^ 
to derive from another authority, 
to have an aversion /or any thing, 
to have a difference with any one. 
to unbosom onexelf to any one. 
ungrateful /or any kindness. 



desahogarse (con alguno) de su pena, to communicate one's grief to another. 



desapropiiarse de algo^ 
desavemrse &m alguno, 
desavenirse (uno) de otros, 
desayunarse de alguna noticia, 
descabezarse en, con, alguna cosa, 
descalabazarse en alguna cosa, 
descansar de la fatiga, 
descaniillar (a]go) de alguna cosa, 
descargarse de alguna cosa, 
descartarse de algun encargo, 
descender d los valles, 
descender de buen linage, 
descolgarse de, por, la muralla, 
descollar sobre otras, 
descomponerse con alguno, 
desconnar de alguno, 
desconocido d los beneficios, 
descontar (algo) J^alguna coaa. 



to deprive oneself of any thing. 

to disagree with any one. 

(some) to disacree u^itA others. 

to receive the first intelligence. 
I to apply oneself with vehemence to 
' any thing. 

to rest from fatigue. 

to break off a corner of any thing. 

to clear oneself /rom any thing. 

to excuse oneself /rom any charge. 

to descend to the valleys. 

to descend from a good family. 

to let oneself down the wall. 

to surpass others. 

to disagree with any one. 

to distrust any one. 

ungrateful for favours. 

to deduct (something) from anothef. 



ATfBMDIXt 



189 



descabrine eon alguno, 
descuidarse de, m, su obligacion, 
desdecir de su caricter, 
deadecine de lo dicho, 
desdenarse ds alguna cosa, 
desembarazane de estorboa, 
desembarcar de la nave, 
desembarcar en el puertb, 
deaenfireiiarae en yicioa, 
desertar de laa banderas, 
deaeaperar de la pretenaion, 
deafalcar (algo) de aJguna coaa, 

deag^ane de loa mootea, 
deahacene d trabajar, 
deahacene de alguna coaa, 
deahacerae en Uanto, 
deamentir d alguno, 
deamentir (una coaa) de otn, 
deanudarae de paaionea, 
deapedirae de aigiina coaa» 
deapelUurae de un monte, 
deapefiarae de an vicio en otro, 
deq>ertar d algono, 
deapertar del aueno, 
deapicarae de la ofensa, 
deapoblarae de gente, 
deapoaarae con alguno, 
deaprendene de algo, 
deapuea de llegar, de alguno, de tX- 

gunacoaa* 
deaqniciar (& algnno) de an poder, 
deaqnitarae de la p^raida, 
deaterrar (4 nnoj de au patria« 
destrizarae d Uorar, 
deatrizarae de enfado. 
deaveigonzane eon aiguno, 
dea?iarae del eamino, 
deanfirae per algo, 
detenerae en dificoltadea, 
determinarae d i^rtir, 
detraa de la igleaia, 
deyolrer (la caaaa) al iuez, 
dejar (ona manda) d algnno, 
de^ar de eacribir, 
dejar (algo) en manoa de otro, 

diferir (algo) d, para, otro tienpo, 
dignarae de conceder algo, 
dimanar (una coaa) de otra, 
diacernir (una coaa) de otra, 

diaguatarse de con algona coaa* 
dinner de loa bienea, 
diaponerae d caminar, 
diaputar de aobre alguna coaa, 
diaentir de otro dictamen, 
diatar (on pueblo) de otro, 
diatinguir (una coaa) de otra, . 

diatraene de, en, la converaacion. 



to diacloso oneself to any one. 

to neglect one's duty. 

to deviate /rom one's character. 

to retract what one has aaid. 

to diadain any thing. 

to get rid o/obataclea. 

to disembark /rom the ahip. 

to land in the harbour. 

to deliver one4ielf up to vices. 

to desert the coloura. 

to despair o/one'a pretenaiona. 

to take (aomething) away firom an- 
other. 

to fall from the mountaina. 

to work with anxiety. 

to get rid o/anj thing. 

to weep excessively. 

to contradict any one. 

(one thing) to be unlike another* 

to maater one'a paaaiona. 

to take leave o/any thing. 

to precipitate oneaelf .^''om amountain. 

to ruah from one vice into another. 

to awake any one. 

to awake /rom deep. 

to be revenged for an affront. 

to become depopulated. 

to be betrothed to any one. 

to get rid 0/ something. 

after arriving, after any one, after 
something. 

to deprive (any one) of hia power* 

to make up /or one'a loaa* 

to baniah (any one) /rom hia country* 

to conaume oneself wtt4 weeping. 

to consume oneaelf leith anger. 

to be inaolent to any body. 

to loae one'a way. 

to be anxioua abimt any thing. 

to be detained by difficultiea. 

to reaolve to depart. 

behind the church. 

to aend back (the cauae) to the judge. 

to bequeath (a legacy) to any one. 

to discontinue (or to nil) to write. 

to depoait (aomething) in another's 
hands. 

to defer (any thing) to another time. 

to condescend lo iprant any thing. 

(one thing)^ to apnng /rom another. 

to diatinguish (one thing) from an- 
other. 

to be diaguated with any thing. 

to diapoae 0/ property. 

to prepare oneaeif to travel. 

to diapute about any thing. 

to diasent /rom another's opinion. 

(one town) to be diatant/rom another. 

to distinguish (one thing) from an* 
other. 

to be absent in oonveraation. 



190 



AmifBlX« 



disuadir (& alguno) de alguna eota, 

dividir (una cosa) dt otra, 

dividir en partes, 

dividir entre muchoi, 

dividir por mitad, 

dolerse de los pecados, 

dotado de ciencia, 

dadar de alguDa cosa, 

durar ha$ta el invierno, 

durar por mucho tiempo, 

dure de corteza, 



Echar (algo) d, en, por, tierra, 
ecfaar olor de sf , 
elevarse d, hasta, el cielo, 
elevarse de la tierra, 
embarcarse en negocios, 
embobarse con, de, en, algona com, 
emboscarse en el monte» 
empaparse en ac«a, 
emparejar con aJgaDO, 
eraparentar con alguno, 
empenarse en una oosa, 
empeiiarse por alguno, 
emplearse en alguna cosa« 
enagenarse de alguna cosa, 
enamorarse de alguno, 
enamoricarse de algnno, 
encallar (la nave) en arena, 
encaminarse 4 alguna parte, 
encaramarse en, por, aobre^ la pared, 
encararse d, eon, alguno, 
encarganie de algun negocio, 
encas^uetarse (also) en la eabesa, 
encastiliarse en aQuna parte, 
cncojarse en, por, alguna parte, 
encenagarsc en vieios, 
encenderse en ira, 
encerrarse en su casa, 
encharcarse en agua, 
encomendarse d Dios» 
enconarse eon alguno, 
enfermar del pecno, 
enfrascarse en la disputa, 
engolfarse en cosas graves, 
ensreirse eon la fortuna, 
enlazar (alguna cosa) con otra, 
enmendarse eon la correeeion, 
enmendarse de, en, aJgunacosa, 
enredarse (una cosa ) con, en, otra, 
ensayarse d, para, alguna cosa, 
ensayarse en alguna cosa« 
entender de alguna cosa, 
entender en sus negodos, 
enterarse de alguna cosa^ 
enterarse en algun negocio, 
entrar en alguna parte, 
entregar (algo) & alguno, 
enUemetene en eons de otro, 



to dissuade (one) from any thingf 

to seiMurate (one tbtng) from anotheTi 

to divide into parts. 

to divide among many. 

to divide into halves. 

to grieve /or one*s sins. 

endowed toith learning. 

to doubt any things 

to last till winter. 

to last a long time. 

ef a hard eztcnor. * 

E. 

To throw (any thing) o» the groukb 

to exhale an odoar. 

to be exalted to the skies. 

to be elevated abeoe the earth. . 

to enter into business. 

to be stupified at any thieg* 

to be in ambush on a hill. 

to be drenched wUh rate er waltf • 

to be eoual to another. 

to be related to any one. 

to pledge oneself to do any thieg. 

to interest oneself /or an^r one. 

to be employed tn any thiny. 

lo alienate any thing. 

to be enamoured cf any oae. 

to be slightly in love with any oat. 

to run (a ship) on the sand. 

to direct one's oanrse towards any ptrt. 

to climb up the wall. 

to face any one. 

to take charge of any besioeas. 

to be stubborn in any thing. 

to fortify oneself in any place. 

to thrust oneself into any place. 

to wallow in vice. 

to be inflamed with anger. 

to shut oneself up at home. 

to paddle in water. 

to commend oneself to God. 

to be irritated vrith any one. 

to be diseased tn the breast. 

to be warm in dispute. 

to be absorbed in important things. 

to be elated with fortune. 

to bind (one thing) to another. 

to amend by correctioo. 

to correct oneself tn any thing. 

to entangle (one thing) tcith another* 

to learn any thing. 

to become expert in any thing. 

to understand any ihvoig. 

to understand one's business. 

to be well informed of aay thing. 

to acquaint oneself with any business. 

to enter any part. 

to deliver (something) to any one. 



APPBNDIX* 



191 



enviar (algo) 4 tlgnno, 

equivocarse (ana oosa) eon otra, 

•quivocarse en alc[o, 

escaparse de la prision, 

escaparse par la ventana, 

escarmentar de, con, alguna com, 

escarmentar en cabeza agena* 

esconderse en alguna parte» 

esconderse de alguno, 

escaso de mediosi 

eacribir (cartas) d algnno, 

escttlpir en bronce, 

esmerarse en alguna cosa, 

espantarse de algo, 

estan^Mr en papel, 

estar d la 6raen de otro, 

estar de viage, 

estar en al^na parte* 

estar en &mino de, 

estar en lo que se bace, 

estar para salir, 

estar (algana cosa) par snceder, 

estrecharse con alguno, 

estrecbarse en los gaslos, 

estrellane eon algaao, 
I 

estrellarse tm, oontrm, alguna cosa, 
estribar en alguna cosa, 
esceder (una cosa) d otra, 



to send ^somethin^) to any one. 

to mistake (one thing) for another. 

to mistake in any thing. 

to escape from prison. 

to escape through the window. 

to take warning from any thing. 

to take warning at another's expense* 

to hide oneself in any place. 

to hide /rom any one. 

limited in means. 

to vrrite (letters) to any one. 

to engrave in bronze. 

to aim at eminence in anjr thing. 

to be frightened at any thing. 

to print on paper. 

to De under another's orders. 

to be on a voyage or journey. 

to be in any place. 

to have a mind for. 

to understand what is doin^. 

to be on the point of departing. 

(something) to be about to take place* 

to become intimate with any one. 

to reduce one's expenses. 

to speak harshly to, or to oppose any 
one. 

to dash agaimt any thing. 

to rest on any thing. 

^one thing) to exceed another, 
esceder (una canti^ad) tn mil reales, (an amount) to exceed (another) by a 

thousand reals, 
esceptuar (4 alguno) de alguna cosa, to except (any one) from any thing, 
escluir (& alguno) d§ alg ana parte 6 to exclude (any one) from any place 

cosa, or thin^. 

escusarsa eoii alguno, to apologize to any one. 

escusarse de haeer alguna cosa, to excuse oneself /rom doing any thing, 

eshortar (k alguno) d tal cosa, to exhort (any one) to such a thing, 

esimir (k alguno) de alguna oosa, to exempt (any one) /rom any thing. 
eM>nerar (k alguuo) cU ra tmpko, to dismiss (any one) from his employ- 
ment, 
espeler (k alguno) de algnna parte, to expel (any one) from any plate, 
esperto en las artes, skilled in the arts, 

estraer (una cosa) de otra, to extract (one thing)/rom another, 

estraviarse de la carrera, to go out o/ one's course, or to devlats 

from one's purpose. 



F&cil de digerir, 

faltar d la palabra, 

faltar de alguna parte, 

falto de juicio, 

fastidiaree de ma^jares, 

fatigarse de, en, por, alguna oosa, 

favorable d, wim, alguno, 

favoreceise de alguno, 

fiarse de, en, alguno, 

fiar (algo) d alguno, 

fiel a, eon, sus amigos, 

fgar ^algo) en la pared, 

flecsiUe d la raion, 

flactuar en, emtte, dudas, 



J. 

Easy to digest. 

to fail in one's word. 

to be absent /rom any place. 

to be deficient in judgment. 

to loathe food. 

to fatigue oneself afrouC any thing. 

favourable to any one. 

to avail oneself o/ any one. 

to confide in any one. 

to trust (any thing) to any one. 

faithful to one's fnends. 

to fix (any thing) againtt the walL 

flexible to reason. 

to fluctuate in doubts* 



19S 



imiiMz. 



fortificane en dgunt iwrte, to fortify oneself tn any plaee. 

franqiieane tf » eon, amino, to open oneself to any one. 

fri8ar(anapenona, oco8a)(Mmotra, (one person or thing) (o reieiatt 

another, 
fuera de case, out of doors, 

fnerte de condicion, of a lofty temper, 

fnndarse en razon, to be founded on reason. 



G. 



Girar (una letra) d cargo de otro. 



girar de una parte d otra, 

girar por tal parte, 

girar sobre una casa de comercio, 

gloriarse de alguna cosa, 

gordo de talle, 

gozar de alguna cosa, 

g^duar (una cosa) de* por, buena, w i#ivuwuuv« »«/ umu^ ^wv*^ 

grangear(la voluntad) d, de, alguno, to gain any one's mfiections. 

guardarse (alguno) de alguna cosa, to guard araintt any person. 



To draw (a bill) to the order of an- 
other, 
to reel about, 
to turn on such a side* 
to draw vpon a commercial hoasti 
to boast o/any thing •* 
o/a stout figure, 
to enjoy any thing. ^ 
to pronounce any thing good, 



guarecerse de alguna persona, 

cosa, 
guarecerse en alguna parte, 
guamecer (una cosa) con, de, otra, 
guiado de alguno, 
guiarse por alguno, 
guindarse por la pared, 
gustar de alguna cosa. 



to take shelter from any pcnon ir 

thing, 
to take shelter in any place, 
to deck one thing lott^ another* 
led bjf any one. 
to guide oneself by any one. 
to descend by the wall, 
to relish any thing. 



Hibil en papeles, 

hfibil- para el empleo, 

habilitar (k uno) en, para, alguna 
cosa, 

habitar con alguno, 

habitar en tal parte, 

habituarse d, en, alguna cosa, 

hablar con, por, alguno, 

habl^ de, en, sobre, alguna cosa, 

hablar en griego, 

hacer de valiente, 

hacer para sf , 

hacer por alguno, 

hacerse d toao, 

hacerse con buenos libros, 

hallar (alguna cosa) en tal parte, 

hallarse d, en, la fiesta, 

hartarse de comida, 

henchir (el c&ntaro) de a^a, 

herir {d alguno) en la estimacion, 

herido de la injuria, 

hermanar (una cosa) con otra, 

liervir (un lugar) de, en, gente, 

hincarse de rodillas, 

hocicar en alguna cosa, 

holgarse con, de, alguna cosa, 

huir de alguna persona 6 cosa, 
J^amanarse d alguna cosa, 
i^amaoaj'se con los inferiores. 



H. 

Skilful m docoments. 

qualified /or the employment. 

to enable any body to oo may thiof. 

to dwell with any body. 

to dwell in such a place. 

to habituate oneself to any thing* 

to speak with or for any one. 

to speak on any thing* 

to talk unintelligibly. 

to pretend to courage* 

to do /or oneself. 

to do /or anyone. 

to be ready at anj thing. 

to furnish oneself witfc good books* 

to find (something) in such a place. 

to be present at the feast. 

to cram oneself untik food. 

to fill (the pitcher) with water. 

to hurt any one's i«patation, 

wounded by calumny. 

to match (one thing) with another* 

(a town) to be very pi^uUma. 

to kneel down. 

to stumble againet any thing. 

to rejoice at any thing. 

to fly from any person or thing. 

to familiarize oneself with any thiot* 

\o \>^ cQ\v^«K«BA«ii^tis infierion* 



AMmiM)^ 



103 



humillane d njgiiiia penoaa 6 ooia, to humble oneself to- any person or 

thing. 
handir (alguna cosa) en el tgvii^ to sink (any thing) in the water, 
hundirse en un p&ntano, to sink tnto a bog* 



I. 



Id6neo para alguna cosa, 

igual d, con, otto, 

ignal 011 fuerzas, 

igualar (una cosa) d, am, otra, 

imbuir (k alguno) de, en, alguna 

cosa, 
impelido de la necesidad, 
impenetrable d los mas perqpicaces, 
impenetrable en el secrete, 
impetrar (algo) de alguno, 
implicarse con, en, alguna oosa, 
imponer (pena) d alguno, 
imponerse en alguna cosa, 

importar d alguno, 
importunado de, por, otro, 
im^rtunar (& alguno) eon preten- 

siones, 
impresionar (& alguno) contra otro, 
impresionar (& alguno) de, en, al- 
guna cosa, 
impriniir (alguna cosa) en el &nimo, 
impropio ae, en, para, su edad, 
impugnado de, por, muchos, 
imputar (la culpa) d otro, 
inaccesible d los pretendientes, 
inapeable de su opioioo, 
incansable en el trabajo, 
incapaz de remedio, 
incesante en sus tareas, 
incidir en culpa, 
inciter (4 alguno) d su defense, 
incitar (k alguno) contra otro, 
inclinar (k alguno) d la yirtud, 
incluir en el n6mero, 
incompatible con el mando, 
incomprehensible d los hombres, 
inconsecuente en alguna cosa, 
inconstante en su proceder, 
incofporar (una cosa) d, con, en otra, 

increible d, pm, muchos, 
incumbir (una cosa) d algimo, 
incurrir en delitos, 
indeciso en resoWer, 
indignarse con, contra, alguno, 
indisponer (k uno) eon otro, 
inducir (k alguno) d pecar, 
inductive de error, 
indultar (k alguno) de la pena, 
infatigable en el trabajo, 
infecto de heregf a, 
inferior d otro, 
inferior tn alguna eosa» 



Fit /or any thing. 

equal to another. 

equal tn strength. 

to make one thiog equal to another. 

to instruct (any one) in any thing. 

impelled by necessity. 

impenetrable to the most discerning. 

impenetrable in the secret. 

to obtain Tany thing) of any one. 

to be involved in any thing. 

to impose (a penalty) on any one. 

to make oneself acquainted with any 
thing. 

to concern any one. 

importuned by another. 

to importune (any one) toith preten- 
sions. 

to impress (any one) against another. 

to impress any thing on any one. 

to impress (any thing) on the mind, 
improper for his age. 
impugned by manv. 
to impute (the fault) to another, 
inaccessible to the pretenders, 
obstinate iu his opinion, 
unwearied in labour, 
incapable o/ remedy, 
indefatigable tn one's labours, 
to fall into an error, 
to incite (any^one) to his defence, 
to incite (any one) against another, 
to incline (anj^one) to virtue, 
to include tn the number, 
incompatible with the command, 
incomprehensible to men. 
to be wavering in a thing, 
inconstant in his proceeding, 
to incorporate (one thing) trit^ an- 
other, 
incredible to man^^. 
to impose (any thing) on any one. 
to fall into crimes, 
undecided in resolution, 
to be indignant at any one, 
to set (one person) agaimt another. 
to tempt (any one) to sin. 
productive o/ error. 
to remit the punishment o/any one. 
indefatigable in labour, 
infected with heresy, 
inferior to another, 
inferior in something. 



194 



IPPBKDIZ. 



ioferir (vna com) de,for, otn. 
inficionado de pestc, 
in6el m m amigo, 
inflecsible d la razon, 
inflecsible ra su dict&men, 
influir en alcuna coia. 



to infer (one thing) /rvM another. 
infected with the pla^pie. 
nnfaithfal to one's fnend. 
inflexible to reason, 
inflexible in one's opinion, 
to have influence in any thing. 



informar (a algono) de, tobre, al- to infoim (any one) of any thing. 

gunacoaa* 
inhindir (Animo) d,en, algnno, to encourage any one. 

ingrato d los beneficios» ungrateful far favours, 

incrato con los amigos, un|rateful to friends, 

innabil para el empleo, unfit /or the employment, 

inhabilitar (4 alguno) para alguna to unfit one /or any thing. 

cosa, 
iohibir al juez de, en, el conoci- to prevent the judge fnm taking oog- 



miento, 
insensible 6 las injurias, 
inseparable de la virtud, 
insertar una cosa en otra, 
insinuar (una cosa) d alguno,. 
iosinuarse con los poderoaos, 

insjpido al gusto, 

insistir en, tobre, alguna cosa, ' 

inspirar (alguna cosa) d alguno, 



nizance. 
insensible to injuries, 
inseparable /roin virtue, 
to insert one thing in another. 
to insinuate (any thing) to any one. 
to insinuate oneself into the favov ef 

thegreaL 
insipid to the taste, 
to insist on any thing, 
to inspire (any thing) in any one. 



instrair (4 alguno) de, en, tobre to instruct (any one^ m any thing, 
alguna cosa. 



interceder con alguno, por otro, 
interceder por otro, con alguno, 
interesarse con alguno, por otro, 

interesarse por otro, con alguno, 

interesarse en alguna cosa, 
intemarse con alguno^ 

intemarse en alguna cosa 6 lugar, 
interpolar (unas cosas) con otras. 



to intercede with any one, far another, 
to intercede for another, with any one. 
to interest oneself with any one, lor 

another, 
to interest oneself for another with 

any one. 
to interest oneself m any thing, 
to insinuate oneself into anotbei^s 

favour, 
to look into any thing or place* 
to mingle (some things) uith othos. 



interponer (su autoridad) con alguno, to interpose (one's authority) uttfc 

any one. 



intervenir en las cosas,'' 
intervenir par alguno, 
intioducirse con los que mandan, 

introducirse en, pvr, alguna paite, 

invadido de, pw, los contranos, 

invemar en tal parte, 

invertir (el caudal) en otro uso, 

ingerir (un &rbo]) en otro, 

ir (de Madrid) d, hdcia Cadii, 

ir contra alguno, 

ir por el camino, 

ir por pan, 

ir tras alguno. 



to intervene in things. 

to interfere for apy one. 

to introduce oneself to the ■ ooffl- 

manders. 
to introduce oneself mto any place. 
invaded by the enemies, 
to pass the winter in such a place, 
to invest (money) /or another use. 
to ingraft (one tree) on another, 
to go (from Jiladrid) towards Cadiz, 
to go against any body, 
to go bjf the road, 
to go /or bread, 
to go after any one. 



Jactarse de alguna cosa, 
Jugar d tal juego, 
jugar (uDos) con otros. 



J. 



To boast of any thing. 
Vo pVa.^ at %\\cV!L «^ %ame. 
to pXa*^ wUiK «aj^ vfibm. 



JDuUr (una «au) i caa«tn, 
juitiGeana lb «]|an cat|s, 
itwpa d* ilfuu con. 



Lajlear (una com) d tnl parte, 
ideant (ilgono) if olro pirtido, 
lamentarat dt la desjracta, 
laniar (sigo) J, «mini, alpino. 
largo de caerpo, 






1 ...^ ,. 

laitimaned*algo, 

Jeer ( (oa jKHMmientos) i algnna, 

Icfantai ([a> manos) al ciclo, 
levantar (aiguna posa) dri ratio, 
leTantar falgaoa cow) en alio, 
Ubertar (4 algano) de peligro, 
librar (k alguoo) dt neagns, 
lidiar nm alguno, 
ligar(ODa.«,si.),,„o.ra. 
Iigero rfe piei, 

tuiuU[(luracultades)'J alguno 
luBtlado dc tiUntas, 
jindiu (una posenon) om otra, 
jleyai (algo) j atguna pane, 
UcTarK de aiguna pogion, 
luchar cvn alguno, 
lodir (una con) coa olra, 



To lean (anj thing; m »urh a lide. 
(anr one) to aide mt\ another party, 
to lanwat the misfbrtnoe. 

J^,^art^(^aiiy thing) at any OM. 

fraoli, liberal. 

to hurt oneMirvif&aatoo*. 

to take pily on any thing. 

lo read any one's thou this. 

far/r™ the land. 

to raise (ona'ibandi) lo heaven. 

to raise (any thingj/rum the ground, 

to iitt (any thing) on high. 

to MMue (any one) from danger. 

to delirer (anjonel/fomriik. 

to dispute ictii any one. 

to bind [one thing) with another. 

light-footed. 

to limit an; one'i faculties. 

o/liraited talents. 

(one estite) to adjoin anolhei, 

to curry (something) id any place, 

to be led away tty some passion. 

to contend iriih any one. 

tn rub (one Uiing) agaisit another. 



manar (agua) dt UM fuente. 



mandar (aiguna cosa) J alguno, 
manifastar (aiguna cosa) i alguDO, 
mantener (lonveraacion) i alguiM, 

namriBar taxtra alguuo, 

mmrillaiM it ■Igmui com, 

nu i* dan due»doi, 

■utatM t tnbajar, 

matuw par coiuegnir aiguna coaa, 



nedirse en pal a bias, 

mejorar de entpleo. 
raejorar (i alguno) < 
quinto. 



To incur the hatred DTiny one. 

(^aterl to spring/^™ a fountain, 
maimed o/ooe hand. 
to aiwciate oneself uiM otheii. 
to send |any thing) to any nnp. 
to disclose (any thing) In anyone. 
to catTT on a conversation ioith any 

lo maintain oneself on heibs. 

to keep ooeselfi'i peace. 

toplot..g«inilanyooe. 

to wondet at any thing. 

more ihan a hundred ciucata. 

to kill aaeself mitk work. 

lo kill oneself in the puraait of any 

thing, 
to embelliib wtCi colouri. 
of middling stature, 
to intercede /or any one. 
to mediate brlvren adversaries, 
to act according to ono's strength, 
to weigh one's words. 



to better aoolhet one's fori 
nitdet ftg«, in ^tratttf". 



196 



APPBKDTX. 



m^DOs de cien ducadof , 

merecer d, de alguno, 

mesurane m lai acciooest 

meter (dinero) en el cofre^ 

meter (4 alguno) en empeno, 

meter (una cosa) entre otras cosas, 

meteree d gobernar, 

meterse d caballero, 

meterse con los que mandan, 

meterse en los peligros, 

mezclar (una cosa J con otra, 

mezclarse en negocios, 

mirar (la ciudad) d oriente, 

mirar por alguno, 

mirarse en suguna cosa, 

moderarse en las palabras, 

mofarse de alguno, 

moiar (alguna cosa) en agua, 

molerse d trabajar, 

molido de andar, 

molestar (4 uno) con visitas, 

molesto d todos, 

moQtar d caballo, 

montar en mula, 

montar en c61era, 

morar en poblado, 

morir de poca edad, 

mon'r de enfermedad, 

morirse de frio, 

morirse por lograr alguna cosa, 

motejar (4 alguno) </« ignorante, 

motivar (la providencia) con razones, 

moverse de una parte d otra, 

muchos de los presentes, 

mudar (alguna cosa) d otra parte, 

mudar de intento, 
mudarse de casa, 
murmurar de alguno. 



less than a bandied ducatSsi 

to deserve tf/any one. 

to be cautions in one's actions. 

to put ^ money) Mtrthe cheat. 

to lay Tany one) undtr an oUigstioo. 

to put (one tbing) aHMng other tbingk 

to assume the government. 

to affect the gentleman. 

to interfere vith those who govern. 

to expose oneself to dangers. 

to mix (one thing) vtiih another. 

to interfere in business. 

(the city) to look to the east. 

to look for any one. 

to be careful in any thing. 

to be moderate in words. 

to mock any one. 

to wet (any thins) m water. 

to fatigue oneself wt'tfc work. 

fatigued with walking. 

to molest (any one) with visits. 

annoying to every one. 

to get on horseback. 

to get on a mule. 

to get into a rage. 

to live in a town. 

to die young. 

to die (^ disease. 

to die /rom cold. 

to pine after any thing. 

to censure (any one) as ignorant. 

to persuade (a measure) oy reasons' 

to move from one place to another. 

many of the present. 

to remove (any thing) to another 

place, 
to change one's purpose, 
to remove to another boose, 
to murmur against any one. 



N. 



Nacer con fortuna, 

nacer (alguna cosa) de alguna parte, 

nacer en las malyas, 

nacer para trabajos, 

nadar en el rio, 

navegar d Indias, 

negarse d la comunicacion, 

nimio en su proceder, 

ninguno de los presentes, 

nivelarse d lo justo, 

nombrar (k alguno) para el empleo, 

notar (4 alguno) de hablador, 
notificar (alguna cosa) d alguno, 



To be born to a fortune, 
(something) to spring /roM any part. 
to be of low origin, 
to be born to troubles, 
to swim in the river, 
to navigate to the Indies, 
to refuse intercourse, 
particular in one's conduct, 
none of the present, 
to abiae by what is just, 
to name (any one) for the employ- 
ment, 
to set one down fot* a prattler, 
to notify (any thing) to any one. 



Obligar (4 alguno) d alguna cosii, 
obstar (una. cosa) d otra, 
obstinarse en alguna cosa, 
obtener (alguaa giracia) de alguno, 



O. 

to compel (one) to any thing. 

(one thin^) to oppose another. 

to pen>\al In. ^ni uCvGk.%. 

to oblaAH (,«iirj ivnwx'^ franv ws^ ^'^a. 



4PPBMDIZ. 



oeolUr (alguna cosa) d, de, algnno, 
ocuparae en tralMJar, 
ofenderse con, de, alguna cosa, 
•frecer (algana coia) d algnno, 
ofrecerae tf los peligroa, 
oler (una cosa) d otra, 
olvidane de lo pasado, 
opinar en, tobre, algnoa con, 
oprimii (k alguno) etm el poder, 
optar k loa empleos, 
ordenane de sacerdote, 
orillar d alguna parte, 



197 

to conceal (any thing) from any one. 

to be occupied at work. ^ 

to be offended at any thing. 

to offer (any thing) to any one. 

to face danger. 

(one thing) to smell like another. 

to forget the past. 

to hold an opinion on any thing. 

to oppress (another) 6y means 0/ power. 

to be a candidate. ^ 

to be ordaioed a priest. 

to draw to any side. 



Pactar (algnna cosa) eon otro, 
pagar con palabras, 
pagar en dineio, 
pairarw de baenas razones, 
pahulearse eon algnna cosa» 
paliar (alguna cosa) eon otra, 
p&lido de semblante, 
palmear d al^no, 

parar d la puerta, 

parar en casa, 

pararse d descansar, 

paraise eon alguno, 

pararse en alguna cosa, 

parco en la comida, 

parecer en alguna parte, 

parecerse d otro, 

participar (algo) d alguno, 

partiapar <2e alguna cosa, 

paiticnlarizarse con alguno, 

paiticalarizarse en alguna cosa, 

partir d Italia» 

partir (algo) eon otro, 

partir en pedazos, 

partir entre amigos, 

partir por mitad, 

partir por entero, 

partirse de Espana, 

pasar d Madnd, 

pasar de Sevilla, 

pasar entre niontes, 

pasar por el camino, 

pasar por entre ^rboles, 

pasar por cobarde, 

pasar (alguna cosa) de la memoria, 

pasarse la fruta de madura, 

pasarse alguno de letras, 

pasearse eon otro, 

pasearse por el campo, 

pecar contra la ley, 

pecar de ignorante, 

pecar en algnna cosa, 

pecar con' c[eHiasla, 

pedir (alguna cosa) d alguno, 

pedir con justicia, 

pedir contra aljpino, 

peiir de )ustlcia, 



P. 

Tobargain(forsomething)iint/i anyone. 

to pay lottn words. 

to pay in cash. 

to be satisfied with good reasons. 

to please the palate with any thing. 

to palliate (one thing) with another. 

of a, pale complexion. 

to applaud any one by clapping 

hands, 
to stop at the door, 
to stay at home, 
to stay to take rest, 
to stop with any one. 
to stop at any thing, 
sparing at meals, 
to appear in any place, 
to resemble another. ^ 
to participate (any thing) to any one. 
to partake o/any thing, 
to be singular with any one. 
to signalize oneself in any thing, 
to set out for Italy, 
to divide (an^r thing) tott^ another, 
to divide in pieces, 
to share between friends, 
to divide by halves, 
to divide m two numbers, or by tens, 
to depart /rom Spain, 
to go to Madrid. 
to go /rom or beyond Seville, 
to pass between the mountains. 
to go by the road, 
to pass between trees, 
to pass /or a coward, 
(any thing) to escape the memory, 
truit to be over ripe, 
to excel fin learning, 
to take a walk with another, 
to walk in the country, 
to sin against the law, 
to sin through iterance, 
to sin in any thing, 
to sin by excess, 
to ask (any thing) of any one. 
to ask tott^ justice, 
to bring an action agaitut an^ qua* 
to claim hn law. 



198 



JlFFBimlX. 



pedir en justicia, 
pedir por l)io5, 
pedir par algano, 
pe^ar ^una cosa) i otrt, 
pciiv (una cosa) rmi otra, 
pegar cntra, en, la pared, 
pelarse j>or alguna cosa, 
peligrar en al^ona cosa, 
pelotetrse (an algano, 
penar m la otra vida, 
penar pt^r alguna persona u cosa, 
pender de alguna cosa, 

penetrar hagta las entranas. 
penetrado de dolor, 
pensar fn, tobre, alguna cosa, 
perder (algo) de visu, 
perderse (alguno) de vista, 

perderse en el camino* 

perecer de hambre, 

peiecerse</<n8a» 

perecerse par alsuna cosa, 

peregrinar par el mundo, 

perfomar eon incienso, 

permanecer en alguna parte, 

pcrmitir (alguna cosa) tf alguno, 

permutar (una cosa) con, par, otra, 

perseguido de enemi^os, 

perseverar en algun intento, 

persuadir (alguna cosa) d alguno. 

persuadirse d alguna cosa, 

persuadirse de, par, las razones de to be persuaded 6y aiiother's raaaoas. 

ctro, 
pertenecer (una cosa) d alguno, (any tliin|[) to belong t# any one. 

petrecharse de lo necesario, to be provided with nepesaaiies. 

pesarle (k alguno) de lo que ha (any one) to be sorry ^ what he bv 

hecho, done, 

pesado en la conyersacion, tiresome in conversation, 

pescar con red, to fish mth a net. 

piar par alguna cosa, to whine /or any thing, 

picar de, en, todo, to pretend to excel in every thing, 

picarse de alguna cosa, to be offended at any thing, 

pintiparado d iJguno, stronglv resembling any one. 

plagarse de sranos, to be plagued with pimples. 

plantar (k alguno) en alguna parte, to set ^any one) in any place. 



to sue by law. 

to beg /or God's sak«. 

to ask far any one. 

to attach (one thing) to aoocher. 

to join (one thimt) to another. 

to fasten against tne waU. 

to be anxious about any thing. 

to be in danger in any th^. 

to scuffle with any one, 

to be punished in a ftitvre life. 

to suffer /or any peraon or tiling. 

to depend upon, or to hang from any 

thing, 
to penetrate into the bowels, 
penetrated with grief, 
to think on any tiling, 
to lose sight of any thing, 
(any one) to excel m tn ewacat 

degree, 
to lose one's way. 
to perish with hunger, 
to die with laughing, 
to die /or any thing, 
to wander about the world, 
to perfume with incense* 
to remain in any place, 
to permit (any thin^) to any one. 
to exchange (one thing) /or another, 
pursued by enemies, 
to persevere in any intention. 
to persuade any one (of any thing), 
to be persuaded of any thing. 



plantarse en C6dix, 

poblar de drboles, 

poblar en buen parage, 

poblarse de gente, 

ponderar (una cosa) de grande, 

poner (k uno) d oficio, 



to settle m Cadb. 

to fill with trees. 

to settle tn a good spot or sitiatioD. 

to be peopled. 

to exaggerate any thing. 

to set up (anv one) m trade. 



poner (alguna cosa) en alguna parte, to pot (any thing) somewhere, 
poner (k alguno) par corregidor, to appoint (any one) a corregidor 



ponerse d escribir, 
porfiar con aleuno, 
portarse con decencia, 
posar en alguna parte, 
poseido de temor, 
postrado de la enferroedad, 
postrane d los pies de alguno, 



to sit oneself down to write. 

to persist with any one. 

to behave with decency. 

to put up oi any place. 

possessed by fear. 

weakened by disease. 

lo '^TosVnAft oimsmM ai %<u.«dier*s feeu 



Af¥Elt9lX. 



199 



poitnrse m cama, 

pMtnne en tiem, 

precedido de otro, 

preciane d€ Taliente. 

predpitane de, per, alguaa parte, 

preferido 4 otro, 

preferido de algnno, 

preguntar (alguna coaa) d alguno, 

prendarse de alguno, 

prender (las plantas) en la tierra, 

preocnpane de alguna GOBa» 

preparane dfptara, alguna cosa, 
preponderar (iina cota) d otra, 
preaentar (alguaa cota) d alguno. 



to be confined to one's bed. 

to prostrate oneself oh the earth. 

preened by another. 

to boast of courage. 

to precipitate oneself /rvm any place. 

preferred to another. 

preferred by any one. 

to ask (any thing) o/any one. 

to be taken with any one. 

(plants) to take root in the earth. 

to be prepossessed in favour of any 

thing, 
to prepare oneself /or any thing, 
(one thing) to overbalance another, 
to present (any thing) to any one. 



preaentar (& uno) para una prebenda, to prefer (one) to a prebendary. 



presenrar (4 alguno) de dano, 
presidir d otros, 
presidir en un tribunal, 
presidido de otro, 
prestar (dinero) d alguoo, 
prestar (la dieta) para la salud, 
prestar tobre prenaa, 
preaumir de docto. 



to preserve (any one) from injury, 
to preside over others, 
to preside in a tribunal, 
presided over by another, 
to lend (money) to any one. 
(the diet) to contribute to the health, 
to lend on security, 
to boast o/ learning. 



prevalecer (la verdad) lobre la men* (truth) to prevail over falsehood. 
tira. 



prevettir (alguna cosa) d alguno, 
prerenirse de lo necesario, 
prevenirse para un viage, 
piimero de, entre, todos, 
priagane «fi alguna cosa, 
privar (4 alanno) de lo suyo, 
priTar eon alguno, 
piobar d saltar, 
prober de todo, 
proceder d la eleccion, 
prooeder con, nn, acuerdo, 

proceder contra alguno, 
proceder (una cosa) de otra, 
procesar (4 uno) jvor delitos, 

procurar p«r alguno, 
proejar contra las olas, 
profesar «n religion, 

promoter (alguna cosa) d alguno, to promise (any thing) to any one. 
promover (4 alguno) d algun encargo, to promote (any one) to any employ- 
ment. 
propasarae d, en, alguna cosa, to overstep oneself in any thing. 

proponer (alguna cosa) d alguno, to propose (any thing) to any one. 
proponer (4 alguno) en primer lugar, to propose (any one) Tor the first place, 
proporcionar (a alguno) para alguna to adapt (any one) /or any thing. 
cosa. 



to warn (any one) o/any thing. 

to provide oneself with necessaries. 

to prepare for a journey. 

first o/ all. 

to interfere in any thing. 

to dei)rive (one) of his own. 

to be intimate vnth any one. 

to try to leap. 

to taste o/ every thing. 

to proceed to the election. 

to proceed with, without circumspec- 
tion. 

to proceed against any one. 

(one thing^ to proceed /rom another. 

to proceed against (any one) for 
crimes. 

to procure /or any one. 

to row against the waves. 

to profess in religion. 



proporciooarse d las fuerzas, 
proporcionarae wtm alguna cosa, 
prolongar (el puuso) d alguno, 

prorrumpir en 14grimas, 
proveer (la plaza) de vfveres, 
proveer (el empleo) en alguno, 
provenir de otra cosa. 



to limit oneself to one's strength. 

to fit oneself /or any thing. 

to prolong (the stipulated time) for 

any one. 
to burst into tears. 

to supply (the fortress) with provisions, 
to confer (a situation) on any one. 
to proceed from ans^^^t ^\^. 



900 



▲PPBVDIX. 



liroTocar d in. to proroke to anger. 

proTOcar (4 alfuno) era malas pala- to proToke (any one) ftf •cnniloM 

brat, langoa^. 

pr6jiino d morir, on the point «>f death* 

pigarp«r algnnacoaa, toboeagertathepanmitofaaytkiig. 

pnrgarse do lospecba, to dear oneself /rpM taqiicioB. 



Q. 



Quadrar era el encargo, 

quadrar (algnna cosa) d alguno. 

qnal de loa dos, 

qnebrantar (los hneios) d aJfuno> 

quebrar (el ooraaon) 4 alguno, 

quedar de asiento, 

qnedar do pies, 

quedar en casa, 
quedar (camino) por andar, 
quedar por alaruno, 
quedar por cobarde, 
quedar (una cosa) por mia, 
quedarse en el sermon, 
quejarse d alguno, 
quejarse de alguno, 
querellarse d, ante, el juez, 
querellarse de su vecino, 
quemarse de alguna palabra, 
quemarse por alguna cosa> 
querido de sus amigos, 
quien de elles, 
quitar (alguna cosa) d alguno, 

one. 
quitar (alguna cosa) d« alguna parte, to take (any thing) away from aay 

place, 
quitarse de quimeras, to refrain /rom dispute. 



To be fit /or the employment. 

(any thing) to suit a person. 

which 0/ toe two. 

to break any one's bones. 

to break any one's heart* 

to remain settled or established. 

to remain standing, alto to better one's 

fortune, 
to tarry at home, 
to have further to go. 
to be answerable fir any one. 
to remain as a coward, 
(something) to remain at minei 
to stop short in a discourse, 
to complain to any one* 
to complain of any one. 
to lay one's complaint before the judge, 
to complain of one's neighbour, 
to be insultea 6y any word, 
to be enraged at any thing, 
beloved by one's friends, 
which o/them. 
to take (any thing) away from any 



R. 



Rabiar de hambre, 
rabiar par comer, 
radicarse en la virtud, 
raer de alguna cosa, 
rallar (las tripas) d cualquiera, 
rayar con la virtud, 
razonar con alguno, 
rebalzarse (el agua) en alguna parte, 
rebatir (una cantidad) de otra, 
rebajar (una cantidad) de otra, 
recaer en la enfermedad, 
recalcarse en lo dicho, 
recatarse de alguno, 
recavar (alguna cosa) de, con, alguno, 
recetar (medecinas) d, para, alguno, 
recetar co/itra alguno, 
recibir (alguna cosa) de alguno, 
recibir d cuenta, 
recibir (k alguno) en casa, 
recibirse de abogado, 
recio de cuerpo, 
recJinarse en, sobre, alguna cosa, 



To rage with hunger. 

to TVigeftr food. 

to establish oneself in virtue. 

to scrape off from any thing. 

to importune any one. 

to excel in virtue. 

to reason with any one. 

(water) to stagnate in any place. 

to deduct (one amount) /rom another. 

to subtract (one sum) /rom another. 

to relapse into sickness. 

to be nrm in what has been said. 

to be cautious qfemy one. 

to obtain (any thing) /rom any one. 

to prescribe (medicines) for any one. 

to make a charge against any one. 

to receive (any thing) /rom any one. 

to receive on account. 

to receive (any one) at home. 

to be admitted a counsellor. 

of a strong body. 

lo \<ia.u tipon ^n^ UxvQ^. 



APFBirDnc. 



r.1? 



201 



recluir (k algnno) m tlgmni parte, to shut op (any one) m any place. 
recobrane di la enfemedad, to recover from rickness. 

recogerse d casa, to retire home, 

recomendar (alguin cosa) tf alguno, to recommend (any thing) to any one. 
reoompensLr (agrayios) om-benefieioajto recompense (wrongs) with benefits, 
reconcentrarae (el odio) en el corazon,to harbour (hatred) in one's heart, 
reconciliar (k uno) con otro, to reconcile (one) to another, 

reconvenir (k alguno) eon, de, tobre, to charge (any one) with any thing, 
alguna cosa. 



recostarse en, sobre, la silla, 
recudzr (k alguno) con el soeldo, 
redondearse de deudas, 
reducir (alguna cosa) d la mitad, 
redundar en beneficio, 
referirse 4 alguna cosa, 
refocilarae con alguna cosa, 
refugiarse d, en, sagrado, 
reglarsedlojusto, 
ra^odeane en, eon, alguna cosa, 
leirae d carcajadas, 
reiiM de alguno, 
remirane en alguna cosa. 



to recline on a chair. 

to pay (any one) his salary. 

to pay off one's debts. 

to reduce (any thing) to the half. 

to conduce to one's benefit. 

to refer to any thing. 

to refresh oneself with any thing. 

to take refuge in a sacred place. 

to conform to what is just. 

to delight in any thing. 

to laugn heartily. 

to laugh at any one. 

to examine oneself tn any thing. 



remplazar (k alguno) en su empleo, to occupy another's situation, 
rendirse d la razon, to submit to reason. 

renegar de alguna cosa, to apostatize from any thing, 

repartir (alguna cosa) d enire alguDos,to snare (any thing) among several, 
representarae (alguna cosa) d laima- to represent (any thing) to the imagi* 

nnadoo, nation, 

resbalaiae de las manos, to slip out o/the hands, 

resentirse de alguna cosa, to resent any thing, 

residir de asiento en algnna parte, to be settled in any place. 

to reside at the court. 



residir en la corte, 
resolverse d alguna cosa, 
responder d la pregunta, 
restar (una cantidad) de otra, 
restituirse d su caaa, 
resultar (una cosa) de otra, 
retirarse d la soledad, 
retirane del mundo, 
retraerse d alauna parte, 
retraerte de aiguna cosa, 
retroceder d, hacia, tal parte, 
rcTentar de riea, 
reventar por hablar. 
reyestirse de autoridad, 
revolcarse en los vicios. 



to resolve en any thin|[. 

to answer to the question. 

(one sum) to remain yVvm another. 

to retire to one's home. 

(one thing) to result /rom another. 

to retire tn solitude. 

to retire from the world. 

to flee to some place. 

to take refuge /rom any thing. 

to recede towards such a place. 

to burst with laughter. 

to have a strong desire to speak. 

to be invested with authority. 

to wallow in vices. 



revolver contra, haeia, sobre, el ene- to return against the enemy. 

migo, 
robar (dinero) d alguno, to steal (money) /rom any one. 

rodear (k alpuno) por todas partes, to sunound ^any one) on all sides, 
rodear (una plaza) eon, de, morallas, to surround (a place) with walls, 
rogar (alguna cosa) d alguno, to request (any thing) o/any one. 

romper con alguno, to fall out with any one. 

romper par alguna parte, to break into any place, 

rozarse (una cosa) eon otra, to rub (one thing) with another, 

rozarse en las paltbras, to stammer tn one's q>eech. 



Saber d vino, 
saber de trab^jos. 



S. 

to taste of wine. 

to experience trouble. 



AFPBXDIZ. 



nctr (una coia) d U plaza, 

sacar iU algniia parte, 

lacar en limpio, 

tacrificar (algana cosa) d Dkw, 

tacrificane for algano, 

salir d alauna com, 

lalir con la pretension, 

salir contra algano, 

talir de algnna parte, 

salir por nador, 



to carry (any thing) to market, 
to draw out/rom any plaee. 
to draw out fiurly. 
to sacrifice (any thing) to God. 
to sacrifice oneself^ any one. 
to 00- operate m any thing, 
to succeed in one's pretension, 
to go agahut any one* 
to go out ofukj place* 
to stand security. 



saltar ^una cosa) d la imaginadon, (any thing) to strike the imaginatioi* 
saltar dci suelo, to leap /rom the ground* 

saltar do fj^zo, to leap with ioy. 

saltar on tierra, to jump an shore, 

salrar (4 alguno) dol peligio, to protect (any one) /rom danger, 

sanar do la enfermedad, to recover /him sickness, 

satisfacer por 1 as colpas, to expiate faults, 

satisfaoerse d« la duda, to be satisfied o/ the doubt* 

segregar (k alguno) do alguna parte, to separate (any one) /rom any idace. 
segregar (una cosa) do otra, to separate (one thing) from anotker. 

seguirse (una cosa) do otra, ^one thing) to follow from another* 

semcjar o semejarse (una cosa) d otra,(one thing) to resemble another. 



sentarse 4 la mesa, 
sentarse on la sUla, 
sentenciar (4 uno) d destierro, 
■entirse do algo, 
separar (una cosa) de otra, 
ser (una cosa) d gusto de todos, 
ser (una cosa) do, i^ra, alguno, 

servir do mayordomo, 
senrir en palacio, 
servirse de alguno, 
sincerarse do alguua cosa, 
sisar do la compra, 
sitiado do enemigos, 
sitiar por hambre, 
situarse en alguna parte. 



to sit at table. 

to sit in a chair. 

to condemn (one) to banishment. 

to feel or be sorry ^ any thing* 

to separate (que thing) from another. 

^any thing) to be to every one's tiste. 

(any thing) to belong to, or to be /«r 

any one. 
to serve a* steward* 
to serve in a palace* 
to make use o/ another's services, 
to clear oneself /rom any thing* 
to purloin from the purchase, 
besieged 6y enemies* 
to besiege with hunger, 
to be stationed in any place. 



sobrellevar (los trabajos) eoti paden- to bear (misfortune) with patience 

cia, 
sobrellevar (4 alguno) on sus traba- to assist (any one) in misforUnie. 

sobrepujar (4 alguno) m autoridad, to excel (any one) in authority. 



sobresalir «ii galas, 

sobresalir ontro todos, 

sobresaltarse de al^na cosa, 

sojuzgado de enemigos, 

someterse d alguno, 

sonar (alguna cosa) d hueca, 

sonar (alguna cosa) haeia tal parte, 

sordo d las voces, 

sordo c/e an oido, ^ _ 

sorprender( 4 alguno) con algana cosa, to surprise (any one) with any thing 

soiprenderle en alguna .cosa, to surprise him in any thing* 

sorprendido do la bulla, startled at the noise, 

sospechar (alguna cosa) de alguno, to suspect (any thing) o/any one. 

sospecboso d alguno, suspected by any one. 

subdividir on partes, to subdivide in parts, 

subir d alguna parte, to go up to any place. 

»ubir de aiguna parte, ^o %^ "^^ fT«» *»1 "V^aca. 



to surpass in dress. 

to excel amjongfit all* 

to be startled at any thing. 

overcome by enemies. 

to submit to any one. 

(any thing) to sound hollow. 

(any thing) to sound totsards sucb a 

a side, 
deaf to the cries, 
deaf of one ear. 



APPENDIX. 



803 



subir sobre la meBa» 

subrogar (una cosa) en lugar de otra, 

labsistir dsl angilu) ageno, 
mbsistir en el oict^men, 
mbstituir d, ptr, alguno, 
tubstituir (un pbder) en algono, 
Mibstraerse de la obediencia» 

suceder (4 alguno) en el empleo, 

flufirir (los trabajos) con paciencia, 
tugerir (alguna cosa) d alguno, 
sugetane 4 alguno, 6, d alguna cosa, 

tomergir (alnina cosa) en el agua, 
sumirse en alguna parte, . 
fOBiiso d la Yoluntad, 
supeditado de los contrarios, 
superior d sua enemigos, 
superior en luces, 
suplicar de la sentencia, 
supUcar par alguno, 
suplir par alguno, 
surgir (la nave) en el puerto, 

surtir de vWeres, 
suspense de oficio, 
suspirar par el tnando, 
sustentarse con yerbas, 
sustentarse de esperanzas. 



to get upon the table. 

to substitute (one thing) in place of 
another. 

to subsist b^ another's aid. 

to be firm m opinion. 

to substitute /or any one. 

to substitute (a power) in anv one. 

to withdraw oneself /rom subordina- 
tion. 

to succeed (any one) in the employ- 
ment. 

to suffer (troubles;) with patience. 

to sanest (any thing) to any one. 

to subject oneself to any one, or, to 
any thing. 

to immerge (anv thing) in the water. 

to sink in any place. 

submissive to the will. 

suppressed by enemies. 

superior to one's enemies. 

superior in talents. 

to petition against the sentence. 

to supplicate for any one. 

to act in any one's behalf. 

(the ship) to ride at anchor in the 
port. 

to furnish provisions. 

suspended /rom the office. 

to aspire to the command. 

to subsisft on herbs. 

to feed on hopes. 



Tachar (k alguno) de ligero, 
temblar de frio, 
temido de muchos, 
temeroco de la muerte, 
temible d los contrarios, 
templarse en comer, 
tener (k uno) por otro, 
tenerse en pie, 
tenir de azul, 
tirar d, hacia, tal parte, 
tirar por tal parte, 
tiritar de frio, 
titubear en alguna cosa, 
tocar (la berenda) d alguno, 
tocar en alguna parte, 
tocado de enfermedad, 
tomar con, en, las manos, 
. tomar (una cosa) de tal modo, 
torcido de cuerpo, 
tomar d alguna parte, 
tomar de alguna parte, 
traba^ar en alsuna cosa, 
traba^ar por alguna cosa, 
trabajar por otro, 
trabar de alguno, 
trabar (una cota) eon otn, 
tnharen alguna cosa. 



T. 

To accuse (any one) <»/ levity. 

to tremble with cold. 

feared bu many. 

afraid of death. 

dreadful to the enemy. 

to be temperate in eating. 

to take (one) /or another. 

to remain standing. 

to dye blue. 

to draw on such a side. 

to draw towards such a side. 

to shiver with cold. 

to waver in any thing. 

(the inheritance) to fall to any one. 

to touch any where. 

touched with disease. 

to take with or in the bands. 

to take (any thing) in such a manner. 

deformed in body. 

to turn to such a side. 

to turn from such a side. 

to work at any thing. 

to work for any thing. 

to work /or another. 

to seize any one. 

to jo'm one x^^ni^witk «xl^)^«i< 

to f a\\ on an^ V\au%. 



iM 



ttibocancn 1h_ 
tncr 'ftl^znaean) tf 
tner '.UfnnacoM)^ 

triBsfeiir ;. algvBA eon > tf •In 
trmifaiisc ts tal pane. 
tnTwugiMsg f oCraoon* 
tnnsfonnar (mu con ) en oli^ 
tzajHiur p^r algoni parte, 
trmnspirar p^r todas putea, 
tnoqMtftar (alguna ooaa> 4 

parte, 
tiaiuportar ^algvoa con) d$ algvoa 

parte, 
traspasar (alguna oosa) m algaao, 
traspisado de dolor, 
trasplantar (de vna parte) d olia* 

tratar em algnno, 
tratar de algana cosa. 
tratar en lanas, 
trinnfitr de los enemigoa, 
trocar (una coaa) par otra, 
tropezar CM algima coaa. 



Ultimo de todoa, 

uodr (los boeyes) al cano, 

unifbrmar (una cosa) d, com, otra, 

nnir (uoa cosa) d, con, otra, 

unirse en eomumdad, 

nnirse entre fti, 

ano ie^ entre, muchoa, 

6til d la patria, 

6til para tal cosa, 

utUizarse en, con, ali^ona cosa. 



tDqaanvL 

toBitfakeoMi 

to bring (any tbing) to any idaeat 

to briag (any thm^y/nm aayflMC. 

to deal in drags. 

to pat off (any tbing) toaaotbtriMM. 

to transfer oneself to sodi a plato. 

to transfoim oneself in to anolBcr tfeaVi 

to transfionn (one tbing) into anotha. 

to pass tknmgk or ^ any place. 

to evaporate on all sides. 

to traMpoft (any tbing) to any plaec 

to transport (any tbing) frem any 

place, 
to transfer (aomctbing) to anolbtr. 
pierced by grief, 
to tranqilant er renofe (Cpmb «oe 

place) to anotber. 
to treat tciik anr one 
to treat of any thing, 
to deal in wooL 
to triumph orer the enemy, 
to exchange (one thing) jSrr another. 
to stumble on any thing. 



U. 



{ 



Last o/ all. 

to yoke (oxen) to the cart, 
to make (one tbing) nnifenn wHk an- 
other, 
to unite (one thing) with another, 
to unite in society, 
to be united together, 
one amongst many, 
useful to the country, 
useful /or such a thing, 
to make oneself useful in any tbiof;- 
to turn any thing to one's advantage. 



V. 



Vacar al estudio, 

▼aciarse de alguna cosa, 

vaciarse por la boca, 

vacilar en la eleccion, 

vacilar entre la esi>eranza y el temor, 

vacfo de entendimiento, 

vaffar por el mundo, 

valerse de alguno, de alguna cosa, 

valaar (una cosa) en tal aprecio, 

vanagloriarse de alguna cosa, 

vecino al trono, 

Tecino de Antonio, 

velar d los muertos, 

velar $obre alguna cosa, 

▼encerse d alguna cosa, 
vencido d€ lof contrariot, 
reodeiseif ajgano, 



To suspend study. 

to be emptied of any thing. 

to babble. 

to hesitate in one*s choice. 

to hesitate hetyoetn hope and fear. 

void 0/ intellect. 

to wander ahoui the world. 

to avail oneself of any one, or 0/ any 

thing, 
to value (any thing) at such a price. 
to be vain of any thing, 
near the throne, 
a neighbour of Anthony, 
to watch o\>er the dead, 
to watch Qfwr any thing, 
to conquer oneself in any thing. 
coii<\\iex^^ b^ 1^« «uemy. 



to aeW. oii««mto vki qm^ 



APPENDIX. 



205 



vei^arse de otro, 

y%aad, de, par, algona parte, 

wemreon alguno, 

vene oon algnno, 

fww dn aHufHf 

v«ttir d la moda, 

Testine ^ pafio, 

TigiUr tehn tus «€bdito8, 

mlentane d, en, algiina coaa, 

visible d, parth todof , 

viYir d su nutoy 

vivir cm algiiius 

Tiyir de limosna, 

mir por miUgio, 

Ttvir tdbre la baz de la tierra, 

volar al cielo, 

volar por el ayre, 

vohrer d, de, kdtia, par, tal parte, 

volver par la verdad, 
Totar en el pleyto, 
▼otar par ajgimo. 



to be revenged on another. 

to come to, from, or through any place. 

to come with any one* 

to see or meet any one. 

to be high in station, or to be m such 

a latitude. 
to dress in the fashion, 
to be dressed in cloth* 
to watch over one's subjects, 
to be violent in any thing, 
visible to all. 
to live to one's taste, 
to live with any one. 
to live on chanty, 
to live by a miracle, 
to live without cares, 
to fly to heaven, 
to fly through the air. 
to return to, from, towards, by, such a 

place, 
to defend the truth. 
to vote in the suit, 
to vote /or any one. 



Z. 



Zabnllirse 6 zambuUirse en el agua, To plunge into the water. 
ta£use de alguna persona 6 cosa, to avoid any person or thing. 
zambucarse en alguna parte> 
zampuzarse en agua, 
zapatearse ecn aigono, 
zozobrar en la tormenta, 



to hide oneself in any place. 

to dive into the water. 

to retort on any one. 

to be in dread of sinking in the storm. 



IDIOMS IN CERTAIN VERBS. 



Andar k palos, 
-^— iporfla, 
■ de gorra, 
■■ con Dios, 
— - con tegnndas, 
— — en dimes y dir^tes, 
A mejor andar, 
Apeorandar, 
A mas andar. 



Caer bien k caballo, 

en nracia, 

— apuomoy 



almar, 

dsotavento, 

Etta color cae bien con el otro, 

Caerse de &nimo, 

■ de risa, 

■ en flor, 

Ca^rsele 4 alguno la cara de 
guenza. 



Dar & loz, 

& la vela, 

— — de sf , 

— con algo, 
-^ por supuesto* 

— voces, 
— — lado, 

— calle, 

— guerra, 
-^- el p^ame, 

el si. 

Darse dealgo, 

■ cnidado de algo» 

Sor culpado, 
merced, 
■ las manos, 

■ k iai manos, 



ANDAR. 

To fight with sticks. 

to be stabbom. 

to live at another's cost. 

to go in peace. 

to be ambignoos. 

to deal in in and ands. 

at best, at most. 

at worst. 

at full speed. 

CAER. 

To sit well on horseback. 

to take one's fancy. 

to fall flat: to lose one's situation fl 

influence: to deviate firom the righ 

road, 
to faU overboard, 
to drive to leeward, 
this colour is well matched with th 

other.^ 
to be dejected, 
to burst out into laughter, 
to die in the bloom of youth, 
ver- , to blush with shame. 



DAR. 

To publish. 

to set sail. 

to stretch, to widen. 

to find, or to hit upon any thing. 

to take for granted. 

to call out. to scream. 

to side with, or favour any one. 

to clear the way. 

to wage war. 

to condole. 

to consent. 

to care about any thing. 

to be alarmed at any thin^. 

to acknowledge onesel f guilty. 

to surrender at discretion. 

to shake hands, 



APFBNDIX. 



207 



ECHAR. 



£cbar aperder, 

(\xn buque) k piaue, 

{k al^no) la culpa, 

■ agua (& un nifio), 

en tierra, 

bendidimes— nuldidoiics, 

• suertes, 

el compas, 

. m^nos (4 alguno), 

mano, 

mano de, 

Echarse (en cama), 
4 (negocio), 



To spoil. 

to sink (a vessel). 

to blame (any one). 

to baptize (a cbild). 

to land. 

to bkss— to curse. 

to cast lots. 

to beat time. 

to miss (any one). 

to giyie assistance. 

to seize. 

to lie down (in bed). 

to apply oneself to (business). 



ESTAR, 



Estar k pique de, 

en pie, 

k ver, 

Estoy en que no vendrd, 

come. 
Kste trage me istd en treinta pesos, this dress stands me in thirty dollars. 



To be within an ace of. 

to be standing. 

to wait the issue of any thing* 

I am inclined to think that he will not 



GUARDARSE. 

Me guards de no decirle nada, I took care not to say any thing to 

him. 
Se guardd rouy bien de no venir. He took good care not to come. 

In each of tiiese and the like examples, the negative particle in Spanish 
may be dispensed with, without depriving the sentence of its negative 
meaning. 



Hablar k bulto, 
con segundas. 



Hablarse, 



con Dios, 

con lenj^a de plata, 

entre dientes, 



HABLAR. 



To speak at random. 

to speak ambiguously or with a double 

meaning, 
to pray, 
to bribe, 
to mutter, 
to be on speaking terms. 



HACER. 



Hacer de, 
— fuerza 6, 
caso de, 

DOT 

alarde, 
noche, 



to act in the capacity of. 

to have weight with. 

to take notice of. 

to endeavour. 

to boast. 

to put up for the night. 



208 

llacer papel de, 
— ^— de lu luytf , 
— — espalda, 

U ?Uta larga» 

■ oidM de mereader, 
Hacerae & la Tela, 



▲PFCVDIX. 



Ir paiando, 

— de mejor en mQor, 

— de peor en peer, 

— bien jpuctto, 

— con Dioff, 

— con alguno, 

A qui vun cien peiofi 
Irte, 

— de la mtmoria, 

— k pique, 



toacttke 
tofhowd 
tobackaay 
tofieigBaQCto 

to set 



IB. 

Tomikeahtft. 

to STOW better aad betto. 

to grow wone and ivone* 

to be well attired. 

to go in peace. 

to agree in opinion widi annlber. 

I bet one hundred daQais. 

to be dying, to eTaponle. 

to escape the 

tofboiider. 



LLEVAR. 



Llevar k mal, 

(lai cotat) con paciencia. 

Me lUvdron diez ducadot per cste 

veitido, 
J«lovar en mucho, 



To take amits. 

to bear (thingi) with patioice. 

they made me pay ten docats for this 

dress, 
to excel. 



PERDONAR. 



No perdono gasto ninguno, He spared no cost. 

Le perdmi cinco pesos de la cuenta, I deducted fiye dollars from hU bill. 



Ouiero decir que, 
Lso quiere decir que, 
Quiera Dies que, 



aUERER. 



J mean that. 
That means that. 
God grant that. 



SALIR. 



£1 muchacho talio muy travieso, 
Salir de sf , 

Memlek cinco pesos la vara. 
La obra salid k luz el aiio pasado, 



The boy turned out very unruly. 
To be enraptured, to turn one's braio. 
It standi m« in five dollars a yard. 
The work came out or was published 
last year. 



SERVIRSE. 



Sirvase vmd. de sentarse, 
Sb sirvio hacerme este regale, 



Be pleased to sit down. 
He condescended to make me this 
'present. 



APPENDIX. 



209 



TENER. 



Tener quehacer, 
' verguenza, 
- hambre, sedi itio, &c. 
" k bien, 
' con que, 
raion, 

la culpa, 

' cuidado, 
caidados, 



To be busy. 

to be ashamed. 

to be hungry, thirsty, cold, &c. 

to approve of. 

to have means. 

to be in the right. 

to be to blame. 

to take care. 

to have cares. 



Eso no tiene que iiae$r, or que ver That has nothing to do with what I say. 
con lo que 70 digo* 



VENIR. 



Voy con vmd. en eso, 
Venir k las manos, 
I Que le ha venido 1 



I agree with you in that. 

To come to blows. 

What has happened to him 1 



T 3 



OF THE TITLES 



COMMONLY 



USED IN SPANISH IN ADDRESSING PERSONS. 



StfioR and Don. These titles are prefixed to persons' names, as a mark 
of respect, and are emplojred as follows. 

Senor admits of a feminine and a plural termination, with their dimiDu- 
tives, and is employed before baptismal or surnames: as SeHor Cdrla, 
La sefiora de Gomes, Lns seiUrrit(a Ferez, Lasenarita Perez, 

Don, has a feminine termination, which is Dotla ; but no plural teimina* 
tion. It is never prefixed immediately before surnames ; but is used either 
before baptismal names alone, or before these employed together with the 
surname. It is politely used either singly, or coupled with Senor in our 
addresses to, or m speaking of persons whom we lespect, as, Don Juan, 
SefUrr Don Andres, El SefUir Don Francisco Alvarez, Dalia Maria, La SeHora 
Dofia Francisa, 

In addres^g young -ladies, we use Dona with their baptismal names, 
giving a diminutive termination to them ; as Dolia Clarita, Dofia Isabel* 

In polite society, Seiior is not used alone, either before baptismal or 
surnames ; but Don should be employed before baptismal names as above 
described :— and with regard to surnames, if we address, or speak of a 
gentleman, instead of SefUrr we prefix the word Caballero ; as Caballero 
Hernandez, El caballero Ramirez. 

Don and Caballero are titles of rank, equivalent to Sir or Knittht, never* 
theless we employ them in polite conversation with persons who have no 
distinguishing rank. 



THE FOLLOWING ARE THE TITLES USED WITH PERSONS 

OF RANK. 

SiL Majestad, His or Her Majesty. Vuestra Majestad, Your Majesty. 

Su Alteza, His or Her Highness. Vuestra Alteza, Your Highness. 

SuSenoria, His Lordship, or Vuestra Sefioria, Your Lordship, cr 

Her Ladyship. or Usia, Ladyship. 

Sa Santidad, His Holiness. Vuestra Santidad, Your Holiness. 

.Su Ilustrisima, His or Her Grace or Vuestra Ilustrisima, Your Grace or 

Honor. Honor. 

Su Escelencia, His or Her Excel' Vuestra Escelencia, Your Excellency. 

iency. or Vuecencia, 



LIST 



OF 



THE MOST COxMMON ABBREVIATIONS USED 



IN SPANISH. 



Those marked with an asterisk will be pai^cularly noticed at the 

end of the list. 



A. C. 


A no Cristiano or comun. 


Anno Christi or Christian 


• 






year. 


A». 


Arrobas, 




Q". or 23 pounds. 


AA. 


Autores^ 




Authors. 


Adm»'. 


Adrainistrador, 




Administrator. 


Ag««. 


Agosto, 




August. 


A. M. 


Ano Mundo, 




Anno Mund!> or The year of 


■ 






the world. 


Am°. 


Amigo, 




Friend. 


Ant°. 


Antonio> 




Anthony. 


App««. 


Apo8t61ico, 




Apostolic. 


Art°. 


Articulo, 




Article. 


Arzbpo^ 


Arzobispo, 




Archbishop. 


B. 


Beato, 




Blessed. 


B. or V. 


Voelta, 




Turn over. 


B'. 


Bachiller, 




Bachelor of arts. 


B. L. M*. 


Beso or besa las manos, 


I kiss or he kisses the 








hands. 


B. L. P. 


Beso los pies. 




I kiss the feet. 


8»». P«. 


Beatisimo Padre, 




Most blessed Father. 


C. M. B •. 


Cuyas manos beso 


or besa 


, Whose liands I kiss or he 
kisses. 



31S 


APPBNDIS;. 




C. P. B. 


CnyoB ^es beso, 


Whose feet I kiss. 


Cto". 


C&maray 


Chamber. 


Cap. 


Capituloy 


Chapter. 


Cap*. 


Capitaoy 


Captain. 


Capp», 


Capellaoi 


Chaplain. 


Col. 


Colimay 


Colamn. 


Comi8<'. 


ComlsariOy 


Commissary. 


Comp*. 


Companlay 


Company. 


Corr««. 


Corriente, 


Current or Ins*. 


Conso. 


ConsejOy 


Council. 


C^. 


Ciienta» 


Account. 


D».orD. 


Don, 


Mr. 


Dfi». or D\ 


Dofia, 


Mrs. 


ly. 


Doctor or Deudor, 


Doctor or Debtor. 


D.D. 


Doctores, 


Doctors. 


dh°. dh*. 


dichoy dicha, 


said, or ditto. 


Dro. 


DerechOy 


Right or duty. 


Dl2'«. or 10«. 


Dicdembre, 


December. 


Dom®. 


DomingOy 


Sunday. 


Ecc®. 


£cole8i&stico> 


Ecclesiastic. 


Eno. 


Enero, 


January. 


E8»».E8»». 


Esceleutisimo—ma, 


Most Excellent. 


E8«»*. 


Escelenciay 


Excellency. 


Fh». Fh». 


Fecho, fecba, 


Dated. 


Feb^ 


Febrero, 


February. 


Fol**. 


Folio> 


FoUo. 


Fr. 


Fray or Frey, 


Brother of a religious 
order. 


Franco. 


Frandsco, 


Francis. 


Fmz. 


Fernandez, 


A Spanish surname. 


G*«. or gue. 


Goarde, 


Preserve. 


Q.D.G. 


Que Dioa guarde, 


Whom God preserve. 


Gra. 


Gracia, 


Grace. 


Gen*. 


General, 


General. 


H'. 


Haber, 


C. (t. «f. Creditor). 


ra«. 


Ilustre, 


Illustrious. 


m»«. ni"*'. 


nustrisimo— ma. 


Most Illustrious. 


Inqu®'. 


Inquisidor, 


Inquisitor. 


Jhs. 


JesuS) 


Jesus. 


Jph. 


Joseph, 


Joseph. 


J». 


Juan, 


John. 


Lib. 


Libro, 


Book. 


Lib-. 


Libras, 


Pounds. 


Liji. 


Linea, 


Line. 





API^EKOTiif. 


.. 


Liz^ 


licenciadb, 


Licentiate. 


M* P* S* 


Muy poderoso senor. 


Most powerfiil lord 


M«. 


Madre, 


Mother. 


M'. 


Monsieur, 


Master. 


M»'. 


Mayor, 


Eldest. 


M«. A*. 


Muehos afios, 


Many years. 


Mag*». 


Magestad, 


Mijesty. 


Mani. 


Manuel, 


Emanuel. 


May"**. 


Mayordomo, 


Steward. 


Mig». 


Miguel, 


MichaeL 


Mi5ro. 


Ministro, 


Minister. 


Mrd. 


Merced. 


Grace. 


Mrn, 


Martin. 


Martin. 


Mfnz. 


Martinez, 


A Spanish surname. 


Afro. 


Maestro, 


Master. 


Mrs. 


Maravedis, 


Maravedis. 


M.S. 


Manuscrito, 


Manuscript. 


M. S. S. 


Manuscritos, 


Manuscripts. 


N,S. 


Nuestro Sefior, 


Our Lord. 


N. S». 


Nuestra Senora, 


Our Lady. 


Nr"©. n ra. 


Nuestro -tra, 


Our. 


Nov*, or 9". 


Noviembre, 


November. 


Obpo. 


Obispo, 


Bishop. 


Oct? •. or S**". 


Octubre, 


October. 


On. On». 


Onza, Onzas, 


Ounce, ounces. 


Orn, orns. 


Orden, drdenes, 


Order, orders. 


P.D. 


Posdata, 


Postscript. 


P«. 


Para, 


For. 


P«. 


Padre, 


Father, 


P». 


Pedro, 


Peter. 


P». 


Por, 


For, by, per. 


P»». 


Plata, 


Silver or plate. 


P««. 


Parte, 


Part. 


P««. 


Puerto, 


Port. 


Pag. 


P&gina, 


Page. 


Pp*^. 


P6bUco, 


PubHc. 


Pp*<>- 


Pr6csimo pasado. 


Last past. 


Pr&l. 


Principal, 


Principal. 


Pro'r. 


Procurador, 


Solicitor or proctor. 


Prov. 


Provisor. 


Vicar-general. 


Qu. q«. 


Que, 


That. 


Q«i». 


Quando, 


When. 


ff. 


Quintal, 


Hundred weight. 


G». 


Quien, 


Who. 



m 



214 


ABFEtiUlX. 




2^. 


QoAiito, 


Btowmndi. 


Q.S.M.B*. 


Que toB flumos beso or 


Whose hands I kiss or he 




ben. 


kisses. 


KK R\ 


Real,Reale8, . 


Royal, Royals {or real, 
reals, a twentieth part of 
a Spanish Dollar). 


Rcv~». 


Reverendifiimo, 


Most Reverend. 


R* 


Reverendo, 


Refverend* 


RW. 


Redbi, 


Ireorived. 


S., Sn., S«*. 


SaDy Santo, Santa, 


Safait. 


S.A. 


SuAlteaa, 


His or Her Highness. 


S.E. 


Sn Escelenda, 


BOs or Her Excellency.. 


S.I. 


Sq Ilastclsimay 


His Grace or Lordship, Her 
Grace or Ladyship. 


^* M* 


SaMagestad, 


His or Her Majesty. 


s.s**. 


SnSantidad, 


His Holiness. 


S'.jS". 


Senor, Senores, 


Sir« Sirs, Messieurs or 
Gentlemen. 


s«. 


Senora, 


Mrs. or Madam. 


s^>». 


Sebastian, 


Sebastian. 


Sri*. -N 






Sec^et^ L 


Secretaria, 


Secretarysliip. 


SecretF**.J 






Secret^. -| 






Sri». I 


Secretario, 


Secretary. 


Secretrio.J 






Set"*, or r**". 


Setiembre. 


September. 


S"»o. 


Serenisimo, 


Most Serene. 


Serv*. 


Servido, 


Sendee. 


Serv*', 


Servidor, 


Servant. 


Sig««. 


Signiente, 


Following. 


SS«o.P«. 


Santisimo padre. 


Most holy father. 


SSno. 


Escribano, 


Notary. 


S.S.S*. 


Sn Seguro Servidor, 


Your fidthful servant. 


Sup". 


S^plica, 


Entreaty or petition. 


Sup*«. 


Suplicante, 


Petitioner. 


Super*e. 


Superintendente, 


Superlntendant. 


Ten»«. 


Teniente, 


Lieutenant. 


Tom. 


Tomo, 


Volume. 


Tjfo. 


Ilempo, 


Time. 


v., V*. or Ven«. Venerable, 


Venerable. 


V.A. 


Vuestra Alteza, 


Your Highness. 


V. A. R. 


Vuestra Alteza Real, 


Your Royal Highness. 


KM 


Vuestra Beatitud, 


\Q\n BV^^sedness. 





APPENDIX. 


Hj 


V. E. 


Vuecelencia, 


Your EzceUency. 


V.G. 


Verbi grada, 


For example. 


V. Vm. or 


Vmd. Vuestranierced, or Usted. 


, You, Your Honor. 


Vma. 


Ustedes, 


Your Honors. 


V.P. 


Vuestra Paternidad, 


Your Paternity. 


V. s. 


Vuesefiorla or Usia, 


Your Lordsbip. 


V. S. 


Vudstra Santidad, 


Your Holiness, 


V. s. s. 


Vuesenoilas, 


Your Lordships. 


V. S. I. 


Vuesenorla Ilustrisima, 


Your Grace or Lordship 


v°. 


Vellon, 


Bullion. 


Vol. 


Voliimen, 


Volume. 


Vr 0. Vr^'a, 


Vuestro -tra. 


Your. 


X«». 


Diezmoy 


Tithe. 


Xptiano. 


Cristiano, 


Christian. 


Xpto. 


Cristo, 


Christ. 


Xptobal. 


Cristobal, 


Christopher. 



215 



* B. L. M.— C. M. B.— Q. S. M. B.— S. S. S. These initiala are 
chiefly used at the conclusion of Letters in Spanish, whether fami • 
liar or on business ; as, 



Nos repetimos 4 la disposlcion 
de vmds. C. M. B. 

Manden vmds. en cualquiera 
cosa k S. S. S. Q. S. M. B. 

Y siendo cuanto se me ofrece 
per lo presente, mandeme 
vmd. sin reserva ; interin 

B. L. M. de vm. 



We reiterate our services to 
you, whose hands we hiss. 

Command at pleasure your 
faithful servant who kisses 
your hands. 

And this being all that oflera 
for the present, I be^ yon 
will command me freely,, 
meanwhile / hiss your hands^ 



A KEY TO THE EXERCISES. 



SXJSBCISE ON THE AGBEEMENT OF THE DSHNITE ARTICLE. 

.X.«e.fi^P«r.lto3. 

H Knchadio, la nnchtdii, el aombrerero, la coiturenu 

H lol, la lima, los planetas y las estiellas. 

H eodiillo, el tenedor, la came, la sal, loa platoi, lat copiUat. 

NaU 1. La atroddad del crfmeii. 
La TJoleiKria del mnto. 
De la casa al jardin. 
Del jardm & la casa. 
Llegaion al meson. 

Nau 2. £1 aye cant^S. 
AqueWas son las aves. 
H agua esta fria. 
Las agiias de los rios. 
El ignila es ave de rapina. 
Xa aifciicia de la hazana. 

EXERCISE ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE DEHNITE 

ARTICLE. 

L$e, 6, Par. 4 to 13. 

La hennosura del poema. 

La deticadeza del estilo. 

Loeso <^ne recibi la noticia de (jne los aoldados habian ocupado el fuerte 

7 la villa, mi zelo per el sanricio, no me peimitia mat tiempo quedarme 

tn la capital. 
Entre las yentajas que nuestras annas lograron en la gloriosa accion, una 

de bis mas ioteresantes fu6, la de haber completamanta destruido el 

intento de los opresores. 
£1 cuidado es amenudo el companero de la grandeza. 
£1 hombre es esclavo de sus pasiones. 
La primavera, el verano, el otono y el invierno son las coatro estaciones 

del afio. 
La cobardfa y la bajeza, son cualidades de un hombre sin honor. 
La cHtica impaiciiu no debe ofender, al contrario, dcbiamos honrarnos 

oon ella. 
El GaDeral N. se ocupaba con felis ^ito, en maii\«a«i W tnsL^UdAd^ ^ 

en npiimir las lecucjones. 



A KST TO TBB raCBftiOISBS. 

La felicidad de an honbre de 8eiitiinieiito> es aliriar las necesidades de 

los pobres. 
£1 aiAor por la doria anima k los yalerosos. 
La Francia, la £spana, la Italia y la Oermania, son paises del continente 

de Europa. 
La Rusia es un Imperio vasto. 
La Europa, el Asia, el Africa, y la AiD^ica,-aon las cuatro parte^^del 

mundo. 
Roma y Venecia^ faeron RepAblicas antigmas. 
Intento proceder de Holanda k Francia, y de Francia k Inglaterra. 
£1 Sefior A. vive en aquella calle. 
La Senora B. ha hablado ya, k la Senora C. 
Yo soy substituto del Doctor Sangredo. ' 

Gil Bias dijo el Capitan Rolando. 
La inocenaa, la virtud j el honor, debian ser apreciados* 
Hombres, mugeres y ninos, todos faeron apresados. 
Jamas seas esclavo de la avaricia ni del vicio. 
Saldr^mos de L6ndret el Mi^icoles k las cuatiD y coaitOy y Uegar^mos k 

nuestro destino el Viernes k la una, 6 & las dos. 
Luis Felipe primero, fa6 proclamado rey de los Franceses en el ano 1830. 
Leon nono, fu6 el i>rimer Papa que mantuvo un eg^rcito en sus dominios. 
Aquf est& un libro intitulado " Guerras civiies de Granada." 
£1 segundo p&rrafo dice asf . 
Hercules hiio de Jiipiter. 
Aquf est& el pap^ que he comprado. 
£sta es la Have del jardin. 
Los Firineos dividen la Francia de EspaSa. 
£1 Tajo desagua en el Atl&ntico. 
£1 Jupiter de Fidias. 
Leopoldo Gran Duque de Toscana. 
■Nicolas Eroperador de Rusia. 

Las diroutas mucfaas veces atraen consecaendas fatales. 
Tome Vmd. del vino que le mand^. 
Son de las manzanas de mi huerto. 
He recibido algunas cartas. 
Necesito algun papel y algunas plumas. 
Tengo algunos documentos que contestar. 
i Ha recibido Vmd. algun vino ?— Sf , he recibido algonq. 
Las riquezas amenudo nos grangean cr6dito« poder, amigos y respeto. 



EXERCISE ON THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 

La fortuna es una deidad caprichosa. 
Una conciencia criminal es un tormento perp^tao* 
Compr6 un libro, ana saivadera, y nn tintero. 
I A como la vara t 
Dos pesos la libra. 
Seis pesos el ciento. 

Camm&mos k razon de diez leguas por dia. 
El buque anda dos leguas por hora. 
Deme vmd. una docena, de k dos |piine«s la docena. 
Deme vmd. nueve libras de k chelin la libra. 
El es encuademador, y su hearraano librero. 
Yo soy Aleman y 61 es Irland^s. 

Obru como traidor. . , i 

EJParnaso, monte de la Fodda, eafaaaoso v^ ««( la resideocia de lai 
Musas, 



A KBT TO TBI BZBltCnfift. 

^ QynUQ yV oficial ea el servicio HoUlihI^b, dijo que habia visto al conde 

D. tjeneral Tranc^. 
Logr6 tan completa victoria. 
TieDe tan beUa casa, y ^n hermoso jardin I 
i Que beUfsimo sugeto ! 
i Que hermoso caballo ! 
Qmipreme vmd. mil plumas. 
Le dar6 4 vmd. mil pesos. 

£ste palacio cost6 un millon de pesos, y aquel, millon y medio. 
Deme vmd. dos pesos y medio. 
Aqnf hay onza y media de oro, y media onza de plata. 
Tratado de Filosofia. 
Historia del Mundo. 
Aqu( est& una Senora y un Caballero. 
Hablaba con un conocido. 



EXERCISE ON THE NEUTER ARTICLE LO. 

Lie. 7. 

Vmd* ignora lo hennoso que es* 

La obra trata sobre lo sublime. 

Prefiramos lo s61ido, 4 lo vano. 

Que se limite k lo justo. 

Lo mas apetecible no es siempre lo mas f&cil de conseguir* 

Todo lo se, por lo cual infiero aue,^ &c. 

Lo que yo se, no es lo que vmd. piensa. 

Todo lo que reluce, no es oro. 

EXERCISE ON THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL NUMBEH 

IN NOUNS. 

Lee. 8, Par. 8 to 10. 

La hennosura de las aves y la melod(a de sua voces. 

Los bosques en aquellos paises son muy espesos. 

Los rebafios en ]os prados. 

Las delicadezas de Jas lengpias. 

Los alelies y las rosas crecian en abundancia* 

Los bombres j las mugeres deben ser fieles unos con otros. 

Aquellos ministros formaron buenas leyes para sus pueblos* 

Lm dicfpulos recibieron los libros y las plumas de sus maestros. 

Aquellos zaquizamies son muy espaciosos. 

Las flores de aquellos jardines son hermosas. 

EXERCISE ON THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 

Lee, 8, Par, 12 and Id. 

El amor propio y el orgullo son hijos de la ignorancia. 

La ioocencia, el honor, y el amor de la virtud, son prendas estimables. 

Laa cimas de aquellos montes son muy agradsibles. 

Su conversacion es muy amena. 

£1 buen cultivo contribuye k la fertilidad de la tierra. 

Signen el mismo sistema. 

La sitnacion del pais* 

£1 tratado parece haber sido escrito por un hiaUxxAdm^ 

Ella es criada de ia Duquesa. 



i 



La amplificacion* 6 sea la graduacion, ei ima fieaft^ de^tdd^'«((tae ta 

subiendo de grado en graoo laa circunstandas dte im ^eto. ' . 
Fu6 condecorado con la cruz de honor. 
Los sfntomas de la enfermedad. 
£t U costumbre de los tiempos. 

EXERCISE ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF N0UN8; 

Lm^IO. 

Compr^ una cadena de reloi. 

Las cortinas de cama eran de muselina de India. , 

La frontera del edificio estaba adomada de colonas d* m4nDoi ; M el 

interior se veian varias est&tuas de bronce. 
Prefiero los guantes de cuero de ante. 
Mu^treme vmd. los sombreros de paja, y las cintas de seda. 
La casa de mi hermano, e8t& sitiiaaa cerea del jtodin del gobemaddr. 
£8t4 en casa del zapatero. 
Yo los vf en casa del sastre. 
Hablo de los criados del hermano del Duque. 
Anacreon floreci6 despues de la muerte de Honeroy y de la detiDta de 

Creso, Rey de lidia. 
£1 hijo de Darfo ascendid al tnmo de Persia, despues de la mmt^ dt sa 

padre. 



EXERCISE ON THE AGREEMENT Of ADJfiCTIV£8 IN 

NUMBER AND GENDER. 

Lee.ll. 

£1 desinteres y el honor raerecen ser alabades. 

Su virtud j su hermosura son universalmente admiradas. 

La mod^stia, la afabilidad y la bondad sob estimables. ^ 

Refleccionemos en las tristes consecuencias que son inseparables de las 

guerras dilatadas. 
Sus temores fueron vanos. 
Las caUes y plazas de la dadad, son espadosas, y lot palaciea y edifidos 

piiblicosy magnlfioos. . 
£b una prueba convincente y palpable* 
£s un hombre bizarre y fid. 
£s muy bolgazana* 
Viven en una cadta booita* 4 erillas de «b no ca nda loso , eefca de «na 

pequena aldea. 
Poseen mucha fuerza moral, y hec^iica Yiriud ( iBnagimdoMe ardi«ite% y 

corazones nobles. 
Es una idea feliz. 
Es un hombre feUz. 
Un muchacbo sagaz. 
Una muchacha sagaz. 
Una fragata Francesa y una goleta Espanola, ban llegado de las colonias 

Dinamarquesas. 
Aquella es una capa Espanola. 
Aquellas Sefioras son Portucaesas. 
La lana de Espana se considera la mejor. 
He comprado algunos g^neros de Francia. 
El Plenijpotenciario de Rusia, y el Embajador de InglMerra se vkTMi 

e^ l^iDisario de Francia. 
£1 honor y h virtad son B6Udoft. 
La fama y el walor son cdebrados. 



A Mm *rO TRB |BX«RCI8Bt« 

TieM una liermosa caia y jardin. 

Sa aoMtmnbradi tltivex y orgullo* 

Talei diacmiones y urgmnentot soa £rfvol<M. 

Yo no preito oidos a cuentot k historias tan laal fundadaa. ^ 

Su Saniidad y aua dignidadea fueron eacoltadoa k sua palacioa. 

Sua Sefiorfaa fueron preaentadoa al tiempo que au Mageatad la Reyna 

eataba acompafiada de aua Sefioiiaa laa Marqueaaa de — • 
La conciencia de un buea hombre eata aiempxe libra ; maa la del malo est& 

en un continue remordimiento. 
Ftedicaba de laa Epiatolaa de San Pablo. 

Vinieron 61timamente de laa lalaa de Santo Domingo y Santo Tom&a. 
{Gran proyecto ! 
Eae ea gran hombre. 
No tengo grande apetito* 
Una gran victoria. 

EXERCISE ON THE SITUATION OF ADJECTIVES. 

Lee. 12. 

La yiata de un bello paiaage ea un manantial inagotable de senaaciones 
delicioaaa* 

Hay aiete diaa en una aemana, y cincuenta y dos aemanaa en un aSo. 

Q regimiento ae componia de doce companfaa, de cincuenta hombrea cada 
una. 

Apreaaron todoa los navioa, y hecharon & pique todaa laa lanchaa cafioneraa. 

Hizo mucboa amigoa, pero contrajo muchaa deudas. 

Muchos aon loa contratiempoa en la vida bumana. 

Pocoa hombrea son felicea. 

Sua yirtudes son pocas. 

Cierto aroigo mio roe di6 ciertaa inatruccionea acerca de cierta persona. 

£s coaa cierta. 

£1 fiero leon devor6 k la manaaoveia* 

Sobre aqnel escalon de duro m&miol« repoa^ sua fatigadoa miembroa. 

La fria nieve marchit6 laa delicadaa florea. 

: Mi querido padre, donde estan mi ^[ueridaa bermanaa 1 

£l sabio Salomon : £1 benem^rito Tito : El ambicioao Alejandro. 

i Que belUsima idea ! 

Varioa puntoa de la America Septentrional, descubren indicios^ evidentes 
de ^pocas remotas, y manifieatan la ecaistencia de una poblacion grande 
y poderosa, cuya historia sin duda ae perdi6 para siempre : Inmenaaa 
elevaciones no frecuentadas j[K>r los Indies roodemoa, cubiertaa de buesos 
humanos ; armas desconocidaa ; reatos de ciudades circundadaa ; y 
numerosaa inacripcionea en idiomaa deaconocidos : todo anuncia la india- 
putable ecaistencia de un pueblo diferentede aquellosque los navegantes 
Europeoa encontraron en aquellos paisea. 

EXERCISE ON THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON . 

Lee. 13. 

Algunos consideran & Virgilio un poeta tan grande como Homero. 
Aquellaa ideaa no son m^nos sublimes que estas. 
Su progreso era tan lento como cierto. 
Mis libros son tan buenoa como los suyoa. 
La naturaleza es mas admirable que el arte. 
La Repiiblica de Atenaa era maa ilustre que la de lAcedemonia. 
La segunda guerra Pdnica dur6 seia aBoa m^nos que la primera* 
Esto es mas alto que aqaello. 

£1 eatilo de Bossuet es m^nos hannonioao que ^ de'S«CL<i^(s^« 

13 ^ 



£l no es tan bondadoso como su hennano. 

Serses fiie mas ambicioso que prudente. . 

£1 aspecto general de la Lua de Jamaica, preaeBta mi|ptwpaeto tab 
magnifico de las bellezas de la natnralexa, perfeooMiaifaM Mr la 
indastria del hooibre* que muf rammcate ae ve en GwoiMt; y ooata d 
ettrangero, an delickief subo campo k la contemplacion y inmeSmm \M 
habitantes tanbten de esta iila, poteen mndia franqnesa, ■aciabflrtad 
7 benevdencia ; y en muy pooas partes se pradica ■ws^anemlaMBle & 
hospitalidad. 

La ciudad de L6ndre8 es la mas grande, mas poblada j man tiea fk 

Nueva Yorka y Boston son muy beiias ciadadea, peio Filaddinaala 
bella de las tres ; contiene tambien uno de los mas hcmoMa incRi 
del mundo. 

La calle principal de Nueva Yorka, presenta una vista BMiy kanasn : el 
Puerto es muy estenso y oirece una escena de grandisima indwuia ^ 
opulencia. 

£s una obra faciUsima de traducir. 

La ^titud es la cnalidad mas boble del alnuu 

La ingratitud merece el castigo mas severo. 

Leen tanto como (or cuanto) escriben, mas no bablan tanto cuanto 
piensan. 

Tenemos tanto dinero como vmd. 

Toca tan bien como canta. 

Tiene mas taleoto que hermosura. 

Tiene tanto dinero y tantos amigos como vmd« 

Tiene mas adoradores que su hermana* 

Piensa mas profundamente que sus contempoiineos. 

Cuanto mas lee tanto mas adelanta. 

Su hermana tiene m^nos orgullo que ella. 

Cuanto m^nos estudie, tanto m^nos ganard vmd. 

No es mas dificil hacer bien que lo que vmd. piensa. 

No aprecio el estilo de Pope, m^nos de lo que debia. 

Vale mas de un millon. 

Me detuve en Francia € Italia mas de nueve meses. 

Hablan el Espanol m^nos corriente que vmd» 



EXERCISE ON PERSONAL PRONOUNI&. 

liee, 16. 

Yo tengo un libro. 

T6 vendr&s manana. 

£1 y ella estariin aquf hoy. 

Nosotros bemos escrito. 

Nosotros bemos dicbo la verdad. 

Vosotros sois dichosos. 

Vosotros ireis. 

Ellos respondieron. 

f^as vinieron. 

Vino dijo ^\, pero fu6 muy tarde. 

No sabian ellos que decir. 

I Estas t(i alii. 

I Quien es ^11 

I Que son ellos ? 

Vet6. 

Quedad vosotros aquf. , 

Volvi6 dentro de una bora. 

FuS mas desgraciado que delincuente. 
JEJJos vinieron ; nosotros no vinimos. 
Habiamos partido intes que ellos Wegas^t^. 



Viaie 6 paganne la deuda. 

Danos un poco de yino. 

fioBamiMun bien. 

VaawnoB 4 eaia. 

Eatektm penuadieiidome & «pie ftieie* » 

Quisieca oonoeerle. • 

IVaelaimiif. 

€!oii8neiate 7 eacucfaame. 

Estan justificandole. 

Eiftaba pegandoU. 

Le he hablado* 

£1 vicio not engana. 

La pro^eridadnos grangea amigos, mas la advcnidad los poM k la i»rMba. 

AcoBmn^la hasta sn casa. 

Cont^k toda so historia. 

Trage ana carta y se la d(. 

Aquf estan los dibujos : muestreselos. 

Se lo he dicho. 

1 Se lo negar&s 1 

La rl & elia ; pero no pude tefle k 6L 

Te lo doj k tf con preierencia. 

Nos sirvieron k nosotros un plato de sopa ; ^o lea enviaron k ellos carn^k 

Voy k mandarselo k 61, para que se lo remita k ella. 

£s 4 ellos 4 auienes habU. 

£s mejor darlo 4 ^1 que 4 eUa* 

Lo enviarian 4 nosotros 4ntes que vdverlo 4 ellos. 

I Hablan de mi 6 de ^ ? 

iQue dice de ello? 

Nada dice de si. 

I Fn€ hecho por €1 6 por ella Y 

Ha ido con ellos. 

Lo hizo para mf . 

Fuedo ir sin 61. 

Hablaron contra m(. 

No quiso quedarse conmigo ni contigo. 

Lo lfev6 consigo. 

EXERCISE ON POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Lee, 16. 

Mi padre y mi mad re estan en casa. 

Mis libros estan bien encuadernados. 

Sus casas estan bien fabricadas, y sub jardines estdn adoraadas de bellss 

flores. 
Su criado llev6 sus caballos 4 la caballeriza. 
Su genio y su talento sou estimados. 

Nuestra constancia y nuestros esfuerzos vencer4n todos los obst4cido8. 
Tu candor y tu virtud son bien conocidos. 
Soldados ! vuestra bizarra conducta, ha llenado mis esperanzas y satis- 

fecho mi deseo. 
Aquella idea es suya propia. 

Mis amigos no me obsequiaron con el mtsmo zelo que los suyoa. 
La mayor parte de los g^neros estan averiados, pero los mestros y los 

mios, estan en buena condicion. 
Vuestra condicion no puede cotejarse con la nuestra. 
Su confianza roerece la mia. 
i, Cuyos son estos guantes 1 — Mios. 
] Es este su coche ? — No, es el mio. 
Un amigo mio, ha hablado con un pariente sajo, icerca de algun negocio 

vuestro. 



A.Unr TO TB£ BXBRCISSi. 

Envtimos un criado nnestro k una tia suya. 

Ha vendido nno de lus caballot. 

I Que tienes hijo mio 1 

Aqaf est& amifo mio. 

Lo nuestro y lo vuei tro son superiores & lo suyo. 

Lo tayo ir& primero. 

£• de la casa de ella, de la que bablo, ▼ no de la de 61. 

Su carta de ella est& mejor escrita que la de €\, 

Me qnit^ el sombrero. 

Mas vale que nn hombre pierda la rida que el honor. 

EiU poniendose la casaca. 

8e cort6 el dedo. 

Perdi6 ia vida en un deiaffo. 



EXERCISE ON DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Lec.n. 

I Conoce vmd. & este hombre y & esta muchacha l 
I Ha leido vmd. estos versos t 
Estas plnmas no escriben bien* 
Este jardin est4 lleno de flores. 
Estas manzanas son mejores que aquellas. 

El es pariente de aqnel cabaliero k quien encontr6 vmd. aquf hace dias. 
I Conoce vmd. k aquellas senoras 7 
Aquel fu6 un siglo brillante para los Atenienses. 
Lleg6 aquel mismo dia. 
iQue es aquello ? 

Prefiere la virtud al vicio, aquella te ser& feliz y este miserable. 
Esto es lo Que puede hacer ; esto lo que debe hacer. 
Los que cultivan las ciencias deben ser protegidos. 
Felices los que son virtuosos. 
Prefiero el que vmd. tiene k los que yo compr^ 
Los que hablan mal de ella no la conocen. 

El que es sabio babla cuando es necesario, mas aqnel que tolh lo pttmoM, 
habla incesantemente. 



EXERCISE ON RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Xec.18. 

Es €i quien nos ha enviado aquf. 

El cabaliero de quien he recibido tanta bondad. 

Los hombres que encontramos y 4 qnienes pregnntamot. 

LDonde esti el hombre de quien podria yo sacar algun pvorecbol 
a senora con quien bail6 vmd. 
Las senoras k quienes envi6 vmd. los dibnjos. 
El hombre que lo escribi6. 
La casa que vmd. ve alH. 
Estas son las obras que debia vmd. leer, con preferencia 4 aquellas qve 

vmd. ha elegido. 
El general que dirigia la batalla, y que muri6 en ella. 
Unliombre que pasa la vida en la ociosidad, muere miseraUe« 
D6 lo vmd. a quien guste. 
Virgilio cuyas obras admiramos. 
Es un mal cuya causa es desconocida. 
El libro cuyo dueno soy yo. 

Milton cuyo genio sublime es tan universalmente conocido. 
Lope de Vega, cuyo espfritu ardiente no conocia llmite* 
T<fl ociosidad es un vicio que debemos evitar. 



Lof bombres qne 

La ley de que yo biWiln. 

La idea k que m 





EXEBcig OS irrFMtfafiiTTix f^amarmt 



1 

Qnien es aqiiel cabalkni ? 
A' qmen lo na dado -nnd.? 
Coal de aqadlai dos 
Cuales son sm ohm 41 
Que dice Tmd. 4 cao ? 

Qneesat 
Que ooBumr^iaotl 
Que haronoB ! 
Coyo es este idDo 1 
Coya es aqaella cani 
Qaeboneal 
Para que lo liuo 
£o que fiii6 dibi^ado 
Para qiiienfiii§ 
Contra qiden peleinm 
i Coya fii6 la " 



EXEBOSE OX JXHETEZaOKlTE TS^OJ^VT. 

i Ha Tenido algnes, «r al^aaa 1 

Qae Taya algffio. 

£BU>y eq^cnado & alfaaa. 

Son algnnoa de sos aariapi, 

iPnede algoDD ignoranot 

iJno no esU dcrto de rmr laata maJJaiB. 

Ha comprado tbkL. algo, «r alfsna CHa fara &r * 

i Le ha enviado Tmd. alfa ! 

Me ha dado algo para rmd. 

I Trae el correo a^;o de mevo ? 

Comnnican sns idets ano al oCid. 

Sos intereaei otaii cBlaiidaa «BO cfli #cra. 

Ambos lo diKemu 

Les df k entrioaboa lo ««e tfwia n. 

Revisimos cada p6ira» ifparadaincate. 

Cada planta tieiie sb ▼iitncL 

Todo el mando. 

Todos le aplaudieroo. 

Sabe hacer de todo. 

Cada caeipo celestial tiene sa deagnio. 

Todo lo que ^io» 

Deme vmd. otra ploma. 

La des^racia agena nos debia ferrir de ea ca t aii e i Ha. 

Las mints del Fer6 prodocen mucho am y maclM plata. 

Tiene muchos amigos. 

Machos perderian kadm la vida ^ee tl IwBor. 

Habia varias personas de distincion* 

Alganas yeces tenemos amigos en piosperidad, 5 ^ittg«Mi^%d5r«niji%d« 

No hay niaguDO de ellos aili. 



Ningimas promesai pudieron tentarle. 

Ningnno (or) nadie lo sabe. 

No conozco k nadie (or) k ninguno en aqnella cradad. 

Nada w dir& de ello. 

Nada debia impedimos el decir la yerdad. 

Ni ono ni otro na hedie n deber. 

Ni nno ni otro merece elog^o. 

Qnienguigra qoe lea. 

De aoienquiera que ymd. hable. 

Cttilquient coaa que diga. 

Deme Tmd. cualqaiera que gaste. 

Cualqniera colocacion ; caalquier rango. 

Tales ^rdenes jamas pudieran ser dadas por tal general* 

Tal fa€ stt conducta. 

I Sabe vmd. lo qae dijo fulano 1 

I Porque quiere vmd. que fulano y zutaco lo sepan ? 

i Cuantos contratiem|>os la aguardaban ! 

I Cuanto dinero necesita yma. 1 



EXERCaSE ON THE AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH ITS 

NOMINATIVE. 

Lee. 26, Par. 1 to'4. 

Her6doto fa€ el primer escritor de la historia proAma. 

Platon era disdpulo de S6crates. 

Vosotros y 61 consentisteis en ello* 

Nosotros y ellos fuimos nombrados. 

Su modestia y sus virtudes fueron muy alabadas. 

Jamas fu6 tan maltratada su dignidad y su bondad. 

Ftt6 Constantino el que mand6 que se destruyesen todos los templos de Ips 

Gentiles. . 
Fueron los Arabes los que introdugeron en E^ropa las figuras de arit- 

m^tica. 
Somos nosotros y ellos los que lo deeimos. 
Son aquellas dos casas las que estan por vender. 



EXERCISE ON ADVERBS. 

Lee. 27. 

Debia vmd. leer primero libros de instruccion y luego puede vind* pasar k 
los de entretenimiento. 

Estas cartas son muy instructivas, y de consiguiente las leer6 coQ cuidado* 

Tiene muy poco talento. 

Estoy muy satisfecho. 

Las acciones de bondad rara vez pierden su m^rito. 

Estaba ya en casa. 

Comemos regularmente k las tres. 

,Me ha faltado frecuentemente. 

£1 vino ayer, mas ella hoy. 

Escribame vmd. presto. 

Cesar escribi6 clara, concisa y elegantemente. 

Ciceron hablaba sabia y elocuentemente. 

I Adonde va vmd. 1 

iDonde est& su hermano 1 — Aqul esta<— Que venga ac4. 

Voy all& con iL 

Jamas or jioflca ie he conocido* 
^uacajam&B hice tal cosa. 



A KST TO TBB BXI1UKIB9. 



La amar^ para siempre jamas. 

Ya he Ilegado. 

Ir^, ya que no hay remedio* 



EXERCISE ON PREPOSITIONS. 

Lee. 28. 

£1 sombrero fu^ Uevado & casa del sombrerero, en una caja* por mi criadoi 

Este gorro es para mf , j a<iuel es para ymd. 

No escribe mal para pnncipiante. 

Permanecer^ aqui hasta el verano* 

Caminaba hacia Madrid. 

Pas6 por Segovia. 

Aguarda la respuesta sobre aquel asunto. 

Elmuchacho que ymd. vi6 entre los dos homffres, pas6 por delante de mi 

con su madre. 
Es uno de los diputados que hablo contra el asunto. 
Vienc de la capital. 

Est^ sin empleo desde que vmd. le vi6 la (iltima vex. 
Tras este tiempo vendra otro mejor. 
Pelear^mos hasta veneer 6 motir. 
Lleva una casaca k la Francesa. 
Nuestro deber es ante todas cosas. 
£1 va muy contra mis ideas. 
Empezare desde manana k venir muy temprano* y me quedar6 liasta el 

anochecer. 
t Para que pregunta vmd. 1 
I Por quien pregunta vmd. 1 
Lleg&mos ai fin de nuestra Jornada sobre la tarde. 
Voy 4 pasear. 

Con estudiar se alcanza el saber. 
Esto es muy bueno j^ara comer. 
Hay mucho que decir en eso. 
Ful segun creo, iiuicamente por darle gusto. 
Tras ser ignorante es muy vano« 
Voy de aquf & L6ndres y desde alU & Escocia. 
Lo dejar^mos para manana. 
Por mas que estudie, jamas sabr4 nada. 
£1 hermano le escede en mucho. 
Lo he dado al hombre de quien hablimos ayer. 
Esto es k lo que yo me referia. 
I Sabe k ouien dirigirse ? r^ «. 

Han estado en Amsterdan, en Bruselas, y en Copenhague. 
Han ido 4 Granada, k Murcia, y k Navarra. 
Viene de Varsovia y de Viena.. 
Ella se dedica mucho k la miisica, y al dibnjo. 



EXERCISE ON CONJUNCTIONS. 

Lee. 29. 

El oro y la plata son metales pieciosoa. 

Ni 61 ni ella puede ir. 

Es virtuosa k industriosa. 

Los libros d obras de que vmd. habla. 

i, Porque no vino vmd. ? — Porque llovia. 

Supuesto que no hay remedio, supongo que es preeiao qiiA mft va-na.. 

Lo hice porque no pude remediarlo* 



A KBT VO TBI BKBRCNtMS* 

Como quiera que sea eso, jamai viene tino oiiuido quere ; mai eao poco 

importa. 
Puede Tmd. tomar 6 este 6 aqnel. 
Jamas mira las cosas sino al revez. 
No solo es major, sino mas barato* 

Vmd. deberd ir, no obstante (or apesar de) ciaito ha dicho. 
Ir6 con tal que ymd. venga conmigo. 
Pnes que somos hombres obi^mos cpmo tales. 
Es bastante ancho, jpero mny corto. 
La moraUdad oonsiste en el egerdcio de la Tirtad : asf si qneremos set 

morales, debemos ser virtuosos. 
Nada menos que la inocencia podr& damos una conciencia pnra. 
lA promridad es un estado lleno de peltgros : asf, debiamos contentarnfli 

con el estado mediocre* 



THE END, 



CHAALBS WOOD ANl> SON, PUtHtWBLB, 
Poppln*t Coon, YtoftiatK*^* 




**i;v 




\- 



•J?,J\